The following is a list of downloadable journal articles reporting studies of psychic phenomena, mostly published in the 21st century. There are also some important papers of historical interest and other resources. Click on the title of an article to download it.
This is a small subset of the literature. A full listing would run into thousands of articles. Note that the correct shorthand term for psychic phenomena is psi, and not PSI.
The bottom line: Can science be used to study psi? Yes. Science has systematically studied these phenomena for over 130 years.
What is the conclusion to date? The preponderance of laboratory evidence accumulated from the late 1800s to today indicate that a few classes of reported psi phenomena exist beyond a reasonable doubt.
Is psi research a science or a pseudoscience? It is legitimate science. The international professional organization for psi researchers is the Parapsychological Association, an elected affiliate (since 1969) of the AAAS, the largest general scientific organization in the world.
Critiques about psi that are commonly repeated, such as “these phenomena are impossible,” or “there’s no valid scientific evidence,” or “the results are all due to fraud,” have been soundly rejected for many decades. Such critiques persist due to ignorance of the relevant literature and to a naïve acceptance of what appears on this subject in silly sources like Wikipedia, most of which appears to have been written by anonymous teenagers. Valid critiques and vigorous debates today no longer focus on existential questions but on development of adequate theoretical explanations, advancements in methodology, the “source” of psi, and issues about effect size heterogeneity and robustness of replication.
This page is maintained by Dean Radin. Updated January 26, 2014.
Healing at a Distance
Astin et al (2000). The Efficacy of “Distant Healing”: A Systematic Review of Randomized Trials
Leibovici (2001). Effects of remote, retroactive intercessory prayer on outcomes in patients with bloodstream infection: randomised controlled trial
Krucoff et al (2001).Integrative noetic therapies as adjuncts to percutaneous intervention during unstable coronary syndromes: Monitoring and Actualization of Noetic Training (MANTRA) feasibility pilot
Radin et al (2004). Possible effects of healing intention on cell cultures and truly random events.
Krucoff et al (2005). Music, imagery, touch, and prayer as adjuncts to interventional cardiac care: the Monitoring and Actualisation of Noetic Trainings (MANTRA) II randomised study
Benson et al (2006). Study of the therapeutic effects of intercessory prayer (STEP) in cardiac bypass patients
Masters & Spielmans (2007). Prayer and Health: Review, Meta-Analysis, and Research Agenda
Radin et al (2008). Compassionate intention as a therapeutic intervention by partners of cancer patients: Effects of distant intention on the patients’ autonomic nervous system.
Schlitz et al (2012). Distant healing of surgical wounds: An exploratory study.
Physiological correlations at a distance
Duane & Behrendt (1965). Extrasensory electroencephalographic induction between identical twins.
Grinberg-Zylberbaum et al (1994). The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox in the Brain: The transferred potential
Wiseman & Schlitz (1997). Experimenter effects and the remote detection of staring.
Standish et al (2003). Evidence of correlated functional magnetic resonance imaging signals between distant human brains.
Wackermann et al (2003). Correlations between brain electrical activities of two spatially separated human subjects
Schmidt et al (2004). Distant intentionality and the feeling of being stared at: Two meta-analyses
Radin (2004). Event related EEG correlations between isolated human subjects.
Standish et al (2004). Electroencephalographic evidence of correlated event-related signals between the brains of spatially and sensory isolated human subjects
Achterberg et al (2005). Evidence for correlations between distant intentionality and brain function in recipients: A functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis
Radin (2005). The sense of being stared at: A preliminary meta-analysis.
Radin & Schlitz (2005). Gut feelings, intuition, and emotions: An exploratory study.
Schlitz et al (2006). Of two minds: Skeptic-proponent collaboration within parapsychology.
Moulton & Kosslyn (2008). Using neuroimaging to resolve the psi debate.
Ambach (2008). Correlations between the EEGs of two spatially separated subjects − a replication study.
Hinterberger (2010). Searching for neuronal markers of psi: A summary of three studies measuring electrophysiology in distant participants.
Schmidt (2012). Can we help just by good intentions? A meta-analysis of experiments on distant intention effects
Jensen & Parker (2012). Entangled in the womb? A pilot study on the possible physiological connectedness between identical twins with different embryonic backgrounds.
Parker & Jensen (2013). Further possible physiological connectedness between identical twins: The London study.
Telepathy & ESP
Targ & Puthoff (1974). Information transmission under conditions of sensory shielding.
Puthoff & Targ (1976). A perceptual channel for information transfer over kilometer distance: Historical perspective and recent research
Eisenberg & Donderi (1979). Telepathic transfer of emotional information in humans.
Bem & Honorton (1994). Does psi exist?
Hyman (1994). Anomaly or artifact? Comments on Bem and Honorton
Bem (1994). Response to Hyman
Milton & Wiseman (1999). Does Psi Exist? Lack of Replication of an Anomalous Process of Information Transfer
Sheldrake & Smart (2000). Testing a return-anticipating dog, Kane.
Sheldrake & Smart (2000). A dog that seems to know when his owner to coming home: Videotaped experiments and observations.
Storm & Ertel (2001). Does Psi Exist? Comments on Milton and Wiseman’s (1999) Meta-Analysis of Ganzfeld Research
Milton & Wiseman (2001). Does Psi Exist? Reply to Storm and Ertel (2001)
Sheldrake & Morgana (2003). Testing a language-using parrot for telepathy.
Sheldrake & Smart (2003). Videotaped experiments on telephone telepathy.
Sherwood & Roe (2003). A Review of Dream ESP Studies Conducted Since the Maimonides Dream ESP Programme
Delgado-Romero & Howard (2005). Finding and Correcting Flawed Research Literatures
Hastings (2007). Comment on Delgado-Romero and Howard
Radin (2007). Finding Or Imagining Flawed Research?
Storm et al (2010). Meta-Analysis of Free-Response Studies, 1992–2008: Assessing the Noise Reduction Model in Parapsychology
Storm et al (2010). A Meta-Analysis With Nothing to Hide: Reply to Hyman (2010)
Tressoldi (2011). Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence: the case of non-local perception, a classical and Bayesian review of evidences
Tressoldi et al (2011). Mental Connection at Distance: Useful for Solving Difficult Tasks?
Williams (2011). Revisiting the Ganzfeld ESP Debate: A Basic Review and Assessment
Rouder et al (2013). A Bayes Factor Meta-Analysis of Recent Extrasensory Perception Experiments: Comment on Storm, Tressoldi, and Di Risio (2010)
Storm et al (2013). Testing the Storm et al. (2010) Meta-Analysis Using Bayesian and Frequentist Approaches: Reply to Rouder et al. (2013)
General Overviews & Critiques
Utts (1996). An assessment of the evidence for psychic functioning
Alcock (2003). Give the null hypothesis a chance
Parker & Brusewitz (2003). A compendium of the evidence for psi
Carter (2010). Heads I lose, tails you win.
McLuhan (no date). Fraud in psi research.
Survival of Consciousness
van Lommel et al (2001). Near-death experience in survivors of cardiac arrest: a prospective study in the Netherlands
van Lommel (2006). Near-death experience, consciousness, and the brain
Beischel & Schwartz (2007). Anomalous information reception by research mediums demonstrated using a novel triple-blind protocol
Greyson (2010). Seeing dead people not known to have died: “Peak in Darien” experiences
Kelly (2010). Some directions for mediumship research
Kelly & Arcangel (2011). An investigation of mediums who claim to give information about deceased persons
Nahm et al (2011). Terminal lucidity: A review and a case collection.
Facco & Agrillo (2012). Near-death experiences between science and prejudice
Matlock (2012). Bibliography of reincarnation resources online (articles and books, all downloadable)
Precognition & Presentiment
Honorton & Ferrari (1989). “Future telling”: A meta-analysis of forced-choice precognition experiments, 1935-1987
Spottiswoode & May (2003). Skin Conductance Prestimulus Response: Analyses, Artifacts and a Pilot Study
Radin (2004). Electrodermal presentiments of future emotions.
McCraty et al (2004). Electrophysiological Evidence of Intuition: Part 1. The Surprising Role of the Heart
McCraty et al (2004). Electrophysiological Evidence of Intuition: Part 2. A System-Wide Process?
Radin & Lobach (2007). Toward understanding the placebo effect: Investigating a possible retrocausal factor.
Radin & Borges (2009). Intuition through time: What does the seer see?
Bem (2011). Feeling the Future: Experimental Evidence for Anomalous Retroactive Influences on Cognition and Affect
Bem et al (2011). Must Psychologists Change the Way They Analyze Their Data?
Bierman (2011). Anomalous Switching of the Bi-Stable Percept of a Necker Cube: A Preliminary Study
Radin et al (2011). Electrocortical activity prior to unpredictable stimuli in meditators and non-meditators.
Radin (2011). Predicting the Unpredictable: 75 Years of Experimental Evidence
Tressoldi et al (2011). Let Your Eyes Predict : Prediction Accuracy of Pupillary Responses to Random Alerting and Neutral Sounds
Galek et al (2012). Correcting the Past: Failures to Replicate Psi
Mossbridge et al (2012). Predictive physiological anticipation preceding seemingly unpredictable stimuli: a meta-analysis
Josephson & Pallikari-Viras (1991). Biological Utilisation of Quantum NonLocality
May et al (1995). Decision augmentation theory: Towards a model of anomalous mental phenomena
Houtkooper (2002). Arguing for an Observational Theory of Paranormal Phenomena
Bierman (2003). Does Consciousness Collapse the Wave-Packet?
Dunne & Jahn (2005). Consciousness, information, and living systems
Henry (2005). The mental universe
Hiley & Pylkkanen (2005). Can Mind Affect Matter Via Active Information?
Lucadou et al (2007). Synchronistic Phenomena as Entanglement Correlations in Generalized Quantum Theory
Rietdijk (2007). Four-Dimensional Physics, Nonlocal Coherence, and Paranormal Phenomena
Bierman (2010). Consciousness induced restoration of time symmetry (CIRTS ): A psychophysical theoretical perspective
Tressoldi et al (2010). Extrasensory perception and quantum models of cognition.
Tressoldi (2012). Replication unreliability in psychology: elusive phenomena or “elusive” statistical power?
Crookes (1874). Researches in the phenomena of spiritualism
Crookes (1874). Notes of séances with DDH
Medhurst & Goldney (1964). William Crookes and the physical phenomena of mediumship.
Merrifield (1885/1971). Merrifield’s report (on D. D. Home)
Braude (1985). The enigma of Daniel Home.
Zorab (1971). Were D. D. Home’s ‘spirit hands” ever fraudulently produced?
Jahn (1982). The persistent paradox of psychic phenomena: An engineering perspective.
Inglis (1983). Review of “The spiritualists. The passion for the occult in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries by Ruth Brandon.”
Schmidt (1987). The strange properties of psychokinesis.
Schmidt (1990). Correlation between mental processes and external random events
Radin & Nelson (1989). Evidence for consciousness-related anomalies in random physical systems
Radin & Ferrari (1991). Effects of consciousness on the fall of dice: A meta-analysis
Jahn et al (1997). Correlations of Random Binary Sequences with Pre-Stated Operator Intention: A Review of a 12-Year Program.
Nelson et al (2002). Correlations of continuous random data with major world events.
Crawford et al (2003). Alterations in Random Event Measures Associated with a Healing Practice
Freedman et al (2003). Effects of Frontal Lobe Lesions on Intentionality and Random Physical Phenomena
Bierman (2004). Does consciousness collapse the wave function?
Jahn & Dunne (2005). The PEAR Proposition.
Bosch et al (2006). Examining Psychokinesis: The Interaction of Human Intention With Random Number Generators—A Meta-Analysis
Radin et al (2006). Reexamining psychokinesis: Commentary on the Bösch, Steinkamp and Boller meta-analysis.
Radin et al (2006). Assessing the Evidence for Mind-Matter Interaction Effects
Radin (2006). Experiments testing models of mind-matter interaction.
Radin. (2008). Testing nonlocal observation as a source of intuitive knowledge.
Nelson & Bancel (2011). Effects of mass consciousness: Changes in random data during global events.
Radin et al (2012). Consciousness and the double-slit interference pattern: Six experiments
Shiah & Radin (2013). Metaphysics of the tea ceremony: A randomized trial investigating the roles of intention and belief on mood while drinking tea.
Carpenter (2011). Laboratory psi effects may be put to practical use: Two pilot studies
Schwartz (1980/2000). Location and reconstruction of a Byzantine structure … [by remote viewing]
Some recommended books
Radin (1997). The Conscious Universe: The Scientific Truth of Psychic Phenomena
Radin (2006). Entangled Minds: Extrasensory Experiences in a Quantum Reality
Irwin & Watt (2007). An Introduction to Parapsychology
Mayer (2008). Extraordinary Knowing: Science, Skepticism, and the Inexplicable Powers of the Human Mind
Kelly et al (2009). Irreducible Mind: Toward a Psychology for the 21st Century
Tart (2009). The End of Materialism: How Evidence of the Paranormal Is Bringing Science and Spirit Together
Carter (2010). Science and the Near-Death Experience: How Consciousness Survives Death
Van Lommel (2011). Consciousness Beyond Life: The Science of the Near-Death Experience
Sheldrake (1999; new edition 2011) Dogs That Know When Their Owners Are Coming Home, And Other Unexplained Powers of Animals
Alexander (2012). Proof of Heaven: A Neurosurgeon’s Journey into the Afterlife
Carpenter (2012). First Sight: ESP and Parapsychology in Everyday Life
Carter (2012). Science and Psychic Phenomena: The Fall of the House of Skeptics
Targ (2012). The Reality of ESP: A Physicist’s Proof of Psychic Abilities
Sheldrake (2003; new edition 2013) The Sense of Being Stared At, And Other Aspects of the Extended Mind
Radin (2013). Supernormal: Science, Yoga, and the Evidence for Extraordinary Psychic Abilities
Websites with access to more articles
Daryl Bem: Click here
Brian Josephson: Click here
Edwin May: Click here
Stephan Schwartz, Click here
Rupert Sheldrake: Click here
James Spottiswoode: Click here
Charles Tart: Click here
Russell Targ: Click here
Patrizio Tressoldi: Click here
Jessica Utts: Click here
Richard Wiseman: Click here
Journal of Scientific Exploration: Click here
Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research (PEAR) Laboratory: Click here or here.
Division of Perceptual Studies, University of Virginia: Click here
Esalen Center for Theory and Research: Click here
Greyson (2008). Consciousness Without Brain Activity: Near Death Experiences (United Nations)
Radin (2008), Science and the taboo of psi (Google TechTalk)
Sheldrake (2008) The extended mind (Google Tech Talk)
… more to be added …