Tag Archives: Ancient Egypt

Between the Devil and the Returning Rock

I found this very interesting essay covering the so called Anunnaki presence here on Earth and everyone should read this one:

Between the Devil and the Returning Rock

The quickening of issues of governance, security, and interspecies exopolitical relations caused by the Annunnaki inter-clan civil conflict and the return of NI.BI.RU. to perihelion – Speculations in view of new data
A. R. BORDON
J. W. BARBER
End Times Futures Research Group

In this essay, we will examine interlocking sets of issues concerning governance, near-Earth security, and interspecies relations generated by the presence of the Annunaki on Earth and the Kingdom returning to aphelion in the next sixty to one hundred and ten years. The presence of people from another world on Earth presents unique problems and opportunities for us as a biokind (biological kind), the result of a directed panspermia carried out by Those Who From Heaven To Earth Came – in the words of Zecharia Sitchin, a latter days prophet and dispeller of darkness about our biokind’s prehistory. Information generated over the last forty years (e.g., the Department of Energy’s early 1970s conference on communications in the 21st century at Hilton Head, the colloquia at Cornell University organized by Carl Sagan in the early to mid-80s on exocommunication and interspecies relations, the select conferences organized by the aerospace industry on interplanetary travel requirements and exotic propulsion, the formation of the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (or NGA) late last century and its mission, and the indicia on Annunaki presence in the United States generated by a field study conducted by the author over the last five years) make, in our view, for a most compelling need to confront the broad issues we will raise and deal with in this essay.

The driving assumptions of this essay are two, and quite simple: (1) not everything is as it seems, or as we are told it is; and (2) neither are all assets completely disclosed, nor their real, intended capabilities and uses open to public scrutiny, for their obvious security and counterintelligence value. Also a note on the
intent of the author and collaborators in writing this essay. It is our opinion and impression from a cursory review of the UFO literature that the focus of study of phenomena ascribed to extraterrestrial biological entities – as life forms and bearers of advanced levels of technology – is scattered across a wide range of subjects. Furthermore, the subject of Annunaki on Earth – a subject of primary importance to the human race at this juncture in our history – is focused upon Sitchin’s voluminous work. The presence of Annunaki on Earth is treated by thoughtful thinkers, like Neil Freer, in reference to Sitchin and not on the present or the
4 future of what the reality of Annunaki on Earth portends for us, not just their mythic and Jungian archetypes in our subconscious (Freer [White Paper] undated, 1998, 1994). Perhaps this state of affairs isdue to the dearth of information on what to, where to, and who to look for on Earth, and in particular in the United States. Neil’s focus upon our need to grow up and out of our collective godspell is well placed, but in our view does not address what needs to be our central interest about Annunaki on Earth. Hopefully, doing so will indicate to us all just what we now face and will encounter in the next sixty to one hundred ten years from today. Metaphorically speaking, this should put a face on what, in the literature, isoften referred to as the dark side, unethical celestial network.

Additionally, we have written this essay not as whistleblowers, which we are not, nor intend to stimulate the view we are; quite the contrary, we present our thoughts and the results of our field study here to stimulate discourse on the subject what the presence of the Annunaki on Earth means to us. It is also evident that there is little or no intelligence on them in the public domain, and we believe this to be a dangerous state of affairs. Without information, whether shreds, indicia, or even uncorroborated reports, we believe that it is indeed difficult to entertain possibilities and formulate scenarios for our collective consideration. Fortunately, there are ways and places to go find information about these people, and from humans who have had access to high level policy formulation about them as well as people who have been the recipients of their request for allegiance and loyalty. We have explored these places and managed to meet sources who have spoken to us on the condition of anonymity, in the furtherance of our collectiveunderstanding of what we are facing now and will face in the future. It took time – nearly five years of patient search and careful scrutiny of the sources themselves and the information culled from and through them – and a complex validation (vetting information where possible, along with of the sources. We also used the journalistic device of confirmation of information by at least two or moresources. Finally, it was not our intention to conduct a scientific study, but rather a field study that would generate information which could lead us all into new venues, new inquiries, and more search and research pertinent to our collective future safety, security and integrity. We hoped to have accomplished that, and pray that this essay generates the intended discourse on the subject. The final reason is that we found Ed Komarek’s remarks on his blog: The way to break the back of the dark, secret, covert cabal … is to expose their very exopolitical foundation! quite on target, although his metaphors a bit simplistic yet very accurate. There are indeed two camps which correspond closely to his ethical celestial beings vs. unethical celestial network, with their corresponding earthly conduits and minions. But the landscape in which the drama continues to unfolds is murkier than what Ed makes it out, or perhaps wishes it, to be. See his http://exopolitics.blogspot.com. Their presence in
the dramatic landscape suggested by our eleven informants will also hopefully become evident in this essay.

ISSUES

We will explore scenarios raised by informant reports in two areas – governance and near-Earth security, and draw from available literature and scenarios developed by a team led by the author on interspecies relations. From these, we will focus specifically on six sets of issues: governance as institutional response sets to the presence of the Annunaki on Earth, governance as meaning given to the concept by Earthbound Annunaki culled from informant sources, near-Earth space security (for whom? why?), defense of Earthbound Annunaki interests on Earth, the current roles and situations we face in theAnnunaki interclan conflict, and the choices we face in view of the alignment of wide-ranging political, economic, religious and military influence and control exerted by Earthbound Annunaki through third-party minions and their projection of might and technological superiority…

>> READ THE WHOLE DOCUMENT HERE

Donald Marshall: Vril lizard agenda

This is very important info!!! Donald Marshall’s story binds everything together and tells the Truth. Just look around you and all the ancient cultures. Please read and share:

>> http://www.donaldmarshallrevolution.com/

Donald Marshall: Vril lizard agenda

Marshall claims that there is a secret that has been kept by members of the Illuminati for more than 70 years, a secret of such great importance, as to effect the lives of every man, woman and child on the face of the planet. Marshall states that his mission in life is to share this secret with the world, so that all can know the truth and plan for the future.

In order to fully understand this secret, it will be necessary to return to the events of Postwar Germany, following the end of World War I, where, in 1923, Hitler was named the leader of the new Nazi party. Following a failed attempt to overthrow the federal government, Hitler was arrested for treason. While awaiting trial in Landsberg prison, he read Bulwer-Lytton’s 1871 novel: Vril: The Power of the Coming Race about a master-race of beings who call themselves the Vril-ya. They claim to be the descendants of the inhabitants of ancient Atlantis, with access to an extraordinary force called Vril, an unlimited source of energy that supplies all their needs and can be controlled at will. Hitler believed the novel to be true and once made Chancellor of Germany, he would send teams of spelunkers into caves and mines all over Europe searching for the Vril-ya. He dispatched regular expeditions to Asia, especially Tibet, where Nazi explorers made significant connections with influential Tibetan lamas, who had expert knowledge about the underground tunnel and cavern systems around the world. Legend was these Tibetan lamas guarded a secret entrance to the Inner World, known as the Red Door, hidden within the Potala palace in the mountain city of Lhasa. Once a Nazi-Tibetan alliance was formed, the lamas agreed to share with them that for centuries, they had been helping to hide an indigenous race of lizard living deep within the planet since prehistoric times, known as Vril lizards. It seems that these lizards knew the location of an abandoned military base dating back from the time of Atlantis, filled with ancient aircraft, weaponry and technology hidden within the tunnels and caverns of Antarctica. The lizards had no use for the tech, but they were willing to trade for something else they wanted. The lizards were carnivorous and preferred to consume fresh human flesh. And so, a deal was made. The Nazis got the ancient Atlantean tech and sold out the human race.

But according to Marshall, this is not the first time Vril lizards have interacted with humans. He claims that for centuries, royalty, powerful heads of state and trusted religious leaders around the world have kept a secret pact with the malevolent lizards. World leaders would receive valuable resources buried deep within the planet, such as gemstones, gold and other minerals and, in exchange, these leaders would conceal all evidence of the Vril from the surface population, so no one would learn of their existence. In addition to helping them hide, Vril lizards required that they be provided with a steady supply of humans to consume.

However, Marshall says that keeping the Secret of Vril not only refers to hiding the lizards and denying their existence, but also refers to an even bigger secret. Being a parasitic race, Vril lizards have the unique biological ability to invade the human body, take over the brain, and by accessing their memories, they can look, act and seem human in every way. After a period of recovery, the human is able to return to its normal activities, except the brain is now under the complete control of the Vril parasite.

Much like the 1956 scifi classic The Invasion of the Body Snatchers, in which the inhabitants of a small California town are replaced, one by one, with identical copies of themselves, Marshall warns us that we’ve already been invaded, we just don’t know it.
Marshall explains that Vril lizards are essentially parasites, and like all parasites, have a biological drive to invade, dominate and take over. Marshall refers to this biological takeover as “bodysnatching” and explains that the human victim dies once the Vril lizard takes over.

Marshall says that with the help of the Illuminati, bodysnatching Vril lizards have infiltrated all levels of society and hold positions of power all over the world.

This is done in order to remove key people and replace them with Vril hosts. Marshall states that Vril hosts can be found everywhere, in all levels of government, business, banking, military, law enforcement, journalism, media and entertainment.

Just how is this bodysnatching process accomplished?

According to Marshall, Vril lizards have a natural proboscis at the top of their head, from which they eject a type of thick cerebrospinal fluid. When this fluid enters the human, usually through the eye and from there, to the brain, a chemical transformation immediately begins to take place. The victim essentially dies, leaving the lizard parasite in complete control of all brain function. After a period of recovery, the Vril host can return to its’ regular activities, looking, acting and seeming completely normal.

Marshall reports that the Illuminati even hold a special bodysnatching ceremony to celebrate this Vril lizard takeover. Guests watch as the victim, conscious, though usually bound, is restrained and forced to sit still, until the lizard transfer is complete. Marshall claims to have seen this sick bodysnatching ceremony many times.

Marshall claims that the Illuminati bodysnatch many people, in every country, all over the world. They sometimes choose victims from incarcerated prisoners or longterm patients in hospitals and medical facilities; anywhere they have easy access to people, they will bodysnatch and replace them with a Vril host.

Anyone can be bodysnatched and, according to Marshall, he’s even seen this done to young children. Furthermore, Marshall claims that all loyal families within the Illuminati are expected to offer one of their children to be replaced by a Vril host. They comply since there is the unspoken threat that should they prove to be difficult, they can be bodysnatched at any time. Marshall says he has even seen bodysnatching done with just a couple of guys holding someone down while the victim is screaming, no ceremony required.

According to Marshall, the Illuminati utilize this unique parasitic ability of the lizards to further their own dark agenda. They are able to remove those resistant to their goals without anyone even noticing, and with Vril bodysnatching, the troublesome person is now replaced with an Illuminati spy, infinitely loyal and willing to report back everything they see and hear.

It is crucial to understand Vril lizard psychology, since Marshall maintains that all Vril lizards want to be human. They admire human intelligence and the beautiful human form. They want to crawl out from deep underground into the light and walk unnoticed among humanity. However, they are not human and have no capacity to feel human emotions. In fact, as malevolent lizards, they enjoy causing pain and suffering. Marshall reveals that Vril hosts are responsible for much of the senseless crimes and spree killings that occur. However, Vril hosts are excellent mimics and make convincing humans. And since there is no way to detect the presence of a Vril host, except with an MRI scan of the brain, most members of the Illuminati pretend to like the lizards and are friendly to Vril hosts, since no one is ever certain if they are talking to a host or human.

According to Marshall, prehistoric Vril lizards have been bodysnatching humans throughout history, even during ancient times. He claims that they are, in part, responsible for the destruction of the island of Atlantis, where legend tells lived an advanced civilization that existed in the Atlantic ocean. Marshall reports that Vril hosts had bodysnatched and infiltrated their way into positions of power throughout Atlantean culture, where they destroyed themselves with advanced weaponry, causing cataclysmic flooding and earthquakes.

Marshall asserts that Vril lizards often infiltrate human societies, by targeting individuals in the ruling class, royalty or priesthood. Once they are in positions of power, Vril lizards attempt to convince the humans to worship them as either gods or demons; something to be feared and obeyed without question.

As gods, Vril lizards would demand human sacrifices as a show of loyalty and devotion. In these cultures, it was considered an honor to be bodysnatched and chosen to become a god. The people didn’t understand the biological nature of the takeover of the brain, and thought it was some kind of mystical or magical transformation.

As demons, Vril lizards were deeply feared. Old legends warn travelers against going into certain haunted caves and mountains, and to beware when darkness falls as this was the time when demons would creep about, stealing babies and livestock. When Vril lizards would bodysnatch a victim, the person was later said to be demon possessed and various means would be attempted to drive the demons out.

Many cultures around the world attempted to limit Vril lizard infestation, and Marshall says most, at some point, “start sharpening pointy sticks”. For example, The Hopi Indian culture successfully drove off Vril lizards, while the ancient Anasazi Indians of New Mexico, were forced to leave behind their elaborate cliff dwellings in order to relocate far away from nearby Vril infested caves.

Throughout history, the lizards stayed hidden underground, in dark caves and tunnels, trying to avoid discovery. Some royal families kept Vril lizards as pets, and used them to instill fear in those not showing the proper loyalty to the crown. Some world religious leaders also knew of the lizards, had secret alliances with them, and agreed to help them.

In the 1940’s, a secret pact was forged between the Nazis and the lizards making them mutual allies. Conditions of the pact required directing tremendous resources to assist the Vril lizards, including the building of deep, underground military bases worldwide. This would allow the lizards a way to interact directly with humans which, in turn, would permit the massive, government sponsored bodysnatching so prevalent around the world today.

If we can assume that all this is true, that bodysnatching malevolent lizards have infiltrated human society and are replacing us, one by one, without raising any alarm, one might ask: Wouldn’t someone try to tell people and save humanity?

According to Marshall, President Ronald Reagan tried to warn the public on numerous occasions from 1985 to1988. In an important speech to the United Nation General Assembly on September 21st, 1987, at the height of the Star Wars space race with Russia, Reagan mused, “In our obsession with the antagonisms of the moment, we often forget how much unites all the members of humanity. Perhaps we need some outside, universal threat to make us recognize this common bond. I occasionally think how quickly our differences would vanish if we were facing an alien threat from outside of this world. And yet I ask: is not an alien force already among us? What could be more alien to the universal aspirations of our people then war and the threat of war?”

Marshall states that the Illuminati forgave Reagan’s comments at first, but when he continued to talk about aliens living among us, they “blew his mind and called it Alzheimer’s”.

Marshall encourages us to remember the ultimate Vril lizard agenda, which he claims has remained unchanged for centuries: to infiltrate human society and take over the planet. Marshall warns us to act quickly to spread the news, as anyone can be bodysnatched. As the ending from “The Invasion of the Body Snatchers” warns us: They’re already here. You’re next.

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DONALD MARSHALL INFO:

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The Sphinx

Ancient Egypt has always fascinated me and especially the Spinx. Is there an ancient library of gold tablet or what under it? They have found a chamber underneath it so something is definitely there…

The Sphinx

There has never been a satisfactory answer to what the Sphinx actually is or was. Anyone who goes to Giza can see for himself or herself that there is something ‘wrong’ with the Sphinx. It only takes an instant. The body is gigantic and the head is just a pimple. The Egyptians never did anything like that, they were always meticulous about proportions in their art. So how is it that we have this monster with a tiny head sitting there in the sand, then?

There are several other things wrong with the Sphinx. They are:

The back is flat. Who ever saw a lion with a flat back, no big chest, and no mane?

The Sphinx is sitting in a deep hole in the ground. Why is that? Why is it not sitting somewhere high up so that it can show off?

There is a ruined temple right in front of the Sphinx, with a wall practically up against its nose, and no door in that wall. Why obstruct the view of the Sphinx from the front like that? And if the temple was for worshipping the Sphinx, why is there no access from the temple to the Sphinx, so that you can’t even get to it?

The pit in which the Sphinx sits seems to be deeply eroded, as if by flows of water. What caused all that? It looks as if water has poured down the sides. On the other hand, there are no such vertical erosion patterns on the Sphinx itself, which instead has clear horizontal erosion patterns. How can these two different patterns at right angles to each other be reconciled? And what could possibly have caused either of them?

None of this makes any sense if you think about it. Of course, many people don’t think. They just gawp and move on, their brains in neutral.

But when my wife and I first saw the Sphinx many years ago, we just stood there in astonishment and both agreed that the whole thing was wrong, wrong, wrong.

So now after many years of work, we think we have found some answers. Naturally, any new idea about anything that ‘everybody knows’ makes conventionally thinking people enraged, and makes anti-establishment people delighted. No prizes for guessing which side I’m on.

Let me first declare my position on what has become something of an entrenched notion amongst my fellow anti-Establishmentarians. I do not believe that the Sphinx is 12,500 years old. Nor do I believe in ‘ancient rain’.

I do believe that the Sphinx is older than conventionally believed. But I do not believe it is thousands of years older, or anything of that kind.

I do believe there is water erosion at the Sphinx site, but I do not believe it had anything to do with ‘ancient rain’, nor do I believe there was anything there to be eroded at the time any ‘ancient rain’ fell.

So what is the answer, then?

The water of the Nile in those days, at the time of inundation once a year (which no longer happens because of the Aswan dam), came right up to the edge of the Sphinx Temple, where there are even quays in front. So what I believe happened was that the water of the Nile was let into the Sphinx Pit, which I now call the Sphinx Moat, by some simple water-raising devices, led along the narrow channel between the Sphinx Temple and the Valley Temple (the two structures in front of the Sphinx), and its flow was controlled by a series of sluices and water gates.

The signs of these sluices and gates, with their many bolt holes and so forth, no longer exist, because new stones and cement have been laid over them. But not to worry! I took plenty of photographs of them before they disappeared, and those are all reproduced in our book. Everyone can then see it all very clearly. The reason why the temple wall is in front of the Sphinx is to act as the fourth barrier to the water. The reason why there is no door in the wall is that it would have let the water out.

The horizontal erosion on the side of the Sphinx (where it is not covered by ‘restoration stones’) is because the Sphinx was sitting in the middle of a moat filled with water. The vertical erosion on the sides of the pit, especially the south side, is because of the continual dredging of the Moat due to the windblown sand accumulating there. Every time the Moat was dredged, water poured down in torrents onto the sides, leading to vertical erosion, accentuated by the natural cavities in the limestone bedrock.

So I think the Sphinx was, amongst other things, an island!

This immediately solves the puzzle of the evidence recorded by the fifth century BCE Greek historian Herodotus, who said that King Cheops let water in from the Nile to surround an island at Giza. Here it is!

Whose Head is on the Sphinx?

So we have got an island. Now what do we do with it? And why is King Cheops’s head the size of a pimple on the front of this large flat-backed lion, surrounded by water? What’s going on?

But wait! Who says that is King Cheops’s head? Some say it is King Chephren’s head, but if you have ever seen Chephren’s head on that huge statue in the Cairo Museum, you know they look nothing alike at all, since Chephren has a long face and the Sphinx has a round face, just for starters, and there’s plenty else that’s not the same too.

At this point of my wonderings, I began to feel really uncomfortable. I generally know when something doesn’t fit. I may not know what does fit, but I more often know what does not.

And that face is neither Cheops (not that we know what he really looked like anyway, as the only likeness of him that survives is a three inch-high ivory statuette, which could be your Uncle Tony or even your Auntie Madge for that matter) nor old Chephren Long-Face. So who is it?

It was at this point that I discovered one of those forgotten sources which keep falling into my lap, and in this case it was an article written by a German archaeologist named Ludwig Borchardt long before the Sphinx was excavated, when only its head and neck were sticking above the sand. Borchardt used to go and stand there and look at it. In those days, you could look the Sphinx in the eye and he wouldn’t even flinch, in fact he smiled back. Nowadays, he’s very stuck up, with his head high above us if we stand at his feet, so you can’t make out the details of his head all that well.

Borchardt got to thinking. He noticed that the Sphinx was wearing eye-paint stripes (no comment, pharaohs have the right to do what they like as consenting adults in the privacy of their own Sphinx Pits), and he knew that those were not worn in the period known as the Old Kingdom, when Cheops and Chephren lived. He noticed the details of the stripe patterns in the strange headdress worn by the Sphinx. The face had to be that of a pharaoh, since this headdress was the sacred religious headdress of the pharaoh known as a nemes. But Borchardt, who was head of the German Institute at Cairo and therefore knew a thing or two, realised that those stripe patterns were also not used in the Old Kingdom.

He started to do some research on nemes headdresses, and he discovered that those particular stripe patterns were only used in the Middle Kingdom period, hundreds of years later than Cheops and Chephren. He wrote this all up in technical form and published it in a distinguished scholarly periodical (in German of course, but I have translated it and it appears as an appendix to our book), and concluded that the Sphinx had been carved in the Middle Kingdom Period, not in the Old Kingdom period.

But everybody laughed at poor old Borchardt. Who ever heard of such a thing? The Middle Kingdom! Borchardt must have gone crazy! And then the Sphinx was excavated in 1926, and finally completely excavated in 1936, and it was perfectly clear to everyone that the Sphinx was much older than the Middle Kingdom. But everybody forgot that Borchardt had never seen the Sphinx’s body at the time he wrote the article, he was only talking about the head.

So I have reopened the case and concluded that the head was recarved in the Middle Kingdom, just as Borchardt said, and what is more, I believe I can even identify precisely which pharaoh’s face that is. Of course, to find that out, you really need to see the book.

However, it is all very well identifying the face on the Sphinx. Some people might be satisfied just doing that. But no, it’s like watching a film noir without knowing the ending. Even if you know whodunnit, you still want to know the motive.

“Everybody knows” Herd Mentality

So what was the Sphinx before it had that guy’s face carved on it? Well, to figure that one out you have to try to figure out what the Sphinx was before that pharaoh got his chisels on it. This draws one’s attention to the flat back. “Everybody knows” that the Sphinx has the body of a lion. As soon as I hear that “everybody knows” something, I know that it must be wrong. I have a pathologically anti-herd mentality. All you have to do is tell me “everybody knows” something, and I will instantly disbelieve it. That is because crowds are always wrong. Crowds have about as much sense as a mollusc.

I started from the premise that the Sphinx was not a lion at all. Millions of people see it every year, from all over the world, and they all “know” that it is a lion. So that means that it cannot possibly be one. They “know” it is a lion because they have been told that it is a lion. The Germans were told that Hitler was their saviour and so they “knew” it, the Russians all “knew” that Stalin was like a gentle father, who would look after them. Yes, everybody, or at least everybody they knew, “knew” these things. And people also all once “knew” that the Earth was flat, and that the Sun went round the Earth. Those things were all “known.” But were they true?

If it wasn’t a lion, what was it? Well, it had to be an animal with a straight back, with no huge chest, and no mane. It also had to be an animal that crouched like that with its legs stuck out in front of it. (There is no use looking too closely at the paws, as they are completely covered in restoration stones, and have been shaped to look like “what everybody knows,” in order to re-confirm the consensus falsehood which everybody has agreed to believe in.)

Anubis – Guardian of the Necropolis

The Sphinx is crouching there at the entrance to the Necropolis like a guardian. Well, there it is! It is a guard dog! The ancient Egyptians had a god called Anubis, who was a crouching wild dog, generally referred to as a jackal (although strictly speaking there were no jackals in Egypt, and Anubis was really a wild dog species which is now extinct). Anubis was the guardian of the Necropolis, the guardian of the dead, and he was often depicted in the precise position of the Sphinx – and famously in a statue found in the Tomb of Tutankhamun as well – so that his image is familiar to almost anyone who has ever had an interest in ancient Egypt.

In the comments i have posted a picture which shows how the recarved head of the Sphinx was carved out of the neck stump which remained on the Sphinx after the original statue was mutilated by the rampaging mobs who smashed up everything they could on the Giza Plateau during the period of chaos known as the First Intermediate Period, between 2200 and 2000 BCE.

It was the easiest thing in the world to knock the ears and nose off the Sphinx when the Sphinx was Anubis. You couldn’t put them back because the Sphinx was carved out of the solid bedrock, and the pieces must have been smashed to bits anyway. So the later exhibitionist pharaoh could even tell himself he was doing a pious act and ‘restoring’ the statue by flaunting himself, just as, say, Madonna helps the world, doesn’t she? Tom Cruise is also saving the world, remember? Yes, we all know that all celebrities are getting their pictures in the papers only for noble causes, and it has nothing to do with wanting people to look at them, or with such a low thing as vanity.

Speaking of movie stars, the Sphinx is now so botoxed and has had so much plastic surgery from crazy ‘restoration’ (which is all shown in great detail in our book) that he could easily get a lead part in a blockbuster. But his ‘nose job’ didn’t go so well, as it is still missing. It was hacked off in the 13th century by a fanatical imam named Sheikh Mohammed, who wished to purge Egypt of non-Islamic influences. He got as far as the nose, at least. (The story that the nose was shot off by Napoleon’s soldiers is false.)

So now we have a crouching Anubis as an island, surrounded by a little lake. And at last we have something which students of the ancient texts can suddenly recognise. For the most ancient surviving Egyptian texts, known as the Pyramid Texts, often speak of a sacred place associated with the Giza Necropolis called Jackal Lake. And here it is!

Now we are getting somewhere. It is all beginning to make sense. In our book we gather together the many ancient texts which refer to Anubis guarding the Necropolis, situated at Giza, being beside a causeway, and being very large. We also reproduce Fourth Dynasty Giza tomb reliefs showing a giant Anubis, which may be intended as actual depictions of the Sphinx.

Secret Chamber Beneath the Sphinx

Most people who are intrigued by Egyptian mysteries have been wondering for a long time whether there might be any secret chamber beneath the Sphinx. I have crawled around inside the Sphinx, and I describe the tunnel which exists in the rear portion of the Sphinx’s body, as well as the vertical tunnel carved out of the bedrock beneath the Sphinx’s rump, and reproduce photos of these.

Then an amazing thing happened. I came across a passage in one of the old books which I collect, in this case one published in 1715, which described a chamber beneath the Sphinx and gave an eyewitness account of it! I was astounded. The book referred to earlier accounts of this chamber, but neglected to say who had written them or when they had been published. Slight problem! How was I to find these books?

If you went into the British Library and told a librarian you needed a book published before 1715 which described a chamber beneath the Sphinx, you would be told to come back when you had the author’s name or the title of the book. All I had to go on was ‘a book mentioning the Sphinx before 1715’, so how did I do it?

That is where my special abilities come in…

I was eventually able to find 281 years’ worth of published eyewitness accounts of the chamber beneath the Sphinx, including detailed information about exactly where it was, its size, and the fact that it contained the remains of a wooden coffin. Because the chamber was described as having hieroglyphics on the walls, I am certain that it was what archaeologists call ‘an intruded burial’, but it must have been a royal one, as a shaft was carefully constructed and a chamber cut in one of the most important monuments in Egypt, within the sacred precincts of the royal Necropolis. The shaft was sealed with cement by Émile Baraize in 1926.

A century earlier, Henry Salt also sealed some openings and passages elsewhere at the Sphinx, and was sharply criticised for it by the French Count de Forbin. All of this is described in full detail in our book. So, yes, there is a ‘secret chamber’ beneath the Sphinx. And the information in our book proves this beyond all possibility of doubt. But no, it is not original and does not date from the time of the Sphinx’s carving. Also, it is empty, so there is no gold or treasure. But if we could just read what it says on the walls!

Another thing I was able to demonstrate is that the Sphinx and the three Giza pyramids were part of a single unified design concept of the Giza Plateau. The position and size of the Sphinx is determined precisely in relation to the three pyramids, in a manner never before noticed. This is shown and explained at great length in the book, and it is not really possible to summarise that material, as it is too lengthy and detailed for a brief description. I can say, however, that it was part of a resurrection cult. In the process of explaining this in detail, I even have occasion to explain the true nature of those bizarre reliefs in a crypt at Denderah which have excited a great deal of speculation, the ones with the ‘lightbulbs’, although they are 2,500 years more recent, and their only connection is through the symbolism.

I hope everybody will get a lot out of looking through our book, and, who knows, maybe even reading it. Stranger things have happened.

Oh yes, I almost forgot: ‘Woof! Woof!’

Award winning documentary on the sphinx.

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Sirius & The Human History Connection

Ancient egypt has a strong connection towards Sirius and old relics they have found in South-America has relation to Sirius. So could it be, that humankind has a connection to that star? Maybe some ancient civilization came from there and built the pyramids and other old monuments, you decide…

Since ancient times and across multiple civilizations, Sirius, the dog star, has been surrounded with a mysterious lore. Esoteric teachings of all ages have invariably attributed to Sirius a special status and the star’s importance in occult symbolism is an attestation of that fact.

Sirius is located in the constellation Canis Major – also known as the Big Dog – and is therefore known as the “dog star”. It is over twenty times brighter than our sun and is twice as massive. At night time, Sirius is the brightest star in the sky and its blue-white glare never failed to amaze star gazers since the dawn of time. No wonder Sirius has been revered by practically all civilizations. But is there more to Sirius than meets the eye?

Artifacts of ancient civilizations have revealed that Sirius was of a great importance in astronomy, mythology and occultism. Mystery schools consider it to be “sun behind the sun” and, therefore, the true source of our sun’s potency. If our sun’s warmth keeps the physical world alive, Sirius is considered to keep the spiritual world alive. It is the “real light” shining in the East, the spiritual light, where as the sun illuminates the physical world, which is considered to be a grand illusion.

Associating Sirius with the divine and even considering it as the home of humanity’s “great teachers” is not only embedded in the mythology of a few primitive civilizations: It is a widespread belief that has survived (and even intensified) to this day. We will look at the importance of Sirius in ancient times, analyze its prominence in secret societies and we will examine these esoteric concepts as they are translated in popular culture.

In Ancient Egypt, Sirius was regarded as the most important star in the sky. In fact, it was astronomically the foundation of the Egyptians’ entire religious system. It was revered as Sothis and was associated with Isis, the mother goddess of Egyptian mythology. Isis is the female aspect of the trinity formed by herself, Osiris and their son Horus.

Ancient Egyptians held Sirius in such a high regard that most of their deities were associated, in some way or another, with the star. Anubis, the dog-headed god of death, had an obvious connection with the dog star and Thoth-Hermes, the great teacher of humanity, was also esoterically connected with the star.

The Egyptian calendar system was based on the heliacal rising of Sirius that occurred just before the annual flooding of the Nile during summer. The star’s celestial movement was also observed and revered by ancient Greeks, Sumerians, Babylonians and countless other civilizations. The star was therefore considered sacred and its apparition in the sky was accompanied with feasts and celebrations. The dog star heralded the coming of the hot and dry days of July and August, hence the popular term “the dog days of summer”.

Several occult researchers have claimed that the Great Pyramid of Giza was built in perfect alignment with the stars, especially Sirius. The light from these stars were said to be used in ceremonies of Egyptian Mysteries.

“This ancient people (Egyptians) knew that once every year the Parent Sun is in line with the Dog Star. Therefore, the Great Pyramid was so constructed that, at this sacred moment, the light of the Dog Star fell upon the square “Stone of God” at the upper end of the Great Gallery, descending upon the head of the high priest, who received the Super Solar Force and sought through his own perfected Solar Body to transmit to other Initiates this added stimulation for the evolution of their Godhood. This then was the purpose of the “`Stone of God,’ whereon in the Ritual, Osiris sits to bestow upon him (the illuminate) the Atf crown or celestial light.” “North and South of that crown is love,” proclaims an Egyptian hymn. “And thus throughout the teaching of Egypt the visible light was but the shadow of the invisible Light; and in the wisdom of the ancient country the measures of Truth were the years of the Most High.

Recent scientific discoveries relating to the Great Pyramid and its mysterious “air shafts” have lead researchers to further confirm the importance of Sirius within the pyramid.

Star alignment with the Great Pyramid of Giza. Orion (associated with the god Osiris) is aligned with the King’s Chamber while Sirius (associated with the goddess Isis) is aligned with the Queen’s Chamber.

A fascinating aspect of Sirius is the consistency of the symbolism and meanings attached to it. Several great civilizations have indeed associated Sirius with a dog-like figure and viewed the star as either the source or the destination of a mysterious force.

In Chinese and Japanese astronomy, Sirius is known as the “star of the celestial wolf”. Several aboriginal tribes of North America referred to the star in canine terms: the Seri and Tohono O’odham tribes of the southwest describe the Sirius as a “dog that follows mountain sheep”, while the Blackfoot call it “Dog-face”. The Cherokee paired Sirius with Antares as a dog-star guardian of the “Path of Souls”. The Wolf (Skidi) tribe of Nebraska knew it as the “Wolf Star”, while other branches of knew it as the “Coyote Star”. Further north, the Alaskan Inuit of the Bering Strait called it “Moon Dog”. 2

In 1971, the American author Robert Temple published a controversial book entitled The Sirius Mystery where he claimed that the Dogons (an ancient African tribe from Mali) knew details about Sirius that would be impossible to be know without the use of telescopes. According to him, the Dogon understood the binary nature of Sirius, which is, in fact, composed of two stars named Sirius A and Sirius B. This lead Robert Temple to believe that the Dogons had “direct” connections with beings from Sirius. While some might say “you can’t be Sirius” (sorry), a great number of secret societies (who have historically held within their ranks some of the world’s most influential people) and belief systems teach about a mystic connection between Sirius and humanity.

In Dogon mythology, humanity is said to be born from the Nommo, a race of amphibians who were inhabitants of a planet circling Sirius. They are said to have “descended from the sky in a vessel accompanied by fire and thunder” and imparted to humans profound knowledge. This lead Robert Temple to theorize that the Nommos were extraterrestrial inhabitants of Sirius who travelled to earth at some point in the distant past to teach ancient civilizations (such as the Egyptians and Dogons) about the Sirius star system as well as our own solar system. These civilizations would then record the Nommos’ teachings in their religions and make them a central focus of their Mysteries.

The Dogon’s mythology system is strikingly similar to the ones of other civilizations such as the Sumerians, Egyptians, Israelites and Babylonians as it includes the archetypal myth of a “great teacher from above”. Depending on the civilization, this great teacher is known as eith Enoch, Thoth or Hermes Trismegistus and is said to have taught humanity theurgic sciences. In occult traditions, it is believed that Thoth-Hermes had taught the people of Atlantis, which, according to legend, became the world’s most advanced civilization before the entire continent was submerged by the Great Deluge (accounts of a flood can be found in the mythologies of countless civilizations).

Survivors from Atlantis travelled by boat to several countries, including Egypt, where they imparted their advanced knowledge. Occultists believe that the inexplicable resemblances between distant civilizations (such as the Mayas and the Egyptians) can be explained by their common contact with Atlanteans.

“Was the religious, philosophic, and scientific knowledge possessed by the priestcraft of antiquity secured from Atlantis, whose submergence obliterated every vestige of its part in the drama of world progress? Atlantean sun worship has been perpetuated in the ritualism and ceremonialism of both Christianity and pagandom. Both the cross and the serpent were Atlantean emblems of divine wisdom. The divine (Atlantean) progenitors of the Mayas and Quichés of Central America coexisted within the green and azure radiance of Gucumatz, the “plumed” serpent. The six sky-born sages came into manifestation as centers of light bound together or synthesized by the seventh – and chief – of their order, the “feathered” snake.

The title of “winged” or “plumed” snake was applied to Quetzalcoatl, or Kukulcan, the Central American initiate. The center of the Atlantean Wisdom-Religion was presumably a great pyramidal temple standing on the brow of a plateau rising in the midst of the City of the Golden Gates. From here the Initiate-Priests of the Sacred Feather went forth, carrying the keys of Universal Wisdom to the uttermost parts of the earth.

From the Atlanteans the world has received not only the heritage of arts and crafts, philosophies and sciences, ethics and religions, but also the heritage of hate, strife, and perversion. The Atlanteans instigated the first war; and it has been said that all subsequent wars were fought in a fruitless effort to justify the first one and right the wrong which it caused. Before Atlantis sank, its spiritually illumined Initiates, who realized that their land was doomed because it had departed from the Path of Light, withdrew from the ill-fated continent. Carrying with them the sacred and secret doctrine, these Atlanteans established themselves in Egypt, where they became its first “divine” rulers. Nearly all the great cosmologic myths forming the foundation of the various sacred books of the world are based upon the Atlantean Mystery rituals.”

Is Thoth-Hermes-Trismegistus the equivalent of the Dogon’s Nommos, who are believed to originate from Sirius? Ancient texts concerning Hermes describe him as a teacher of mysteries who “came from the stars”. Furthermore, Thoth-Hermes was directly connected with Sirius in Egyptian mythology.

“The dog-star: the star worshipped in Egypt and reverenced by the Occultists; by the former because its heliacal rising with the Sun was a sign of the beneficient inundation of the Nile, and by the latter because it is mysteriously associated with Toth-Hermes, god of wisdom, and Mercury, in another form. Thus Sothis-Sirius had, and still has, a mystic and direct influence over the whole living heaven, and is connected with almost every god and goddess. It was “Isis in the heaven” and called Isis-Sothis, for Isis was “in the constellation of the dog”, as is declared on her monuments. Being connected with the Pyramid, Sirius was, therefore, connected with the initiations which took place in it.”

“The Trismegistic treatise ‘The Virgin of the World’ from Egypt refers to ‘the Black Rite’, connected with the ‘black’ Osiris, as the highest degree of secret initiation possible in the ancient Egyptian religion – it is the ultimate secret of the mysteries of Isis. This treatise says Hermes came to earth to teach men civilization and then again ‘mounted to the stars’, going back to his home and leaving behind the mystery religion of Egypt with its celestial secrets which were some day to be decoded.”

Interpreting the mythology of ancient cultures is not an exact science and connections are inherently difficult to prove. However, the symbolic link between Sirius and occult knowledge has constantly appeared throughout History and has seamlessly traveled through the ages. In fact, it is as revered today as it was millenniums ago. Modern secret societies such as the Freemasons, the Rosicrucians and the Golden Dawn (which are considered to be Hermetic Orders due to the fact their teachings are based on those of Hermes Trismegistus) all attribute to Sirius the utmost importance. An educated look at their symbolism provides a glimpse at the profound connection between Sirius and occult philosophy.

To claim that Sirius is “important” to Hermetic Orders would be a gross understatement. The dog star is nothing less than the central focus of the teachings and symbolism of secret societies. The ultimate proof of this fact: many secret societies are actually named after the star.

The seventeenth numbered major trump is called Les Étoiles, (French for The Star), and portrays a young girl kneeling with one foot in water and the other on and, her body somewhat suggesting the swastika [more like Aquarius – N.I. Ed]. She has two urns, the contents of which she pours upon the land and sea. Above the girl’s head are eight stars, one of which is exceptionally large and bright. Count de Gébelin considers the great star to be Sothis or Sirius; the other seven are the sacred planets of the ancients. He believes the female figure to be Isis in the act of causing the inundations of the Nile which accompanied the rising of the Dog Star. The unclothed figure of Isis may well signify that Nature does not receive her garment of verdure until the rising of the Nile waters releases the germinal life of plants and flowers.

In Masonic lodges, Sirius is known as the “Blazing Star” and a simple look at its prominence in Masonic symbolism reveals its utmost importance. The Masonic author William Hutchinson wrote about Sirius: “It is the first and most exalted object that demands our attention in the Lodge.” The same way the light of Sirius made its way into the Great Pyramid during initiations, it is symbolically present in Masonic lodges.

“The Ancient Astronomers saw all the great Symbols of Masonry in the Stars. Sirius glitters in our lodges as the Blazing Star.”

“(The Blazing Star) originally represented SIRIUS, or the Dog-star, the forerunner of the inundation of the Nile; the God ANUBIS, companion of ISIS in her search for the body of OSIRIS, her brother and husband. Then it became the image of HORUS, the son of OSIRIS, himself symbolized also by the Sun, the author of the Seasons, and the God of Time; Son of ISIS, who was the universal nature, himself the primitive matter, inexhaustible source of Life, spark of uncreated fire, universal seed of all beings. It was HERMES, also, the Master of Learning, whose name in Greek is that of the God Mercury.”

In Freemasonry, it is taught that the Blazing Star is a symbol of deity, of omnipresence (the Creator is present everywhere) and of omniscience (the Creator sees and knows all). Sirius is therefore the “sacred place” all Masons must ascend to: It is the source of divine power and the destination of divine individuals. This concept is often represented in Masonic art.

To achieve perfection, the initiate must successfully understand and internalize the dual nature of the world (good and evil; masculine and feminine; black and white, etc.) through alchemical metamorphosis. This concept is symbolically represented by the union of Osiris and Isis (the male and female principles) to give birth to Horus, the star-child, the Christ-like figure, the perfected man of Freemasonry – who is equated with the Blazing Star.

“The sun and moon … represent the two grand principles … the male and the female … both shed their light upon their offspring, the blazing star, or Horus.”

The Egyptian hieroglyph representing Sirius has been esoterically interpreted to be a representation of this cosmic trinity.

The hieroglyph representing Sirius contains three elements: a “phallic” obelisk (representing Osiris), a “womb-like” dome (representing Isis) and a star (representing Horus).

This concept is so crucial for Freemasons, that it was embedded in some of the most important structures in the world.

The Washington Monument, an Egyptian obelisk representing the male principle, is directly connected with the dome of the Capitol, representing the female principle. Together they produce Horus an unseen energy represented by Sirius.

As stated by Albert Pike above, the Egyptian god Horus and the star Sirius are often associated. In Masonic symbolism, the eye of Horus (or the All-Seeing Eye) is often depicted surrounded by the glittering of light of Sirius.

A Masonic tracing board depicting the sun above the left pillar (representing the masculine), the moon above the right pillar (representing feminine) and Sirius above the middle pillar, representing the “perfected man” or Horus, the son of Isis and Osiris.

The Eye of Horus inside a triangle (symbolizing deity) surrounded by the glow of Sirius, the Blazing Star

The light behind the All-Seeing Eye on the American dollar bill is not from the sun, but from Sirius. The Great Pyramid of Giza was built in alignment with Sirius and is therefore shown shining right above the Pyramid. A radiant tribute to Sirius is therefore in the pockets of millions of citizens.

Considered to be the “female version” of Freemasonry (although men can join), the Order of the Eastern Star (OES) is directly named after Sirius, the “Star rising from the East”. A “general public” explanation of the origins of the Order’s name claims it originated from the “Star of the East” that lead the Three Magi to Jesus. A look into the occult meaning of the Order’s symbolism however makes it clear that the OES is a reference to Sirius, the most important star of Freemasonry, its parent organization.

Helena Blavatsky and Alice Bailey, the two main figures associated with Theosophy, have both considered Sirius to be a source esoteric power. Blavatsky stated that the star Sirius exerts a mystic and direct influence over the entire living heaven and is linked with every great religion of antiquity.

Alice Bailey sees the Dog Star as the true “Great White Lodge” and believes it to be the home of the “Spiritual Hierarchy”. For this reason she considers Sirius as the “star of initiation”.

“This is the great star of initiation because our Hierarchy (an expression of the second aspect of divinity) is under the supervision or spiritual magnetic control of the Hierarchy of Sirius. These are the major controlling influences whereby the cosmic Christ works upon the Christ principle in the solar system, in the planet, in man and in the lower forms of life expression. It is esoterically called the “brilliant star of sensitivity.”

Not unlike most many esoteric writers, Bailey considers Sirius to have a great impact on human life.

“All that can be done here in dealing with this profound subject is to enumerate briefly some of the cosmic influences which definitely affect our earth, and produce results in the consciousness of men everywhere, and which, during the process of initiation, bring about certain specific phenomena.

First and foremost is the energy or force emanating from the sun Sirius. If it might be so expressed, the energy of thought, or mind force, in its totality, reaches the solar system from a distant cosmic centre via Sirius. Sirius acts as the transmitter, or the focalising centre, whence emanate those influences which produce self-consciousness in man.”

In 1907, Aleister Crowley started his own occult order called the A.A. – short for Argentium Astrum, which can be translated to ‘The Order of the Silver Star’. The ‘Silver Star’ was, of course, a reference to Sirius. Even if Crowley almost always referred to the dog star in veiled terms, the whole of his magickal philosophy, from his development as a young Freemason through to his final years as the Head of the O.T.O, is wholly in accordance with the Sirian influence, which was identified and expressed by other writers of his era. His alleged contact with his Holy Guardian Angel that later led to the channelling of ‘Liber AL: The Book of the Law’ is believed to have originated from Sirius.

If Crowley used code words to describe Sirius, his protégé Kenneth Grant has explicitly and extensively written about the dog star. Throughout his numerous books, he often described Sirius as being a powerful center of magickal magnetic power. His belief that the star holds the central key to unlocking the mysteries of the Egyptian and Typhonian traditions has strengthened over time and became a central focus of his research. One of Grant’s most important and controversial thesis was his discovery of the “Sirius/Set current”, which is an extra-terrestrial dimension connecting Sirius, the Earth and Set, the Eyptian god of Chaos – who was later associated with Satan.

“Set is the initiator, the Opener of mans’ consciousness to the rays of the Undying God typified by Sirius – the Sun in the South.”

“Sirius, or Set, was the original “headless one” – the light of the lower region (the south) who was known (in Egypt) as An (the dog), hence Set-An (Satan), Lord of the infernal regions, the place of heat, later interpreted in a moral sense as “hell”.”

Although each occult philosophy describes Sirius in a slightly different matter, it is still consistently regarded as the “sun behind the sun”, the true source of occult power. It is perceived as the cradle of human knowledge and the belief of the existence of a strong connection between the star and planet Earth never seems to become outdated. Is there a true link between Sirius and Earth? Is the dog star an esoteric symbol representing something happening in the spiritual realm? It is both? One thing is for sure, the cult of Sirius is not a “thing of the past” and is very alive today. An in-depth look at our popular culture, which is heavily influenced by occult symbolism, reveals numerous references to Sirius.

Direct references to Sirius in popular culture are too many to enumerate (e.g. see the name and the logo of the most important satellite radio in the world). A more interesting aspect of popular culture to analyze are the coded references to Sirius. Important movies have indeed made veiled yet profound references to the dog star (apparently intended to those “in the know”), where the star plays the role it was always given by the Mysteries: as an initiator and a divine teacher. Here are some examples.

In Disney’s Pinocchio, based on a story written by Freemason Carlo Collodi, Gepetto prays to the brightest star in the sky to have a “real boy”. The Blue Fairy (her color is a reference to Sirius’ light-blue glow) then descends from the heavens to give life to Pinocchio. Throughout the marionette’s quest to become a boy (an allegory for esoteric initiation), the Blue Fairy guides Pinocchio towards the “right path”. Sirius is therefore represented as a source of life, a guide and a teacher.

The theme song of the movie Pinocchio is also an ode to Sirius:

When you wish upon a star, makes no difference who you are
Anything your heart desires will come to you

If your heart is in your dreams, no request is too extreme
When you wish upon a star as dreamers do

(Fate is kind, she brings to those who love
The sweet fulfillment of their secret longing)

Like a bolt out of the blue, fate steps in and sees you thru
When you wish upon a star, your dreams come true

In Harry Potter, the character named Sirius Black is most likely a reference to Sirius B. (the “darker” star of Sirius’ binary system). He is Harry Potter’s godfather, which makes Sirius, once again, a teacher and a guide. The wizard can turn into a big black dog, another link with the “dog star”.

In the Truman Show, a spotlight – used to imitate the light of a star in Truman’s fake world – falls from the sky and nearly hits him. The label on the spotlight identifies it as Sirius. Truman’s encounter with Sirius gives him a glimpse of “true knowledge” and prompts his quest for truth. Sirius is therefore the “star of initiation”. It caused Truman to realize the limitations of the his studio world (our material world) and lead him to freedom (spiritual emancipation).

From the dawn of civilization to modern times, from remote tribes of Africa to the great capitals of the modern world, Sirius was – and still is – seen as a life-giver. Despite the disparity between cultures and epochs, the same mysterious attributes are given to the dog star, which can lead us to ask: how can all theses definitions synchronize so perfectly? Is there a common source to these myths about Sirius? The dog star is invariably associated with divinity and is regarded as a source of knowledge and power. These connections are particularly evident when one examines the teachings and the symbolism of secret societies, who have always taught about a mystical link with this particular celestial body. Is there a secret link between human evolution and Sirius? Unlocking this secret would mean unlocking one of humanity’s greatest mysteries.

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Egypt’s Giza Plateau

Fascinating place this Giza Plateau and I think, that it was not humans who built it. There are numerous remote viewers, which have remote viewed this place and it has always alien elements in it. Here’s something about the place:

There is no other place on Earth like Egypt’s Giza Plateau. Anyone with even a slight interest in history and civilisation is aware of this fact. For on this plateau there stands the Great Pyramids and their sculpted guardian, the Great Sphinx.

Although there are plenty of theories, no one really knows who built the Giza Pyramids or carved the Sphinx, or when they were constructed. Any statement as to who built them, or when they were built, is pure theory. In light of all the various theories concerning these mysterious structures, I don’t think the theoretical nature of the pyramid builders can be emphasised enough.

What stands out at Giza more than anything else is not only the magnitude of the construction of the pyramids, but the internal design of the Great Pyramid; three chambers, of which one is subterranean, and their connecting passageways. The passageway that leads to the so-called King’s Chamber rises to a height of thirty-six feet! On the other hand, all other passageways were not built tall enough to accommodate the average man or woman.

There is also the unique configuration of the King’s Chamber as well as the Queen’s Chamber. Both of these contain two shafts, one on each side of the chamber. The Queen’s Chamber contains a corbelled niche built into its east wall, and the King’s Chamber’s ceiling is composed of five granite slabs stacked one atop the other. Why these chambers were constructed in this manner is unknown.

The official theory is that the pyramids were tombs, and that King Khufu kept changing his mind where his burial chamber was to be placed; thus, the reason for three chambers in the Great Pyramid. However, in comparison to typical Egyptian burial methods (the mastaba and the tombs in the Valley of the Kings), the Giza pyramids, and particularly the Great Pyramid, do not fare well within the Egyptian concept of a tomb.

The Egyptians believed in an afterlife, and the tomb was an important part of that belief. As the tomb of King Tutankhamun testifies, the deceased’s chamber of internment was to be decorated with art and filled with that person’s possessions. Why they practiced this ritual was not for superstitious reasons, as one might suspect. It was practical, according to their beliefs, and aimed at preventing that person’s energy (spirit) from being re-absorbed into Nature’s spiritual force.

For the ancient Egyptians, Ba animated a living person, whereas Ka was the energy emanating from that person. Although not an exact analogy, the Ka and the Ba are what traditional Western thought might refer as spirit and soul. Another important aspect of Egyptian belief represented immortality, the ankh, depicted as the crested ibis.

The Ka, represented in art by up-stretched arms, was believed to be the part of man’s consciousness and energy (man’s spirit or inner quality) that related to the immediate world. It is the part of us connected to the physical body; where it lived, its possessions, as well as the people he or she was acquainted with. The Ka can be likened to one’s personality, which upon death is separated from the body, and naturally seeks a way to once again take form. The Ba, represented by a winged human head, or sometimes a human-faced bird, represented the part of consciousness that is immortal.

When someone passed away, it was their goal as well as the hope of the family, that the deceased’s Ka would seek a way to remain united with their Ba. To help accomplish this eternal union, the possessions of the deceased were gathered together by the family and placed in the tomb with the mummified body. Mummification prevented the body from decomposing and returning to the soil of the Earth, whereas the tomb, with the deceased’s possessions, served as a ‘home’ for the Ka. As a result, the Ka maintained its identity in the spiritual world and could seek out its Ba in order to achieve ankh, which resulted in the resurrected and glorified form of the deceased beyond the limits of an earthly realm.

Like the pharaonic tombs carved into the Valley of the Kings, royal mastabas built during the early dynasties – some as early as 3000 BCE – were also designed with ‘home’ in mind, as that home relates to a person’s Ka. Case in point: from the sixth dynasty, Mereruka’s mastaba was crafted in mansion-like proportion with thirty-two rooms and adorned with statues and art depicting, for example, scenes of wildlife along the Nile River.

The traits of Egyptian domestic life, so beautifully incorporated into the design of their tombs, are not found in the Giza pyramids. The Giza pyramids contain no art or hieroglyphics of any kind, very uncharacteristic of Egyptian tombs. So why is it the case that the Giza pyramids are generally considered to be tombs of fourth dynasty Pharaohs? The reason is because of an association of the Giza complex with another development ten miles south at Sakkara where the Egyptians really did build tombs as pyramids.

At Sakkara in 1881, the French Egyptologist, Gaston Maspero (1846–1916) discovered that the subterranean chamber of the Pepi I Pyramid (second ruler of the sixth dynasty) was engraved with hieroglyphics. Over the course of subsequent explorations, it was discovered that a total of five pyramids at Sakkara also contained inscriptions, from the fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth dynasties of the Old Kingdom. In 1952, Dr. Samuel A.B. Mercer (1879–1969), Professor of Semitic Languages and Egyptology at the University of Toronto, published a complete English translation of “The Pyramid Texts” in a volume of the same name. According to Mercer, The Pyramid Texts contained ‘words to be spoken’ concerning funerary ritual, magical formulae, and religious hymns, as well as prayers and petitions on behalf of the deceased king.1

With the pyramids at Sakkara being confirmed as tombs the associative logic came to be that all pyramids must be tombs. Furthermore, since there are two cemeteries (mastaba fields) to the east and west of the northernmost Giza pyramid, assuming that all pyramids are tombs was a likely conclusion. However, the condition of the Sakkara pyramids – most of which are believed constructed after the Giza pyramids – poses serious problems in this logical association. Of the pyramids at Sakkara only Djoser’s ‘Step Pyramid’ is in good condition, although not really a true pyramid. (The Step Pyramid was originally a mastaba that was modified into a pyramid.) All other pyramids at Sakkara, most of which belong to the fifth and sixth dynasties are in ruins today and resemble mounds of rubble.

According to a consensus of Egyptologists, Djoser’s Step Pyramid at Sakkara was constructed during the third dynasty and was the forerunner to the fourth dynasty pyramids on the Giza Plateau. After pyramid development at Giza, for whatever reason, the focus of pyramid building shifted back to Sakkara.

The easily observable and obvious differences in the Giza pyramids and the Sakkara pyramids, which were all supposed to have been built during the same era, are a problem. Clearly, the construction techniques, as well as materials, for the Giza pyramids were different than those at Sakkara, or else we would expect pyramids at both sites to have stood the test of time in a similar manner. They did not. The important point is why. Did the engineers and construction workers of the Old Kingdom not pass along their methods from the fourth to the fifth dynasty? It seems they did not, which is a very curious occurrence given the stability of Egyptian civilisation. It may also be the case that the fourth dynasty Egyptians did not build the Giza pyramids.

No other pyramid in Egypt (the world for that matter) is like the Giza pyramids, and in particular the Great Pyramid. Additionally, there is no direct evidence to support the claim that the Great Pyramid, or the other Giza pyramids were tombs. Nor is there any record left by its builders as to what it was for or when it was built. This creates a problem of explanation. If the Great Pyramid was not a tomb, then what was it? A mystical temple for initiation ritual, or a public works project designed to unify the country? Or, was it something else entirely? Theories are abundant, but the only theory I am aware of that covers all aspects of the Great Pyramid’s interior design, is Christopher Dunn’s theory that it was a device. According to Dunn, the Great Pyramid was a machine for producing power by converting tectonic vibration into electricity.

There are a number of reasons to accept Dunn analysis. First, he explains the interior design and all other evidence within the Great Pyramid in a cohesive manner. Second, he demonstrates the technical skills required to accomplish precision construction. Third, Dunn’s expertise and career is in the precision fabrication and manufacturing industry, which makes him uniquely qualified to express a professional opinion on the techniques and tools of the Giza pyramid builders.

The fact is, modern construction companies could not build the Great Pyramid today without first inventing specialised tools and techniques in order to deal with blocks of stone that vary in weight from ten to fifty tons. Such an endeavour would be on a magnitude equivalent to building a hydroelectric dam or a nuclear power station requiring tens of billions of dollars in resources.

Although our modern economy is different than that of the ancient world, the resource required now as compared to then is the same! The stone must be quarried and moved and the workers must be paid. The fact that an extremely large amount of resources were dedicated to Giza pyramid development over a long period of time demands, in my opinion, that pyramid building was utilitarian, and not for any fourth dynasty pharaonic vanity of having the largest headstone in the world.

For me, the evidence clearly tells a very different story of early dynastic Egypt. Sometime around 3000 BCE, the establishment and growth of permanent settlements in the Lower Nile Valley led to the development of civilisation. Why Giza and the surrounding area were chosen as the focal point for early Dynastic Egypt was because ‘civilisation’ had been there before, as the three pyramids and the Great Sphinx testify. Without knowing what the pyramids were designed for, the early Egyptians also assumed they must have been tombs.

As a result, they rejuvenated the Giza Plateau and turned it into a Necropolis, then expanded to Sakkara where they built tombs in pyramid form, albeit of lesser quality and not brandishing the skills the original builders of the Giza pyramids demonstrated. Pyramid building, even the smaller ones at Sakkara, was resource intense, so the Egyptians reverted to burying their nobility in the traditional mastaba.

This scenario, which calls for an earlier civilisation with advanced technical skills, poses another problem. It does not fit the standard model of history. However, the notion that an earlier civilisation existed does not rest on the Giza pyramids alone. There is also the Sphinx, which in 1991 was geologically dated to between 7,000 and 9,000 years old by the team of John Anthony West and geologist Dr. Robert Schoch. Add to that the megaliths of Nabta Playa in southwestern Egypt, which is believed to have been a star viewing diagram, according to astrophysicist Dr. Thomas Brophy, that relates not only the distance from Earth to the belt stars of Orion, but their radial velocities as well. Another ‘head scratching’ discovery is the 1260-ton foundation stones of the Baalbek temple, west of Beirut in Lebanon, one of which was left in its quarry.

Clearly history has its secrets, but there is enough evidence to validate, as theory, that civilisation is much older than we have previously believed. History, according to the ancient Egyptians themselves, confirms this. According to the Papyrus of Turin, which is a complete list of kings up to the New Kingdom, before Menes (before 3000 BCE) the:

…venerables Shemsu-Hor, [reigned] 13,420 years

Reigns up to Shemsu-Hor, 23,200 years2

These two lines in the king’s list are explicit. According to their documents, the total years of Egyptian history goes back 36,620 years. The argument that the years in the king’s list do not represent actual years, but some other, shorter, measurement of time seems more of an attempt to explain away than to explain. The ancient Egyptians employed a sophisticated calendar system that involved a 365-day year, which was periodically corrected through the predictable and cyclical nature of the star Sirius. Every 1,461 years, the heliacal rising of Sirius marked the beginning of the new year.

A single Sirius cycle corresponds to 1,461 years, where each year is equivalent to 365.25 days. In essence, the marking of the New Year at the heliacal rising of Sirius was the ancient Egyptian’s ‘leap year.’ Of course, determining the length of Sirius’ cyclical nature requires stellar observation over thousands of years which means the origins of pharaonic Egypt, or its source of knowledge, must originate in the remote past.

Late twentieth century Egyptologist Walter Emery seems to have agreed in principle that the origins of ancient Egypt date well into prehistory. Emery believed that ancient Egypt’s written language was beyond the use of pictorial symbols, even during the earliest dynasties, and that signs were also used to represent sounds, along with a numerical system. When hieroglyphics had been stylised and used in architecture, a cursive script was already in common use. His conclusion was that:

All this shows that the written language must have had a considerable period of development behind it, of which no trace has as yet been found in Egypt.3

Ancient Egyptian religion also testifies to a considerable period of development. Their religion, which is more of a philosophy of nature and life than it is a ‘religion,’ is based on a level of sophistication that, in all respects, appears more scientific than it does mythical.

From a modern Western perspective their religion has been billed as primitive and polytheistic, and appears as a mythological menagerie of gods. Nothing could be further from the truth. The source of this misunderstanding stems from the Egyptian word neter being translated into Greek as ‘god,’ which later took on the Westernised meaning of deity. The true meaning of neter was to describe an aspect of deity, not a deity to be worshipped. In essence, neters referred to principles of nature in a practical scientific way.

Yet, the meaning of a specific neter was communicated in a visually symbolic manner. When a human was depicted with an animal head, this signified the principle as it occurs in man. If the whole animal was depicted it was a reference to a principle in general. Alternatively, a human head depicted on an animal represented that principle as it relates to the divine essence within mankind, not any person in particular, but the archetypal; as the immortal Ba is represented by a human-faced bird.

Another example is Anubis (the jackal), who presided over the process of mummification. He did so as a representation of the decomposition or fermentation process. In nature, the jackal keeps its prey and allows it to decompose before consumption. Therefore, he who presided over the mummification ritual was depicted in art as a man with the head of the jackal, thereby representing man’s death as the digestive principle found in nature. From a universal perspective, the decomposition of a body is, to Nature, digestion. Hence, those organs associated with digestion, after being removed from the deceased, were placed in a Canopic jar with a lid shaped in the image of the jackal’s head.

The sudden emergence of Dynastic Egypt, at the beginning of the third millennium BCE, is one of civilisation’s greatest mysteries. How did this supposedly primitive North African culture organise itself into a civilisation of such magnificence? One aspect that I believe has been overlooked is that mankind – anatomically modern humans – has been around for a very long time. According to recent genetic studies, all people today are the descendants of a single African woman who walked the Earth 150,000 years ago. According to geneticists, her mitochondrial DNA exists in all of us.

This is a long time, 147,000 years, for our ancestors to have remained in a relatively primitive state. In my opinion, the evidence, some of which is incredibly anomalous (in particular the Great Pyramid) suggests they did not remain primitive. Given the evidence of ancient Egypt’s technical abilities (their monument, temples, and other crafted artifacts still exist), as well as their sophisticated symbolism in describing Nature, it appears that in establishing a dynastic society, the Egyptians of the third millennium BCE benefited from a legacy of knowledge.

Skeptics of this approach to history, of course, would want to know where the evidence of this technical and prehistoric civilisation is. If such a civilisation existed, surely there would be overwhelming evidence to support its existence. If an exclusively uniformitarian approach to geologic formation were generally accepted as fact, I would agree with the skeptic.

However, mass extinctions, as a result of environmental catastrophism because of volcanism, asteroid or comet impact, or stellar (gamma) radiation, now seems to be a reality.

According to geologists there have been five large mass extinctions in Earth’s history: the Ordovician (440–450 mya), Devonian (408–360 mya), Permian (286–248), Triassic (251–252 mya), and Cretaceous (144–65 mya). Although all of these cataclysms occurred well before the modern human form, there are two global disasters that occurred relatively recently.

Approximately 71,000 years ago Mount Toba, in Sumatra, erupted spewing an enormous amount of ash into the atmosphere. It was the largest volcanic eruption in the last two million years, nearly 10,000 times larger than the Mount St. Helen’s explosion in 1980. The resultant caldera formed a lake 100 kilometres long by 60 kilometres wide, with devastating and lasting climatic consequences. A six-year long volcanic winter followed, and in its wake an ice age that lasted for a thousand years. With its sulfuric haze, the volcanic winter lowered global temperatures, creating drought and famine decimating the human population.

According to geneticist’s estimates, the population was reduced to somewhere between 15,000 and 40,000 individuals. Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Utah, Lynn Jorde, believes it may have been as low as 5,000.4

Even closer to our time is the mysterious cataclysm at the end of the Ice Age, only 10,000 years ago. No one really knows if it was the result of natural phenomenon or an asteroid impact. What is known is that the climate drastically altered life for those who lived at that time. It is a known geologic fact that at the end of the Ice Age many North American species became extinct, including the mammoth, camel, horse, ground sloth, peccaries (pig-like hoofed mammals), antelope, American elephant, rhinoceros, giant armadillo, tapirs, saber-toothed tigers and giant bison. It also affected the climates of lower latitudes in Central and South America, as well as Europe in a similar way. Those lands have also revealed evidence of mass extinction. Yet, the mechanism that brought on this Ice Age ending cataclysm remains a mystery.

If an ancient technical civilisation existed during the remote past, what would be the likelihood of that civilisation surviving a global catastrophe intact? Estimates from the Toba eruption are not encouraging. Neither are the scenarios that astronomers and climatologists build today for a theoretical asteroid impact.

According to the archeological evidence, anatomically modern man (Cro-Magnon) appeared in Western Europe 40,000 years ago. Where they came from has been a long-standing mystery. The logical deduction is that they migrated from Africa. However, such a migration requires a host culture, of which there is no evidence.

Nevertheless, a likely location for this host culture would have been along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, which were likely a series of fresh water lakes during the remote past.

If ancient civilisation existed in the region of the Mediterranean, it would not have survived the conflagration that turned those lakes into a salt-water sea.

If that were indeed the case, the remnants of those who lived on the perimeter of that civilisation would appear to us, today, as anomalies such as the Giza pyramids and the giant stones of Baalbek.

Cro-Magnon cultures of Western Europe, although once a part of a great Mediterranean civilisation, would also appear as an anomaly. For us, it would be as if they appeared from nowhere.

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Anunnaki Message Published In UFO Magazine in 1958!

Interesting article about the Anunnaki and more interesting it makes the aspect, that until now no-one knows who wrote it. So here we go again:

A message from the Anunnaki – MANKIND IN AMNESIA (Flying Saucer Review Magazine © November-December 1958)

Exhibit 19) Brinsley Le Poer Trench (Flying Saucer Review Magazine © November-December 1958)

“We are already here, among you. Some of us have always been here, with you, yet apart from, watching, and occasionally guiding you whenever the opportunity arose. Now, however, our numbers have been increased in preparation for a further step in the development of your planet: a step of which you are not yet aware… We have been confused with the gods of many world-religions, although we are not gods, but your fellow creatures, as you will learn directly before many more years have passed. You will find records of our presence in the mysterious symbols of ancient Egypt, where we made ourselves known in order to accomplish certain ends. Our principal symbol appears in the religious art of your present civilization and occupies a position of importance upon the great seal of your country. (The United States of America) It has been preserved in certain secret societies founded originally to keep alive the knowledge of our existence and our intentions toward mankind.”

“We have left you certain landmarks, placed carefully in different parts of the globe, but most prominently in Egypt where we established our headquarters upon the occasion of our last overt, or, as you would say, public appearance. At that time the foundations of your present civilization were ‘laid in the earth’ and the most ancient of your known landmarks established by means that would appear as miraculous to you now as they did to the pre-Egyptians, so many thousands of years ago. Since that time the whole art of building, in stone, has become symbolic, to many of you, of the work in hand—the building of the human race towards its perfection.”

“Your ancestors knew us in those days as preceptors and as friends. Now, through your own efforts, you have almost reached, in your majority, a new step on the long ladder of your liberation. You have been constantly aided by our watchful ‘inspiration’, and hindered only by the difficulties natural to your processes of physical and moral development…”

“You have lately achieved the means of destroying yourselves. Do not be hasty in your self-congratulation. Yours is not the first civilization to have achieved—and used—such means. Yours will not be the first civilization to be offered the means of preventing that destruction and proceeding, in the full glory of its accumulated knowledge, to establish an era of enlightenment upon the earth.”

“However, if you do accept the means offered you, and if you establish such a ‘millennium’ upon the basis of your present accomplishments, yours will be the first civilization to do so.

Mankind in Amnesia - An Actual Anunnaki Message | in5d.comALWAYS BEFORE, THE KNOWLEDGE, THE TECHNIQUES, THE INSTRUCTIONS, HAVE BECOME THE POSSESSIONS OF A CHOSEN FEW: A FEW CHOSE THEMSELVES BY THEIR OWN OPEN-MINDED AND CLEAR-SIGHTED REALIZATION OF ‘THE SHAPE OF THINGS TO COME’. THEY ENDEAVORED TO PASS ON THEIR KNOWLEDGE IN THE BEST POSSIBLE FORM, AND BY THE MOST ENDURING MEANS AT THEIR COMMAND. 

In a sense they succeeded, but in another sense their failure equaled their success. Human acceptance is, to a very large extent, measurable by human experience. Succeeding generations, who never knew our actual presence, translated the teachings of their elders in the terms of their own experience. For instance, a cross-sectional drawing, much simplified and stylized by many copyings, of one of our traveling machines became the ‘Eye of Horus”, and then other eyes of other gods. Finally, the ancient symbol that was once an accurate representation of an important mechanical device has been given surprising connotations by the modern priesthood of psychology.”

“The important fact is, however, that we are here, among you, and that you, as a world-race, will know it before very much longer! The time is almost ripe but, as with all ripening things, the process may not be hurried artificially without danger of damaging the fruit. There is a right time for every action, and the right time for our revelation of ourselves to your era is approaching.”

“Some of you have seen our ‘advanced guard’ already. You have met us often in the streets of your cities, and you have not noticed us. But when we flash through your skies in the ANCIENT TRADITIONAL VEHICLES  [Vimanas, see Exhibit 14, this paper—GJ]  you are amazed, and those of you who open your mouths and tell of what you have seen are accounted dupes and fools. Actually you are prophets, seers in the true sense of the word. You in Kansas and Oklahoma, you in Oregon and in California, and Idaho, you know what you have seen: do not be dismayed by meteorologists. Their business is the weather. One of you says, ‘I saw a torpedo-shaped object’. Others report, ‘disc-like objects’, some of you say ‘spherical objects’, or ‘platter-like objects’. You are all reporting correctly and accurately what you saw, and in most cases you are describing the same sort of vehicle.”

“… Now that the art of manufacturing plastic materials has reached a certain perfection among you, perhaps you can imagine a material, almost transparent to the rays of ordinary visible light, yet strong enough to endure the stresses of extremely rapid flight. Look again at the great nebulae, and think of the construction of your own galaxy, and behold the universal examples of what we have found to be the perfect shape for an object which is to travel through what you still fondly refer to as ‘empty’ space.”

In the center of the discus, gyroscopically controlled within a central sphere of the same transparent material, our control rooms revolve freely, accommodating themselves and us to flat or edgewise flight. Both methods are suited to your atmosphere, and when we convert abruptly from one to the other, as we are sometimes obliged to do, and you are watching, OUR MACHINES seem suddenly to appear—or to disappear. At our possible speeds your eyes, untrained and unprepared for the maneuver, do make mistakes—but not the mistakes your scientists so often accuse them of making.”

“We pass over your hilltops in horizontal flight. You see and report a torpedo-shaped object. We pass over, in formation, flying vertically ‘edge-on’… Or we go over at night, jet-slits glowing, and you see an orange disc. In any event you see us, and in any event we do not care. if we chose to remain invisible, we could do so, easily, and, in fact, we have done so almost without exception for hundreds of years. But you must become accustomed to our shapes in your skies, for one day they will be familiar, friendly, and reassuring sights.”

“This time, it is to be hoped that the memory of them, passed on to your children and their children, will be clear and precise. That you will not cause them to forget, as your ancestors forgot, the meaning of the diagrams and the instructions we will leave with you. If you do fail, AS OTHER CIVILIZATIONS HAVE FAILED, we will see your descendants wearing wiring-diagrams for simple machines as amulets, expecting the diagrams to do what their forefathers were taught the completed article would accomplish.

Then their children, forgetting even that much—or little—would preserve the amulet as a general protective device—or as an intellectual curiosity—or perhaps as a religious symbol. Such is the cycle of forgetfulness!”

– The Anunnaki

In5D Addendum

by Gregg Prescott, M.S.
Editor, In5D.com

I tried to find the original source to this article to no avail.  However, I did find this…:

According to Trench, the editor/author and publisher of the Nov-Dec 1958 issue, the original article was found in the November 1947 issue of ‘Fantastic Stories’ (USA), written by a pseudonym, Alexander Blade.  Remarkably enough, after 54 years, the ‘Flying Saucer Review Magazine’ is still being published (or was at least in 2010), but I have not been able to find it online.  Also, 1947 triggers memories in the mass consciousness from the UFO crash in Roswell, New Mexico. So, the Sirians have (and they apparently admitted to this in 1947) been around since ancient time, and just like I’ve said, never left. Interesting in this article is that they at that time gave us hints of what is to come. They are talking about our ‘liberation’, and that they will be a part of that.

and this:

According to Brinsley Le Poer Trench, editor of Flying Saucer Review Magazine, an unknown person using the pseudonym ‘Alexander Blade’ wrote the above article that originally appeared in the November 1947 issue of Fantastic Stories (USA).

One has to ask the question: who was Alexander Blade?

A representative or liaison to inner-earth – Agharti? According to this article, the instructions and techniques used for building these “ancient traditional vehicles” are within the possession of a chosen few, and based on my research, this is indeed the case.

I must admit, the ‘Alexander Blade’ article speaks volumes! And it seems the Germans wanted to be part of the “chosen few” club as well. From what I’ve uncovered they received vital information that eventually gave them a ‘shot in the arm’ necessary to jump-start their esoteric technology campaign – the ‘flying-disc’ program.

I argue Germany’s pre-war secret societies, such as Vril and Thule, were actually communicating with inner-earth emissaries for the purposes of acquiring this ancient technology.

According to Gregg Braden’s research, we are only utilizing 22 of the 64 codons in our DNA, thus suggesting that our DNA was genetically manipulated, most likely by the Anunnaki.  If this premise is true, then imagine being able to fully access all 64 codons in your DNA?

Conversely, is this the reason why the Anunnaki created us to become slaves in order to mine gold for them?  It certainly explains why there is such a high demand for gold and who the “All seeing Eye” is at the top of the pyramid.

To me, any benevolent message from the Anunnaki would most likely have a hidden agenda to keep us subservient to them.  The last thing they want is to see our DNA codons fully open.

According to the research of Robert Morning Sky, our DNA is actually superior to the Anunnaki because we also have the DNA of the AKU, which gave us consciousness.  This is known as the “Gift of the Feather” and is why we feel something magical when we see a random feather in our every day lives.

From the Sumerian texts, we also know that the Anunnaki co-mingled with us, thus giving us their DNA as well.

As our masters, the last thing they want you to know is that YOU are more powerful than they are once you figure out how to activate the remaining codons in your DNA.

I’ve been experimenting with this and will be publishing an article on In5D about what I’m doing to activate mine.

In the meanwhile, always question everything, especially from alleged benevolent sources because most likely, there’s an agenda behind it.

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Spirals, Symbols and Snakes

Interesting article about symbols for example ankh, swastika, hammer of Thor and spirals:

It is seen in the sky, on the ground, hidden in language and glaring at us from the pages of our most profound books – the snake. In this Article I want to extend that now a little and for us to journey around the world of symbols. By understanding what many of these symbols mean and just how universal they are we will be guided into this lost world of our past. We will begin with a symbol of life itself from the world’s greatest ancient civilization.

Ankh

The Ankh is the Crux Ansata. A simple T-Cross, surmounted by an oval – called the RU, which is, simply put, the gateway to enlightenment.

This enigmatic symbol of Egypt represents ‘eternal life’ and was often found in the names of Pharaoh’s such as Tut-ankh-amun. The symbol is often depicted being held by a god to a Pharaoh, giving him life, or held by a Pharaoh to his people, giving them life – this basically set aside the immortals, from the mortals, for anyone wearing or carrying the Ankh had gained or hoped to gain immortality. In truth also, the pharaoh was God on earth and so he held his own symbol of the sun and the serpent to his people – he was the sun, giving us life, just as it does in nature.

It is the loop (the RU or gateway) of the Ankh, which is held by the immortals to the nostrils (as in the Biblical god breathing life into the nostrils of Adam.) If indeed these ‘immortals’ are the sun, moon and stars, then this Ru device is indeed a gateway to the stars – or basically a gateway to what we were believed to return or become following death. The Ankh though outlived Egyptian domination and was widely used by the Christians as their first cross, but in this symbol holds a clue to the secret of the serpent.

Thoth (see Taautus below) was said to have symbolized the four elements with a simple cross, which originated from the oldest Phoenician alphabet as the curling serpent. Indeed Philo adds that the Phoenician alphabet “are those formed by means of serpents… and adored them as the supreme gods, the rulers of the universe.” Thus bringing to mind the god Thoth, who again is related to the worship of serpents and who created the alphabet. The “rulers of the universe” are indeed the planets and stars.

Bunsen in the 19th century thought, “the forms and movements of serpents were employed in the invention of the oldest letters, which represent gods.” This symbol of the four elements was altered slightly and became the Egyptian Taut, the same as the Greek Tau, which is where we get the name Tau Cross from – a simple T.

The T or Tau cross has been a symbol of eternal life in many cultures and gives its name to the Bull in the Astrological sign of Taurus – note here the two elements of the Tau and the RU being brought together. In fact the Druids (or “adders” after the snake) venerated the tree and the snake by scrawling the Tau cross into tree bark.

In the Middle Ages the Tau cross was used in amulets to protect the wearer against disease.

Amongst the modern Freemasons the Tau has many meanings. Some say that it stands for Templus Hierosolyma or the ‘Temple of Jerusalem,’ others that it signifies hidden treasure or means Clavis ad Thesaurum, ‘A key to treasure‘ or Theca ubi res pretiosa, ‘A place where the precious thing is concealed.’

It is especially important in Royal Arch Masonry where it becomes the ‘Companions Jewel’ with a serpent as a circle above the cross bar – forming the Ankh with the Hebrew word for ‘serpent’ engraved on the upright and also including the Triple Tau – a symbol for hidden treasure and significantly made up of 8 right angles.

It was also the symbol for St. Anthony – later to become the symbol for the Knights Templar of St. Anthony of Leith in Scotland. St. Anthony lived in the 4th century AD and is credited with establishing Monasticism in Egypt, and generally the story goes that he sold all his possessions after hearing from the Lord and marched off into the wilderness to become a hermit.

On his travels he learned much from various sages in Egypt and grew for himself a large following. He was sorely tempted by the devil in the form of ‘creeping things’ and serpents (chaos). In one episode he follows a trail of gold to a temple, which is infested with serpents and takes up residence, needing little food for sustenance other than bread and water. He is said to have lived 105 years and due to this longevity he is credited with protective powers.

The Order of the Hospitalers of St. Anthony, who would later take much of the Templar wealth, brought many of Anthony’s relics to France in the 11th century, although they were said to have been secretly deposited somewhere in Egypt just after his death and then later to have found their way to Alexandria.

The Taut or Tau symbolizes the creating four elements of the universe. Next the symbol of the sun / serpent was added, a simple circle or the oval RU. This loop above the T cross-created the Ankh, the symbol of eternity. The snake in a circle eating its own tale is symbolical of the sun and immortality.

The symbol of the moon was added to this, turning it into the sign for Hermes/Mercury and showing the Caduceus/Serpent origin. No wonder that this, the most perfect and simple of symbolical devices became the symbol of the early Christians; no wonder that, even though there were no cross-beam crucifixions, Christ was never the less symbolically crucified on a symbol of eternal life, a symbol of the serpent.

This symbol became the mark or sign, which would set the believer aside for saving. In Ezekiel this is the mark that god will know, the mark on the forehead. As Deane points out the Ezekiel passage (9:4) should read, “set a Tau upon their foreheads.” or “mark with the letter Tau the foreheads.” The early Christians baptized with the term “crucis thaumate notare.” They baptized with the symbol of the sun-snake (sun-ake). And St. Paul himself in Galatians 6: 17 states “let no-one cause me trouble, for I bear on my body the marks of Jesus.”

Is this the original mark of Cain, who we have found to be of the serpent tribe?

The idea of this sign or mark is widespread once discovered. In Job 31:35 we read in our modern Bibles “I sign now my defense – let the Almighty answer me” which should properly read, “Behold, here is my Tau, let the Almighty answer me.” He then goes on and says “Surely I would take it upon my shoulder, and bind it as a crown to me.”

This remarkable idea of wearing the Tau cross on the shoulder as a sign would later become part and parcel of the crusader Templars markings, the very same Templars who are instigated in the worship of serpents. Also the Merovingians (said by some to be descended from Jesus and a sea serpent or fish god – the Quinotaur or Quino-Tau-rus) were supposedly born with a red cross between their shoulder blades. The Tau cross is also strangely used by those practicing sacred geometry as a “marker” for buried treasure, whether physical or spiritual.

In shape, the Ankh is very similar to the Egyptian musical instrument, which is shaped like the oval RU – the Sistrum.


Sistrum

An Egyptian musical instrument closely associated with female gods – especially Hathor the serpent/cow goddess and Isis – the consort of Osiris. In form, very much like the Ankh with a loop at the top – also representing the egg – and three serpents striking through the loop with small square pieces of metal, which rattle. It’s possible these three serpents represent the ida, pingala and sushumna nerve channels and which are said to converge and fuse together within the centre of the brain (the thalamus) – which in the individual was also thought to represent the ‘cosmic egg.’

During the ascent of these serpent energies up the spine to the centre of the head, the individual while going through this supposed enlightenment process, will hear sounds similar to the sounds the Sistrum makes – i.e., rattle sounds like tambourine bells and sounds like a bell-tree being stroked. One will also hear sounds like a ‘rattle snake’ and also whistles and flute-like instruments. Underlying these sounds is a very low and strong rumbling sound which fades-in at first and gets louder and louder as the process proceeds culminating in the bright, white light explosion in the centre of the head. The Sistrum then may have been a symbol of this experience.

The Sistrum was used in pictures and carvings to show the various gods and Pharaohs subduing the power of a particular god – and mostly because the god holding the Sistrum had the ‘power’ and ‘energy’ to do so through having had the enlightenment experience – also representing the externalized solar power.


Birds

The association between birds or wings and the serpent seems to go back in time many thousands of years and across the world. To quote John Bathurst Deane:

“The hierogram of the circle, wings, and serpent, is one of the most curios emblems of Ophiolatreia, and is recognized, with some modifications, in almost every country where serpent worship prevailed . . . It may be alleged that all these cannot be resolved into the single-winged serpent once coiled. Under their present form, certainly not; but it is possible that these may be corruption’s of the original emblem which was only preserved accurately in the neighborhood of the country where the cause of serpent-worship existed; namely, in Persia, which bordered upon Babylonia and Media, the rival loci of the Garden of Eden.”

Deane relates these many thousands of images of the ‘winged serpent’ to the Seraphim of the Bible, the ‘fiery’ and ‘flying serpents.’

These could also be the origins for the flying dragons and why Quetzalcoatl was the ‘feathered’ or ‘plumed serpent’ amongst others. The reason given by Deane for this symbolism is for proof of deity and consecration of a given Temple. If this is the case, then it was certainly believed that the ancient serpent had consecrated Temples across the world. And if the serpent was a true symbol of the sun (external) and the inner light (internal) then it was a perfect fusing of our ancestors belief in one location at one time (temple).

The real reason for the wings is that the serpent enlightenment aspect gave the adherent wings, symbolically making him/her higher in aspect and part of the “heavenly” chorus.


Dove

The dove is an important element in symbolism and for some reason was seen in the New Testament as a symbol of the Holy Spirit or feminine aspect of God. It came down upon Jesus as he was baptized, giving him that famous “born again” element.

It descended upon the disciples. But why was the Dove chosen?

The Mesoamerican god Quetzalcoatl is the ‘Feathered Serpent,’ so are there any links between the dove as a feathered bird and the serpent?

Eurynome was probably the most important Goddess of the Pelasgian myths. These Pelasgians were a people who arrived in Greece from Palestine over 5,500 years ago, although it also became a term for “real” Greeks later on.

Eurynome was the creator, the Mother Goddess – the ruler of all things. She was born from chaos; she separated the water from the sky and then danced across the water in-order to create.

Whilst dancing she created wind or breath and taking hold of it between her hands she rubbed and rubbed until she had created a snake. The snake was called Ophion and he was filled with desire for the ‘dancing goddess.’ Wrapping himself around her seven times he impregnated the goddess, who had now taken the form of a Dove, and created an egg.

From the egg came forth all animals and plants and so Eurynome ascended to Mount Olympus and watched as her children developed. The snake Ophion bragged about his creation and so Eurynome kicked out his teeth, from where came all the people, including the first man Pelasgus, (like Adam) and from where the tribe derived its name. Ophion was then kicked out of heaven. The creation of the world and all that is in it was therefore again due to the snake and a goddess. But how does this goddess relate to the bird?

By the Sumerians, one of the most ancient of civilizations, she was simply known as Iahu, the “exalted Dove.” This Eurynome cult had spread across the Mediterranean and became a base for many other myths and religions, including the Hebrew god Yahweh taking on elements of the name Lahu. She was an original Mother Goddess, the feminine aspect and was seen as a dove – and united with the serpent seed, she gave birth to creation.

The Dove of Christianity is the feminine aspect and brings new life; she was known as the breath – the same breath that emerges in the beginning and from the Egyptian Ankh (see Ankh) into the nostrils, bringing new life and immortality. The feminine aspect of Quetzalcoatl is the feathered bird aspect and the male-part the snake.


Celtic Knotwork and Other Symbols

Due to the prevalence of the serpent in the Celtic world and surrounding cultures, it is my understanding that Celtic Knotwork is derived from the images of the snake and the movements of the planets.

We can see influences of this in the spirals and other serpent shapes seen upon many of the world’s ancient monuments. In Scandinavian literature and stone art we can also see how the serpent appears, looking remarkably like Celtic Knotwork. In Roman and Greek wall paintings there are running spirals thought to be symbolic of the protective snake.

A Neolithic vessel, now in the museum of Henan in China, shows a distinct correlation between the idea of the snake and the Knotwork. The idea of the Knotwork coming from the snake was probably discontinued due to Christian influence.

Other symbols that are related to the snake include the Ivy leaf, a symbol of Bacchus/Dionysius and a symbol of immortality. The reasoning behind this symbol is simply that the leaf is similar to the snake’s head and it entwines around pillars and trees as the snake is shown to do in images across the world.

Related to this Ivy leaf image is the shape of the heart and we can see in two Japanese clay statuettes from the Jomon period that they have these snake-heart heads.

Many images of the Buddha also incorporate this Ivy/Heart shape head – a softening and hiding of the earlier images of Naga deities who had snakes heads. These Ivy and Heart shapes were thought to protect the person wearing them or the building adorned with them, and they are therefore no different to the concept of the protecting or guarding snake from folklore and legend. They are just basically symbolic of the original snake – and remaining so until Christianity demonized them. Of course the Ivy, along with that other serpentine symbol, the grapevine, are to be seen across the world’s Christian buildings, as Jesus claimed that we should be grafted onto the vine. Did Jesus really mean that we should be part of the serpent cult? Part of the family, which he was himself a creation of?

Of course the fruit of the vine is wine, and if the vine is an ancient symbol of the snake, then what is the fruit of the snake? Jesus said that we were to drink the wine as a symbol of his blood and therefore it was the blood of the snake.

Drink of the fruit of the vine and you shall have eternal life, a fruit created by God for our pleasure.


Spirals and other Rock Art

Marija Gimbutas in The Goddesses and Gods of Old Europe says:

“Compositions on the shoulders of cult vases reveal pairs of snakes with opposed heads, making the world roll with the energy of their spiralling bodies.”

Spirals and carvings of this snake energy are seen all over the world, much like the cult of the serpent. And, it is always found to be in association with the serpent worship. According to J.C. Cooper in An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Traditional Symbols, the spiral “typifies the androgyne and is connected with the caduceus symbolism” which is of course the symbol of serpent healing.

In Australia Robert Layton in Australian Rock Art: a new synthesis, points out the serpent origins of these images; images, which are always seen with other serpentine shapes. Figure three in Layton’s book shows these images clearly as “a snake entering a hole,” “a snake leaving a hole.” Remembering that the Ouroborus, the circular image of the snake eating its own tail, is an image of immortality, we should also remember the antiquity of the device. Along side spirals are circles like the Ouroborus, called often cup and ring marks.

There are also zigzags, thought by many to be the fiery aspect of the serpent, and waves, showing the fluidity of the serpent – something also related to the symbolism of Water. It is no surprise that such images of the snake, in all its relative forms should be seen on the most ancient of rock art. In the cup and ring marks there are many images of what appears to be a serpent entering the cup and rings.

Some have put this down to a serpent entering a hole, others that it is eating an egg; nobody is sure. What it does show is a serpent head towards a cup! If, of course, the snake is also the symbol of the macro sun, then these spirals and serpentine patterns may also reveal the pathways of the sun at various times of the year and the greater years – such as those of the precession of the earth.

The spirals have been associated with astronomical alignments. This can especially be seen in the work of N.L. Thomas in Irish Symbols of 3500 BC where the spiral running right to left is seen as the winter sun; the spiral running left to right is the summer sun and the double spiral as the spring and autumn equinox. There is little doubt from the work carried out by Thomas that this is true, but the fact also remains that the ancients were using symbols of the serpent in their astronomical alignments. This is matched by the fact that the serpent was seen in the sky, in various constellations and by the serpent encompassing the heavens. The two elements cannot be split apart – this was a unified theory of life and it was created by, given life by and kept fertile by the snake and the sun.

In Eurasia and Japan there are definite images of snakes as spirals. In earthenware from the middle Jomon period (approx 2000 BC) of Japan these can be seen quite clearly, and are said to be there to protect the contents of the jar from harm; something important was obviously in them. Clay figures from the same period also show wound snakes on the heads. These spirals became part of family crests and transformed over time into the Yin and Yang symbol of duality so popular today.

These family symbols are called Kamon and one class of them particularly is called Janome, which basically means eye of the snake. Characters for snakes in Chinese became part of the alphabet over 3000 years ago. Another interesting point about the snake in China is that the Rainbow is said to be the snake elevated into the sky much like the Australian Rainbow Serpent. Indeed, the Chinese character for Rainbow reflects this position as it has the symbol of the snake within it.

In Peru there is pottery with spirals ending in snakes heads. In Taiwan there is a sculptured door with spirals ending in snakes heads. In many Celtic stone monuments there are similar images – all leading to the now beautiful and ornate Celtic Knot-work


Swastika

The ancient symbol of the swastika is simply a stylized spiral as can be shown from the many depictions across the world of swastikas made up of spirals and snakes. It also shows up in the spiral fashions of the labyrinths and mazes. The word labyrinth comes directly from the ancient Minoan Snake Goddess culture of Crete, where the swastika was used as a symbol of the labyrinth and is linked etymologically with the “double headed axe” – the Tau Cross. Similar labyrinthine shaped swastikas have been found in the ancient city of Harappa from the 2000 BC.

As the labyrinth is viewed as a womb of the Mother Goddess, and a symbol of the snake, there is little wonder that these two symbols became fused. However, labyrinths were also seen as places of ancient serpent initiation and if viewed in the same manner as Serpent Mounds then it is further evidence for their real use. (See Serpent Mounds) In ancient Egypt the labyrinth was synonymous with what was called the Amentithe snake like path taken by the dead to journey from death to resurrection.

It was Isis, the serpent queen of heaven who was to guide the souls through the twists of the Amenti. The path towards the centre, leads towards treasure. The snake adorning Athena in ancient Greece is shown with a swastika skirt. The same is true of Astarte and Artemis. There is Samarran pottery dating from 5000-4000 BC from Mesopotamia showing a female swastika, where the hair swirls with Medusa type serpents. The swastika is also shown as two serpents crossing each other.

In Norse myth, the hammer of Thor (note that Labyrinth means double headed axe just like the Hammer of Thor!), Mjollnir, is closely connected with the swastika and is found to be a prominent motif in Scandinavian art from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age. It is found on swords and Anglo-Saxon cremation urns and on numerous Viking items. It was seen as a protector against thieves, reminiscent of the fact that serpents were known to guard treasure.

As Thor’s hammer was also seen as a Tau cross (See Taautus) it is certainly related to the secrets of the serpent. It was used by Thor to lop off the head of the sacred ox, which he used as bait to catch the Midgard Serpent, which circled the globe in the symbol of the Ouroboros, eating its own tail. This was Thor offering a head as sacrifice to the serpent to try and gain immortality in the mead – the drink of the gods. Thor’s aim was to gain a cauldron big enough to take the mead for the immortals and he needed to prove his worth by fishing for the serpent.

He had power of the serpent as the slayer, with the swastika or Tau cross. There is evidence to prove that the myths of these Scandinavians and the Hindus are related, as the story of Thor and the Midgard Serpent closely resemble the battle between Indra and Vritra, showing a common origin. Vritra is the great serpent, which lies at the source of two rivers (the positive and negative or male and female), as the Midgard Serpent lies beneath the sea (of the mind and the other side of the planet where the sun goes each night).

Indra slits open the belly of the serpent to release the waters and therefore fertility back to the land. Both gods, Indra and Thor, are related to the weather, both are warrior gods with a thunderbolt as a weapon and both slay the dragon. The swastika of the serpent is a common motif in both cultures. Eventually the Christians steal both pagan myths and place St. Michael and St. George in their place – both having the red serpent cross to replace the swastika.

The swastika is also the symbol of the movement of the earth fixed on one spot.


Taautus (Taut)

Said by Eusebius to be the originator of serpent worship in Phoenicia. Sanchoniathon called him a god and says that he made the first image of Coelus and invented hieroglyphs. This links him with Hermes Trismegistus, also known as Thoth in Egypt. Taautus consecrated the species of dragons and serpents; and the Phoenicians and Egyptians followed him in this superstition.

This Taautus could very well be a memory of the first group who originated the worship of the serpent after the flood or end of last ice age 12000 years ago. The idea of Taautus links precisely with the stories of Thoth, who later became a great sage of Gnostic and Alchemical beliefs. Thoth was deified after his death (a time that nobody knows) and given the title “the god of health” or “healing”. He was the proto-type for Aesculapius and identified with Hermes and Mercury. All healers, all wise, all teachers, all saviors and all associated with the serpent for their powers and all individuals who could map the stars and movements of time. However, it was as the healing god that Thoth was symbolized as the serpent – whereas he is normally represented with the head of an Ibis and Baboon.

The Letter or Symbol ‘Tau’ is the first letter of Taautus, Tammuz and Thoth and is thought to be the ‘Mark of Cain’.

So there we have many symbols and many references to the sun and the snake. There are often confusing elements at play here, which often seem to mislead us and appear ‘hidden’ because we have simply forgotten the real truth. In essence we can reduce all of this down into three simple and distinct parts to help us on our journey.

We must remember before we do so that the very word, snake, is derived from both the animal and the sun – sun-ake. Now we can see clearly that the serpent was often but not solely used as a symbol of the movements of the great god in the sky – the sun. Secondly the snake was a symbol of the internal ‘sun’ – what people know of today as enlightenment within and thirdly the real and literal snake did indeed offer up its body for our use. We created an Elixir of Life from its venom and blood, healed our skin with its skin and brewed wonderful concoctions from other parts.

All in all, the serpent or snake has been a very powerful literal and physical element, let alone a useful symbolic part of our history. We can now use our new knowledge to move forward and through some of the mysteries of mankind.

Source

Brotherhood of The Snake

Have you ever wondered the snake symbolism in everywhere? IN buildings, books, medicine, through all history there are references to snakes and reptilians. Here’s a nice article about the Brotherhood of The Snake, which leads us in to far back in ancient Egypt:

 

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Image Source

Brotherhood of the Snake

OF ALL THE animals revered in ancient human societies, none were as prominent or as important as the snake. The snake was the logo of a group which had become very influential in early human societies of both Hemispheres. That group was a disciplined Brotherhood dedicated to the dissemination of spiritual knowledge and the attainment of spiritual freedom. This Brotherhood of the Snake (also known as the “Brotherhood of the Serpent,” but which I will often refer to as simply the “Brotherhood”) opposed the enslavement of spiritual beings and, according to Egyptian writings, it sought to liberate the human race from Custodial bondage.*


* Because Brotherhood teachings included physical healing through spiritual means, the snake also came to symbolize physical healing. Today the snake is featured on the logo of the American Medical Association.

The Brotherhood also imparted scientific knowledge and encouraged the high aesthetics that existed in many ancient societies. For these and other reasons, the snake had become a venerated symbol to humans and, according to Egyptian and biblical texts, an object of Custodial hatred. When we look to discover who founded the Brotherhood, Mesopotamian texts point right back to that rebellious “God,” Prince Ea. Ancient Mesopotamian tablets relate that Ea and his father, Anu, possessed profound ethical and spiritual knowledge. This was the same knowledge that was later symbolized as trees in the Biblical Adam and Eve story.

In fact, the Biblical tree symbol came from pre-Biblical Mesopotamian works, such as one showing a snake wrapped around the trunk of a tree, identical to later portrayals of the snake in Eden. From the tree in the Mesopotamian depiction hang two pieces of fruit. To the right of the tree is the half-moon symbol of Ea; to the left is the planet symbol of Anu. The drawing indicates that Ea and Anu were associated with the snake and its teachings. This connection is affirmed by other Mesopotamian texts which describe Anu’s palace in the “heavens” as being guarded by a God of the Tree of Truth and a God of the Tree of Life.

In one instance, Ea reportedly sent a human to be educated in that very knowledge:

Adapa [the name of an early man], thou art going
before Anu, the King;
The road to Heaven thou wilt take.
When to Heaven thou has ascended, and hast

approached the gate of Anu, the “Bearer of Life” and
the “Grower of Truth” at the gate of Anu will be
standing.1

We therefore find Ea designated as the reputed culprit who tried to teach early man (Adam) the way to spiritual freedom. This suggests that Ea intended his creation, Homo sapiens, to be suited for Earth labor, but at some point he changed his mind about using spiritual enslavement as a means. If Ea was a true historical personality as the Sumerians claimed, then he was the probable leader of the Brotherhood at its founding on Earth. The Brotherhood may have adopted the snake as its logo because Ea’s first home on Earth was said to have been constructed by a serpent-infested swampland which Ea called Snake Marsh. Another possible explanation for the snake logo is offered by Mr. Sitchin who says that the biblical word for “snake” is nahash, which comes from the root word NHSH, meaning “to decipher, to find out.”

Despite all of their reported good intentions, the legendary Ea and early Brotherhood clearly failed to free the human race. Ancient Mesopotamian, Egyptian, and biblical texts relate that the “snake” was quickly defeated by other Custodial factions. The Bible informs us that the serpent in the Garden of Eden was overcome before it was able to complete its mission and give Adam and Eve the “fruit” from the second ”tree.” Ea (who was also symbolized as a snake) was banished to Earth and was extensively villainized by his opponents to ensure that he could never again secure a widespread following among human beings.

Ea’s title was changed from “Prince of Earth” to “Prince of Darkness.” He was labeled other horrible epithets: Satan, the Devil, Evil Incarnate, Monarch of Hell, Lord of Vermin, Prince of Liars, and more. He was portrayed as the mortal enemy of a Supreme Being and as the keeper of Hell. People were taught that his only intentions were to spiritually enslave everyone and that everything bad on Earth was caused by him. Humans were encouraged to detect him in all of his future lives (“incarnations”) and to destroy him and his creations whenever he was discovered.

All beliefs and practices named after his various appellations (“Satanism,” “Devil Worship,” etc.) were to be made so horrific and degrading that no right-thinking person would (or should) have anything to do with them. He and his followers were to be viewed by human beings with nothing but the utmost loathing.

This is not to say that Ea was actually portrayed by ancient Sumerians as a saint. He was not. He was described in Mesopotamian texts with distinct character flaws. If Ea was a real person, then he appears to have been a genius who could get things done, but who was often careless about anticipating the consequences of how he went about accomplishing his goals. By engineering a work race (Homo sapiens), Ea wound up giving his enemies a powerful tool of spiritual repression. Ea then appears to have compounded the blunder by founding and/or empowering the early Snake Brotherhood which, after its reported defeat, continued to remain a powerful force in human affairs, but under the domination of the very Custodial factions that Ea and the original Brotherhood were said to have opposed.

History indicates that the Brotherhood was turned under its new Custodial “Gods” into a chilling weapon of spiritual repression and betrayal, despite the efforts of many sincere humanitarians to bring about true spiritual reform through Brotherhood channels all the way up until today. By reportedly creating a work race and the Brotherhood of the Snake, the “God” Ea had helped build a trap for billions of spiritual beings on Earth.

As we shall now begin to carefully document, the Brotherhood of the Snake has been the world’s most effective tool for preserving mankind’s status as a spiritually ignorant creature of toil throughout all of history. During all of that time, and continuing today, the Brotherhood and its network of organizations have remained intimately tied to the UFO phenomenon. This corruption of the Brotherhood, and the overwhelming effect it would have on human society, was already apparent by the year 2000 B.C. in ancient Egypt— the next stop on our journey.


The Pyramid Builders


PERHAPS THE MOST impressive and controversial relics to come out of ancient times are the pyramids of Egypt. The remains of at least seventy to eighty of those structures are scattered all along the upper Nile region as silent reminders of a once powerful civilization.

The largest and most famous Egyptian pyramid is the Pyramid of Cheops (the “Great Pyramid”). It stands today beside several others on an elevated plateau in Gizeh, Egypt. The dimensions of this pyramid are impressive. It towers nearly five hundred feet high and covers thirteen acres of land at its base. Built of stones weighing an average of 2½ tons each, the entire structure is estimated to weigh 5,273,834 tons.

A remarkable characteristic which makes the Great Pyramid one of the “Seven Wonders of the Ancient World” is the precision of its construction. The stones of the pyramid were cut so perfectly that a sheet of paper cannot be inserted between the blocks in many places. This precision, coupled with the enormous bulk of the structure, helps account for the pyramid’s long life and durability. The pyramid was built to last.

Perhaps the greatest mystery surrounding the Great Pyramid was its purpose. Most pyramids are thought to have been burial tombs. History tells us that the Great Pyramid was employed for other purposes, as well. For example, some of its inner chambers had been used for mystical and religious rites. Yet a third and infinitely more practical use can also be found: The Great Pyramid is an excellent marker for aerial navigation.

The four sides of the Great Pyramid precisely face the four compass points: north, south, east and west. The sides are directed so exactly that the widest deviation is only one twelfth of a degree on the east side. In addition, the Great Pyramid is situated less than five miles south of the northern thirtieth parallel. The Great Pyramid can therefore be used as a reference point for sectioning the entire planet into a three-dimensional grid of 30-, 60-, and 90degree angles with the North Pole, South Pole, Equator and center of the earth as reference points. This feature is especially useful because the Great Pyramid is located at the center of the Earth’s land masses. Knowing only the dimensions of the Earth and having a method of calculating how far one has traveled, one can very effectively navigate, especially by air, from the Great Pyramid to any point on Earth using the 30-60-90 degree grids and the compass directions indicated by the pyramid.

The only deviation comes from the fact that the Earth is not a perfect sphere, but is slightly flattened at the poles and widened at the Equator. However, this deviation is so slight, amounting to only 26.7 miles (.0003367 or the fraction1/298), that it is easily compensated for. Interestingly, when the Great Pyramid was first built, it was even more valuable as an aerial navigation marker than it is today because it had been covered with a casing of fine white limestone.

The limestone blocks were carved so precisely that the pyramid looked from a distance as though it had been hewn from a single white rock. The limestone reflected the sun, making the pyramid visible from a much greater distance.*

The unique characteristics of the pyramids at Gizeh raise interesting questions about those monuments. Since they serve an aerial navigation function so well, were they built at least partially for that purpose? If they were, who could have possibly had use for them in 2000 B.C.? A possible clue to the riddle may lie on the moon.

On November 22, 1966, the Washington Post ran a front-page headline proclaiming: 

“Six Mysterious Statuesque Shadows Photographed on the Moon by Orbiter.” 

The Post story, which was picked up later by the Los Angeles Times, described a lunar photograph snapped two days earlier by U.S. space probe Orbiter 2 as it passed twenty to thirty miles above the moon’s surface.

The photograph seems to reveal six spires arranged in a purposeful geometrical pattern inside a small portion of the Sea of Tranquility. The pointedness of the lunar objects’ shadows indicates that they are all either cone – or pyramid-shaped. Although the official NASA press release mentioned nothing unusual about the photograph, other people found the picture remarkable.

Dr. William Blair of the Boeing Institute of Biotechnology stated:

“If the cuspids [cone-shaped spires] really were the result of some geophysical event it would be natural to expect to see them distributed at random. As a result, the triangulation would be scalene [three unequal sides] or irregular, whereas those concerning the lunar object lead to a basilary system, with coordinate x, y, z to the right angle, six isosceles triangles and two axes consisting of three points each.”

“Most of the limestone is gone today. Except for a few blocks found at the base of the Great Pyramid, the limestone casing had been excavated away from the pyramids beginning in the first millennium A.D.”

In Argosy magazine, Soviet space engineer Alexander Abromov went a step further by stating:

The distributiori of these lunar objects is similar to the plan of the Egyptian pyramids constructed by Pharaohs Cheops, Chephren, and Menkaura at Gizeh, near Cairo. The centers of the spires of this lunar “abaka” [arrangement of pyramids] are arranged in precisely the same way as the apices [tips] of the three great pyramids.2

Assuming Drs. Blair and Abromov have not grievously miscalculated, it appears that some of the pyramids of Earth may be part of a permanent marking system that extends to more than one planet of our solar system. The system may even extend to Mars. Pyramid like objects have been photographed on the Martian surface. Pictures snapped by the U.S. Viking mission in 1976 show the Martian region of Cydonia to contain possible pyramid like objects and what appears to be a huge sculpted face nearby staring skyward.

It is easy to argue that the Martian pyramids and face are natural formations not unlike some found on Earth; however, one, and possibly two, other “faces” have been discovered elsewhere on Mars with strikingly similar features, such as the “helmet,” cheek notches, and indentation above the right eye.*

*For an interesting scientific evaluation of the Martian objects, I recommend Unusual Martian Surface Features by Vincent DiPietro, Greg Molenaar, and John Brandenburg. It is published by Mars Research. Please see bibliography for address.

Perhaps equally interesting is the fact that one pyramid in Cydonia has a side pointing due north towards the Martian spin axis. Is this alignment chance, or is there a connection to the Great Pyramid at Gizeh which is also aligned according to precise compass directions?

It is, of course, possible that the objects on the moon and Mars will prove to be rock formations after all. Available photographs seem inadequate to establish the formations as artificial. If they are artificial, it is clear from the photo graphs that they have undergone a fair degree of erosion.

Only a closer look during future missions to the moon and Mars will resolve the controversy. The objects are certainly worth closer investigation because the moon has hosted UFO phenomena for centuries, including inside the Sea of Tranquility.3

Even if the Martian or lunar objects prove to be natural formations, that would not change the clearly artificial nature of Earth’s pyramids. This compels us to return our focus to the pyramids of Egypt. For whom did the ancient Egyptians say they were building their magnificent structures?

Like the ancient Mesopotamians, the early ancient Egyptians claimed to be living under the rule of humanlike extraterrestrial “Gods.” The Egyptians wrote that their “Gods” traveled into the heavens in flying “boats.” (These “boats” were later mythologized to explain the movement of the sun.) The “Gods” of Egypt’s early period were said to be literal flesh-and-blood creatures with the same needs for food and shelter as human beings. Actual homes had been built for them. Those homes were furnished with human servants who later became Egypt’s first priests. According to renowned historian James Henry Breasted, the earliest servants of the “Gods” were laymen who performed their duties without ceremony or ritual. Their jobs consisted simply of providing the “Gods” with,

“. . . those things which formed the necessities and luxuries of an Egyptian of wealth and rank at that time: plentiful food and drink, fine clothing, music and dance.” *

Many people identify ancient Egyptian religion with the worship of animals. This type of veneration was unknown during the early period of the Egyptian civilization.

According to Professor Breasted:

An interesting compilation of unusual lunar phenomena is found in NASA Technical Report R-277 entitled “Chronological Catalog of Reported Lunar Events” by Barbara M. Middlehurst. It briefly lists 579 unusual lunar sightings considered to be reliable beginning in the year 1540 and ending in 1967.


… the hawk, for example, was the sacred animal of the sun-God, and as such a living hawk might have a place in the temple, where he was fed and kindly treated, as any such pet might be; but he was not worshipped, nor was he the object of an elaborate ritual as later.4

The records of ancient Egypt have given us many clues as to who might have had use for a permanent marking system to navigate various planets of our solar system: the Custodial society. The first pyramid of Egypt was designed by Imhotep, Prime Minister to Egyptian king Zoser-Neterkhet. Imhotep was said to be the son of Egypt’s most important Custodial “God” during his day: Ptah. Egyptian lore written after Imhotep’s time adds that Imhotep had received the pyramid design in a plan “which descended to him from heaven to the north of Memphis [a city in ancient Egypt].” 5

The Great Pyramid at Gizeh, which was built several generations later during the “Age of the Pyramids,” was constructed according to the methods established by Imhotep. It was during the Age of the Pyramids, which began around 2760 B.C., that worship of the humanlike “Gods” reached its height; more than 2000 Gods then existed. It was for their “Gods” that the Egyptians had ultimately built their most important pyramids. The many pyramids built after those at Gizeh are generally inferior and are viewed as imitations.

Some theorists believe that the “ancient astronauts” of Egypt had used their space age technology to lift stones and to otherwise assist in the construction of the Gizeh pyramids. This hypothesis is neither certain nor necessary to sustain the “ancient astronaut” theory. Egyptian records tend to support the idea that human labor had provided the primary muscle for the pyramids’ construction. This would have been in keeping with the Mesopotamian contention that Homo sapiens had been created to be a labor pool for the Custodial “Gods.”

It is hardly surprising that the pharaohs and priests who acted on behalf of the “Gods” were often immensely unpopular with the Egyptian people. The Old Kingdom (ca. 2685-2180 B.C.) was followed by a period of weakness and unrest. Even the Great Pyramid of Cheops had been broken into by unhappy Egyptians.

According to historian Ahmed Fakhry:

The Egyptians so hated the builders of the pyramids that they threatened to enter these great tombs and destroy the mummies of the kings.6

Such intense loathing is certainly not surprising. In order to get the great pyramids built, Egyptian society was made more repressive in order to make human labor operate with greater machinelike efficiency. Occupations became rigid so that it was difficult to move from one type of job to another. Laymen ceased to serve the “Gods”: an impenetrable priesthood was erected instead. Personal happiness and achievement were sacrificed in the name of labor productivity. Feudalism had arrived in Egypt.

As the pharaohs were busy helping to make slaves out of their fellow humans, the “Gods” were making fools out of the pharaohs. Imhotep, reputed son of the “God” Ptah, instituted the concept of the pharaoh as “God-King.” This elitist title was little appreciated by most Egyptians. As “God-Kings,” the pharaohs were made to think that they were elevated above the toiling human multitudes. The pharaohs were taught that if they cooperated with Custodial plans, they would escape the human predicament by joining the “Gods”in the heavens.

There was just one catch.

The pharaohs would be allowed to escape Earth only after they had died! Pharaohs were taught the silly idea that if they had their dead bodies carefully preserved, the bodies would be brought back to life and they could join the Custodial “Gods” in the heavens. Some pharaohs, like Cheops, also buried large wooden boats near their tombs. According to some scholars, the pharaohs believed that their entombed boats (“solar barks”) would be magically exhumed and endowed with the same power that caused the “boats” of the “Gods” to fly. The pharaohs believed that they would be whisked away after death in their magically-powered wooden boats to the home of the “Gods” in the heavens.

Although Egyptian preservation techniques were quite good, it is clear that the pharaohs’ minds were being filled with nonsense. The wooden “solar barks” never flew. Few, if any, mummified bodies of the great God-Kings reached the heavens. Instead, many mummies have become macabre museum curiosities for the titillation of the human multitudes that the pharaohs so fervently hoped to escape. Other mummies suffered an even more humiliating fate: they were ground up and used as an ingredient in medicines. Pulverized mummies also became paint additives because of the preservatives used in the mummification process.

The puzzle is why the pharaohs believed the cruel joke which had been perpetrated on them. Some historians suggest that mummification was an attempt to imitate the life-cycle of the butterfly. Others believe that the pharaohs wanted to maintain their wealth and position in their next lifetimes and therefore desired to be resurrected in the same bodies. One UFO writer has suggested that they were striving to duplicate body preservation techniques used by Egypt’s technologically-advanced “Gods.” Ancient Egyptian records, however, reveal an even more compelling reason why the pharaohs mummified themselves: spiritual knowledge had been twisted.

Ancient Egyptians believed in a “soul,” or “serf,” as an entity completely separate from the “person” (meaning “body”). Egyptians labeled one such spiritual entity the “ka.” The Egyptians believed that the “ka,” not the body, was one of the spiritual entities that constituted the true person and that the body itself had no personality or intelligence without a spiritual entity. This generally enlightened view was given a false twist, however. The Egyptians were made to believe that the spiritual well of the “ka” after death depended upon the “ka” maintaining contact with a physical body.

According to historian Fakhry:

The Egyptian wanted his Ka to be able to recognize its body after death and to be united with it; for this reason he felt that it was very important to have his body preserved. This is why the Egyptians mummified their bodies and excelled in embalmingthem.7

The pharaohs went even a step further. Mr. Fakhry explains:

The Egyptians also made statues and placed them in tombs and temples to act as substitutes for the body if it should perish.8

These practices had a devastating impact on spiritual understanding. They caused people to wrongly equate spiritual wholeness with spiritual attachment to human bodies (or to body substitutes). Such teachings encouraged humans to accept the Custodial intention to permanently join spiritual beings to Homo sapiens bodies. The powerful human drives for spiritual integrity and immortality were twisted into an obsessive quest to preserve bodies. Philosophies of materialism were thereby hastened.

Materialism, by one of its definitions, is the over preoccupation with things at the material level and neglecting important aspects of ethical and spiritual existence. This often leads to the second definition of materialism: the belief that everything, including thought and emotion, can be explained entirely by movements and changes in physical matter. Although the Egyptians had not embraced the latter definition as a philosophy of life, they had helped move the world a step in that direction.

The derailment of spiritual knowledge in Egypt was caused by the corruption of the Brotherhood of the Snake, to which the pharaohs and priests belonged. As mentioned earlier, after its reported defeat thousands of years ago by its Custodial enemies, the Brotherhood continued to remain dominant in human affairs, but at the cost of becoming a Custodial tool. To understand how the corrupted Brotherhood began to distort spiritual truth and perpetuate theological irrationality, we must first look at the early inner workings of the Brotherhood and its method of teaching.
The original uncorrupted Brotherhood engaged in a pragmatic program of spiritual education. The organization’s approach was scientific, not mystical or ceremonial. The subject of the spirit was considered to be as knowable as any other science. It seems that the Brotherhood possessed a considerable body of accurate spiritual data, but it had not succeeded in developing a complete route to spiritual freedom prior to its defeat.

Brotherhood teachings were arranged as a step-by-step process. A student was required to satisfactorily complete one level of instruction before proceeding to the next one. All pupils took oaths of secrecy in which they swore never to reveal the teachings of a level to any person who had not yet graduated up to that level. This style of instruction was designed to ensure that a student did not prematurely attempt difficult spiritual feats or become overwhelmed by advanced level-information before he was ready for it, in the same way that one does not take a student driver on treacherous mountain roads before the student successfully navigates easier, but increasingly difficult, highways first.
Imparting spiritual knowledge in this fashion will be effective as long as the levels are ultimately open to everyone. When arbitrary or blanket restrictions are placed on who may have access to the teachings, either through overregulation, elitism, or by setting near-impossible conditions for admittance, the system of confidential step-by-step levels changes from an educational tool into an instrument of spiritual repression. The Brotherhood underwent just such a change.

The teachings of the Brotherhood in ancient Egypt were organized into an institution known as the “Mystery Schools.” The Schools furnished the pharaohs and priests with most of their scientific, moral, and spiritual education. According to Dr. H. Spencer Lewis, founder of the Rosicrucian Order headquartered in San Jose, California,* the first temple built for use by the Mystery Schools was erected by Pharaoh Cheops.

* Rosicrucianism is one of the mystical systems which arose out of Brotherhood teachings. Dr. Lewis’s Rosicrucian Order is called The Ancient and Mystical Order Rosae Crucis (“AMORC” for brevity). AMORC was founded in the early 1900’s. It is best known today for the popular Egyptian Museum it owns and operates in San Jose, California.

There is another American Rosicrucian order headquartered in Quaker-town, Pennsylvania. It is called the Fraternity of the Rosy Cross, or The Rosicrucian Fraternity in America. The Rosicrucian Fraternity in Quakertown does not recognize AMORC as a valid Rosicrucian body. In the 1930’s and 1940’s, R. Swinburne Clymer, Supreme Grand Master of the Rosicrucian Fraternity in Quakertown, published a number of writings denouncing AMORC. Dr. Clymer and Dr. Lewis have each claimed that his organization is the true Rosicrucian system.

In this book, I have utilized the extensive historical research of both Dr. Clymer and Dr. Lewis. When I cite either of them by name as a source of historical information, I am not taking sides in their controversy.

Inside those temple walls, spiritual knowledge underwent the deterioration which caused pharaohs to mummify their bodies and bury wooden boats. According to old Egyptian lore, the distorted teachings of the Mystery Schools were created by the “great teacher,” Ra, an important Custodial “God.”

The Mystery Schools not only twisted spiritual knowledge, they greatly restricted public access to any theological truths still surviving. Only the pharaohs, priests, and a few others deemed worthy were accepted into the Schools. Initiates were required to take solemn vows never to reveal to any outsiders the “secret wisdom” they were taught; students were threatened with dire consequences if they broke the vow. These restrictions were reportedly established to prevent misuse of high-level knowledge by those who might degrade that knowledge or use it harmfully.

While this is a legitimate reason to develop safeguards, the restrictions imposed by the Mystery Schools went far beyond simple security. Entire social and occupational groups were denied membership. The vast majority of the human population had no hope of entering the Schools; their access to any surviving spiritual knowledge was therefore severely limited. The Biblical “revolving sword” preventing access to the “tree of knowledge” was being put into place by those who ran the Mystery Schools.

The Mystery Schools caused spiritual knowledge to evaporate in another way. The Schools forbade its members from physically recording the Schools’ most advanced teachings. Initiates were required to relay the information orally. There is no faster way to lose knowledge than to forbid its being written down. No matter how sincere and well-trained people may be, word-of-mouth will invariably result in changes to the ideas being relayed. With a word substituted here and a sentence omitted there, the semantic precision needed to communicate an exact scientific principle will be lost. This is one way that a functional science can quickly degrade into an untenable superstition.

As time went on, the Brotherhood became so restrictive that it excluded most of Egypt’s own priests from membership. This was especially true during the reign of King Thutmose III, who ruled about 1200 years after Cheops. Thutmose III is best known for his military adventures which expanded the Egyptian empire to its greatest size. According to Dr. Lewis, Thutmose III took the final step of transforming the Brotherhood into a completely closed order. He established rules and regulations reportedly still used by some Brotherhood organizations today.

Changes in the Brotherhood continued. Less than one hundred years after the reign of Thutmose III, his descendant, King Akhenaton (Amenhotep IV), spent the last year of his 28-year life transforming Brotherhood teachings into mystical symbols. Akhenaton’s symbols were intentionally designed to be incomprehensible to everyone except those Brotherhood members who were taught the symbols’ secret meanings. The Brotherhood ostensibly created this new system of visual images to be a universal “language” of spiritual enlightenment transcending human languages, and to prevent misuse of knowledge. In real fact, the intention was to create a secret code designed to make spiritual knowledge unattainable to everyone except those admitted into the increasingly elite Brotherhood, and apparently to eventually obliterate spiritual knowledge altogether. The translation of spiritual data into bizarre and incomprehensible symbols has brought about the spectacle of honest people trying to decode garbled symbols in a quest for spiritual truths which can, and should be, communicated in everyday language understandable by anyone.

Despite the obvious sincerity of Akhenaton, we discover that the transformation of spiritual knowledge into a system of obscure symbols has had a devastating impact on human society. As this manner of relaying spiritual knowledge was disseminated throughout the world by members of the Brotherhood, all knowledge of a spiritual nature became misidentified with bizarre symbols and mystery.

This misidentification is so strong today that almost all studies of the spirit and spiritual phenomena are lumped into such disgraced classifications as “occultism,” “spiritualism,” and witchcraft. The attempt thousands of years ago to keep spiritual knowledge out of the hands of the “profane” has almost entirely destroyed the credibility and utility of that knowledge. Brotherhood symbolism was another piece of the Biblical “revolving swordblocking human access to spiritual knowledge. It has left only the confusion, ignorance and superstition which have come to characterize so much of the field today.

Akhenaton presided over another important development in the Brotherhood. Although the young ruler had fared poorly as a political leader, he achieved everlasting fame for his efforts to champion the cause of monotheism, i.e., the worship of a “one only” God. Monotheism was a Brotherhood teaching and many historians cite Akhenaton as the first important historical figure to broadly promulgate the concept.

To aid in the establishment of the Brotherhood’s new monotheism, Akhenaton moved the capital of Egypt to the city of El Amarna. He also relocated the main temple of the Brotherhood there. When the Egyptian capital was moved back to its original situs, the Brotherhood remained in El Amarna. This signaled an important break between Egypt’s established priesthood, which resisted Akhenaton’s monotheism, and the highly exclusive Brotherhood which no longer admitted most priests to membership.

The ancient Egyptian empire eventually decayed and vanished. The Brotherhood of the Snake fared much better. It survived and expanded by sending out from Egypt missionaries and conquerors who established Brotherhood branches and offshoots throughout the civilized world. These Brotherhood emissaries widely disseminated the Brotherhood’s new “one God” religion and eventually made it the dominant theology throughout the world.

In addition to launching “one God” theology, the Snake Brotherhood created many of the symbols and regalia still used by some important monotheistic religions today. For example, the Brotherhood temple in El Amarna was constructed in the shape of a cross—a symbol later adopted by the Brotherhood’s most famous offshoot: Christianity. Some Brotherhood members in Egypt wore the same special outfits with a “cord at the loin” and a covering for the head as later used by Christian monks. The chief priest of the Egyptian temple wore the same type of broad-sleeved gown used today by clergymen and choir singers. The chief priest also shaved his head in a small round spot at the top—an act later adopted by Christian friars.

Many theologians hail monotheism as an important religious breakthrough. Worshipping a spiritual “one-only God” is indeed an improvement over the idolization of stone statues and clumsy animals. Unfortunately, Brotherhood monotheism still did not represent a return to complete accuracy; it simply added new distortions to whatever spiritual knowledge still remained.
Based upon what we are coming to know about the nature of the spiritual being, we find that two false twists appear to lay in the Brotherhood’s definition of a Supreme Being:

  • Firstly, Brotherhood monotheisms, which include Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, teach that a Supreme Being was the creator of the physical universe and of the physical life forms within the universe. In an upcoming chapter we will discuss the likelihood that spiritual beings were born of a Supreme Being of some sort, but physical creatures and objects probably were not. As some other religions have noted, if our universe is the product of spiritual activity, then it appears that all individual spiritual beings within the universe are responsible for its creation and/or perpetuation. The scope of a Supreme Being would actually extend far beyond the creation of a single universe.
  • Secondly, a Supreme Being is usually portrayed as a spiritual being capable of possibly unlimited thought, creativity, and ability. A Supreme Being is said to be an entity which can make and unmake universes. The big question is this: Why must we be limited to only one such being?

Is there any reason not to suppose the existence of ten such beings? Or a hundred? Or an almost infinite number? It appears that the Brotherhood definition of a “one God” actually describes the native potential of every spiritual being, including those spiritual beings who animate human bodies on Earth. The true nature and capabilities of every spiritual being would therefore be hidden by doctrines which state that only a Supreme Being may enjoy pure spiritual existence and unlimited spiritual potential. Brotherhood monotheism would actually hinder human spiritual recovery and prevent people from grasping the true, and probably much broader, scope of a Supreme Being.*

* A fuller discussion of the possible nature of a Supreme Being and its relationship to individual spiritual existence is presented in Chapter 40.

Brotherhood monotheism was another piece of the Biblical “revolving sword” to prevent access to spiritual knowledge. It also allowed the Custodians to greatly elevate then-own status. As part of its new monotheism, the Brotherhood began to teach the fiction that members of the Custodial race were the physical manifestations of a Supreme Being. In other words, Custodians started pretending that they and their aircraft were the “one-only God.” History records that they used extraordinary violence to make Homo sapiens believe the falsehood. Few lies have had as devastating an impact on human society, yet it became a prime mission of the corrupted Brotherhood, from the time of Akhenaton the modern day, to make humans believe that the Custodians and their aircraft were “God.”

The purpose of this fiction was to enforce human obedience and to maintain Custodial control over the human population. In no case is this clearer, or the results more visibly tragic, than in the Biblical story of the ancient Hebrews and their “one God” named Jehovah.

Source

The Egyptian Gods, the Lucifers and Messiahs, and the Future

Vacation posts continue. Here’s something about Egyptian Gods etc.

The Egyptians were fully clued in at one point.

There is a real, and frightening reason so many extremely important people are going to ‘worship’ at the pyramid of Giza in Cairo this December 31, 1999. Will the pyramid be pointing to Sirius at a certain moment? Will the Sirius vortex of the God or Gods or the Goddess cause some event to occur, even if only psychic, while sweaty Zahi Hawass flips switches for the crowds? Sirius is called the vortex of God or Gods and/or the Goddess.

This is where, for all intents and purposes, divine beings outside of “physical density” and it’s relative regions, originally come from.


The originating Giza Pyramid builders designed-in a record of this and the predictions of eventual comings of messiahs through history. Sirius is where, for all intents and purposes, divine beings outside of “physical density” and it’s relative regions, originally came from. Near Sirius is a doorway to what we would call heaven.


The doorway was scientifically proven when a pyramid array on a secret satellite detection experiment, revealed a geometric alignment where pyramid energies naturally amplify a stream of energy coming ONLY from near Sirius into our universe. The pyramid effected an interdimensional transceiver function where the subspace tunneling from the Sirius vortex domain occurred, in terms of measurable temporal field modulation.


The reason razor blades don’t rust in pyramids is not pop culture fad belief, but the result of temporal field deceleration naturally occurring in the pyramid. This is actually measurable with a tuned crystal resonator detection and reference system. Above the pyramid the time field was found to be minutely accelerated, inside the pyramid it is decelerated. When the pyramid shaft of Cheops at Giza points to Sirius, and is also aligned geomagnetically on the Earth (Cheops), momentous things are predicted to occur or least be signified.

At at certain times of day and year, there are peak conditions in the pyramid to (among other things):

  1. Communicate with the Gods from inside the Pyramid, i.e. the King’s and Queen’s Chamber – using emotion, vision and symbols.

  2. Receive energies of rejuvenation and spiritual balance from the Sirius vortex – using emotion, vision, and symbols.

  3. Out-of-body experience travel to other planes of existence and initiation and learning, using emotion, vision and symbols.

The originating Giza Pyramid designed-in a record of this and the predictions of eventual comings of messiahs through history. The old dormant code activation keys were broadcast from the cortex and received by everyone on Earth five years ago. The changes are already beginning.


Echelon knows evolution is in for a bumpy ride, and ET knows evolution is in for a bumpy ride, and the rest of us are told nothing. Yet it is we who are at stake. This is why ET and God’s ET agents, and other heavenly influences, are all so active right now, all trying to even up the need-to-know problem through covert mass contact. It is a covert assistance program, not a covert invasion. It is designed to allow us to evolve much faster than our institutions would prefer us sheep wake-up.


There are bad ET’s and there are good ET’s and a lot in between, too. The saving grace in all this is the higherdimensional Sirian soul energies of beyond our physical universe invested powerful dormant DNA encoding and high soul substance into Neanderthal humanity 90,000 years ago. The shaft in the pyramid points to Sirius.


It has been confirmed ET parties were associated closely with the existence of certain Earthly historical early messiahs and holy persons. Our religions were partly created by ET. We were truly, in every scientific physical sense of the words as well, aided by heavenly apparatus and intelligence. But this is no ordinary apparatus. We are talking about the scientific verification of the existence of God.


But this could be God as ET themselves parading as God or God’s agents, by being able to prove their historical Messianic associations, and the fact our genetics came from their divine test tube.


However this still leaves plenty of room left for deception, since there are so many damned ET factions still vying for position today. Not the least of which is our own highest Echelon response to the problem – the appropriation of the right of apotheosis away from the custodians – no matter how benevolent they are.

This is a dangerous path. It is an outwardly directed path in worship of ‘power-over’, technology of control, exclusive rights to resources, and worship of the science of separating the observer from experience. This is a climate of alien threat response management by secession from the ET agents as angels of God.

Here is the crux of the problem: The right Messianic ET’s were already rejected by our idiot world secret government. Why? Our government would not play because the true heavenly God Messianic ET agents would not broker soul rights by acceding to secret institutional control speaking for all humanity.

The worst of it is the human-perceived direct attack by the good ET’s on the human institutions of organized religion as being embodiments of the worst kind of corruption.

We wouldn’t have any of that. And they were told to take a cosmic hike – and they did – at our request, except for a few isolated continuing contacts with key individual contactees. The ET’s gave up on our institutions, and our institutions gave up on them, there was to be no marriage without undesired revolution.


Part of ARC Echelon rejection of the ET agents of our historical Messiahs – who were after all good and true and spiritually divine human beings, leaves the populace without without a primer for things to come. So ET is picking up the slack by increasing covert contacts, and there are a quite of few ET visitation joyrides going on too. Our zoo is a hot ticket. Without a primer we are left to to our own wits and conditioning.

And guess what?

Plenty of alliances have come along who were not the Messianic connected ET’s and also claim involvement in our world, one way or another, usually more remote, but still associated somehow. The plot thickened, especially as some of these ET’s turned out to be rather fallen angels of a kind. Faustain bargains had been much more easily made with less caring ET’s by our institutions than with the more caring ETs. This means the institutions were left with a messy problem, and until they figured it out, and could wiggle out of certain Faustian bargains, humanity was to be left without a clue.


So the feedback response system is modified to compensate.


Humanity is exercising it’s own trim-tab compensation by receiving

  1. messages from itself in the future as precognition and dreams

  2. messages from itself from the future, as time travelers, both machine and humanoid, coming back

  3. messages telepathically from ET’s in the present, and most importantly

  4. messages directly from the original creator God and his once Earthly Messiahs, now operating as relay authentic bridges for humanity to God in these times

The status quo in the institutions, on the other hand, are, respectively:

  1. trying to downplay the dreams and precognitions are millennial madness

  2. making sure to debunk the entire field of channelers as nutcase cults

  3. making sure to debunk the entire field of Ufology as disreputable snake oil salesmen

  4. trying to reinforce peoples allegiance to the organized institutional forms of religion and science

This is the result of the actions of the Echelon elements in secession mode.

The few elements in lower Echelons that have realized the monumental mistakes they have made still don’t want to turn over authority to any genuine human contactee! They want to instead attempt to go straight to the source. This is the reason for all the secret society worship of the Gods of ancient Egypt and the reason again, for the coming festivities being attended by representatives of all the secret societies.


But the fact still remains, regardless of the noble attempts to adjust the game through the types like Joe Firmage, without a primer that requires more institutional dressing down to see the whole truth, most of humanity could rush to judgment – into a premature friend or foe determination – and get caught up in mistaken identity turmoil. This is why there are so many above top secret fake apotheosis programs in a box. They can only get away with all of this as long as we are still under basic embargo and quarantine as a planet.


It all depends if we can:

  1. keep the ET lid on, and

  2. keep the worldly natural catastrophe curve in check, or adapt fast enough to changes in the sun, for example and

  3. keep ourselves from killing ourselves off with human conflict triggered NCBW in the next 12 years,

All without without absolutely needing ET help to survive and not go extinct, we could pass through this momentum time at the end of ‘normal’ history and not have to scientifically confront the existence of alien life for almost another century.

Now wouldn’t that be nice?

Don’t worry, the abductions will all soon be over, for the most part. Besides you were just giving and getting some help. Once in a while there are a few demonic abductors running around, but that is kept in check. Every abduction event is monitored by Echelon authorities. Every ET tagged party is an Echelon tagged party. Yet, remember, human free will is still the most powerful element in the mix. You only get abducted because as a soul you agreed to it before you were born.


There is a God who exists as a non-physical creator beyond this universe, of which entities in different ET’s civilizations either love or hate, or listen to or turn a deaf ear to, depending on how much their ‘fallen’ factor is operative. Certain Vedic saints, Abraham, Moses, Jesus Christ, and Mohammed, and recently even Joseph Smith, prime examples amongst many, were all contacted by rather benevolent angel ET’s, as judged by the quality of the teachings they have promulgated.


Our institutions have recently rejected the right heavenly hosts. They left the rest of us to fend for ourselves, while they secure potential divine secessionary escape routes, or just Mexican stand-off hold-offs. This all means, good and bad ET, angelic and demonic ET, of different ilks can now covertly contact humanity on a telepathic basis, at the least, IF individual humanity ‘asks’ for it, and get a response, depending on the degree of pattern match. Negative people naturally attract similarly predisposed ET’s, and so on.


Our institutions have failed the tests and given into the devil’s temptations. The Sirian-Egyptian connection correlates to a coordinate in the heavens that highest Echelon knows the door to ‘heaven’ is. Certain Egypto-Masonic ASC Echelon types want to negotiate their own exclusive relationship with divinity, and bypass the truly ‘holy-host’ ET’s who reject their all too human power and control games. If we don’t watch it, these idiots will try to drag the rest of humanity along with them into Faustian bargain oblivion.


The only assured response strategy options are:

  1. Allow the whole thing blow over through the continued disenfranchisement of Ufology from science and religion, as ARC elements have planned and executed for fifty years, (and hope no massive new UFO religion springs up that would make things like Scientology and even Mormanism look like small stuff). Let the UFO age die-off, by forcing the ET’s away through a threatened scorched globe policy.

  2. Allow the whole thing gradually take hold socially through the personal domain of direct ET to person contact (and yes direct God to person contact) going on, physically, telepathically, symbolically, spiritually. And hopefully all the while try to marry science and religion back together in a way that allows these hallowed institutions to survive. But the bigoted radical cynical scientific rationalism cultists, and the bigoted radical optimistic religious mysticism cultists, will both have to eventually give it up. And as we all know, that will not happen without a fight.

This is why ET is denied the welcome mat on Earth and the No-Vacancy signs are on in the mainstream sense. We need time to just make it go away, or to prepare ourselves for eventual radical cultural adjustment.


Either way, ET is NOT really the issue we need to figure out anymore, even if more than half the ARC Echelon folks are still sweating it, and the abductees are tired of it.


The ONLY issue of genuine import is how our hidden human potential for divine spirituality can dovetail with the coming big wave of cosmic events and ‘energies’ over the next years so we can make the best out of it, and yes, save our own souls, and our world, with the help of God and/or Goddess.


That is the ONLY question that is relevant to be answered. Everything else turns out to be a grand distraction.


But remember Heaven’s Gate. The leader of Falun Gong, Master Li, believes evil ET’s recently seeded human civilization with technology and computers as a covert invasion plan. These evil ET’s worship technology and science like a religion, to the exclusion of higher dimensions. Drunvalo Mechelzidek holds that technology is the result of a Luciferian rebellion. The environmental crisis has stirred a contemporary “modern age” Luddite backlash against insensitive irresponsible science, commerce and industry.


The Unabomber Manifesto. Earthfirst. Back to nature worship and “superstition”.

The backlash against science is just beginning unless science stops worshipping the separation of the observer from the observed as a means to operate with impunity, and derisively dismisses claims that involve the observer. Science is actually on the way to committing suicide. But in radically responding to the problem as a turf war for souls, so will religion.


Don’t wait for your institutions to get it together for you. Common humanity may have to stand elitist management for decade or so until the inevitable happens. The inevitable is human apotheosis for the masses as a direct link between human and God and Goddess, and without ET necessarily consciously involved, and without human institutions moderating. And that scares our hallowed institutions of science and religion, our institutions of commerce and politics, it scares them all half to death. No wonder.


Mommy Goddess and Daddy God are coming into direct contact with us in a new radical fashion – not as physical ET’s like the government or evil ET’s would have us believe, but as personalized loving, forgiving and powerful spiritual energies and entities from beyond this physical universe. They are returning, big time, in non-physical terms, to re-connect and co-create with their original soul substance in this universe, located in, guess what – human hearts.


This Human-Spiritual heart reconnection is feared by the ‘fallen’ Luciferians mindsets – their game is up. Because once the true reconnection happens, it makes individual human beings hundreds of times more powerful than our high yield hydrogen bombs, in terms of potential spiritual influence. Remember the power of our historical Messiahs? They did not show what they were really capable of, despite the wonders they did demonstrate.

And remember how all Messiahs claimed that any human was capable of the same as they?

It was all only ever about growing love in the human heart. It was about growing the capacity for caring and intimacy, the incorruptible means for humanity not falling this time for well laid traps. The alien-human alliance engineered fail-safe awareness traps on the human evolutionary experiment. And they work.


The ET’s just hope we humans as a whole species learn our lessons before we get so much power. Since most of us wouldn’t trust anyone we know with too much power, and treat other species on our planet like chattel without feelings, that ought to help explain to you why ET’s have us under a form of embargo and quarantine. We humans foam at the mouth after all without any help at all from ET races.


Now see?

You didn’t need to read all this blathering gibberish after all. We warned you.

As William Shatner once said to the stunned crestfallen trekkies at a Star Trek convention, “Get a life”!

Source

Egyptian Book of the Dead

Now when we have looked the Tibetan Book Of The Deatd there is also an Egyptian Book Of The Dead:

The Book of the Dead is an ancient Egyptian funerary text, used from the beginning of the New Kingdom (around 1550 BCE) to around 50 BCE.[1] The original Egyptian name for the text, transliterated rw nw prt m hrw[2] is translated as “Book of Coming Forth by Day”.[3] Another translation would be “Book of emerging forth into the Light”. The text consists of a number of magic spells intended to assist a dead person’s journey through the Duat, or underworld, and into the afterlife.

The Book of the Dead was part of a tradition of funerary texts which includes the earlier Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts, which were painted onto objects, not papyrus. Some of the spells included were drawn from these older works and date to the 3rd millennium BCE. Other spells were composed later in Egyptian history, dating to the Third Intermediate Period (11th to 7th centuries BCE). A number of the spells which made up the Book continued to be inscribed on tomb walls and sarcophagi, as had always been the spells from which they originated. The Book of the Dead was placed in the coffin or burial chamber of the deceased.

There was no single or canonical Book of the Dead. The surviving papyri contain a varying selection of religious and magical texts and vary considerably in their illustration. Some people seem to have commissioned their own copies of the Book of the Dead, perhaps choosing the spells they thought most vital in their own progression to the afterlife. The Book of the Dead was most commonly written in hieroglyphic or hieratic script on a papyrus scroll, and often illustrated with vignettes depicting the deceased and their journey into the afterlife.

Development

The Book of the Dead developed from a tradition of funerary manuscripts dating back to the Egyptian Old Kingdom. The first funerary texts were the Pyramid Texts, first used in the Pyramid of King Unas of the 5th dynasty, around 2400 BCE.[4] These texts were written on the walls of the burial chambers within pyramids, and were exclusively for the use of the Pharaoh (and, from the 6th dynasty, the Queen). The Pyramid Texts were written in an unusual hieroglyphic style; many of the hieroglyphs representing humans or animals were left incomplete or drawn mutilated, most likely to prevent them causing any harm to the dead pharaoh.[5] The purpose of the Pyramid Texts was to help the dead King take his place amongst the gods, in particular to reunite him with his divine father Ra; at this period the afterlife was seen as being in the sky, rather than the underworld described in the Book of the Dead.[5] Towards the end of the Old Kingdom, the Pyramid Texts ceased to be an exclusively royal privilege, and were adopted by regional governors and other high-ranking officials.

In the Middle Kingdom, a new funerary text emerged, the Coffin Texts. The Coffin Texts used a newer version of the language, new spells, and included illustrations for the first time. The Coffin Texts were most commonly written on the inner surfaces of coffins, though they are occasionally found on tomb walls or on papyri.[5] The Coffin Texts were available to wealthy private individuals, vastly increasing the number of people who could expect to participate in the afterlife; a process which has been described as the “democratization of the afterlife”.[6]

The Book of the Dead first developed in Thebes towards the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period, around 1700 BCE. The earliest known occurrence of the spells included in the Book of the Dead is from the coffin of Queen Mentuhotep, of the 13th dynasty, where the new spells were included amongst older texts known from the Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts. Some of the spells introduced at this time claim an older provenance; for instance the rubric to spell 30B states that it was discovered by the Prince Hordjedef in the reign of King Menkaure, many hundreds of years before it is attested in the archaeological record.[7]

By the 19th dynasty, the Book of the Dead had become widespread not only for members of the royal family, but courtiers and other officials as well. At this stage, the spells were typically inscribed on linen shrouds wrapped around the dead, though occasionally they are found written on coffins or on papyrus.[8]

The New Kingdom saw the Book of the Dead develop and spread further. The famous Spell 125, the ‘Weighing of the Heart‘, is first known from the reign of Hatshepsut and Tuthmose III, c.1475 BCE. From this period onward the Book of the Dead was typically written on a papyrus scroll, and the text illustrated with vignettes. During the 19th dynasty in particular, the vignettes tended to be lavish, sometimes at the expense of the surrounding text.[9]

In the Third Intermediate Period, the Book of the Dead started to appear in hieratic script, as well as in the traditional hieroglyphics. The hieratic scrolls were a cheaper version, lacking illustration apart from a single vignette at the beginning, and were produced on smaller papyri. At the same time, many burials used additional funerary texts, for instance the Amduat.[10]

During the 25th and 26th dynasties, the Book of the Dead was updated, revised and standardised. Spells were consistently ordered and numbered for the first time. This standardised version is known today as the ‘Saite recension’, after the Saite (26th) dynasty. In the Late period and Ptolemaic period, the Book of the Dead remained based on the Saite recension, though increasingly abbreviated towards the end of the Ptolemaic period. New funerary texts appeared, including the Book of Breathing and Book of Traversing Eternity. The last use of the Book of the Dead was in the 1st century BCE, though some artistic motifs drawn from it were still in use in Roman times.[11]

Spells

The mystical Spell 17, from the Papyrus of Ani. The vignette at the top illustrates, from left to right, the god Heh as a representation of the Sea; a gateway to the realm of Osiris; the Eye of Horus; the celestial cow Mehet-Weret; and a human head rising from a coffin, guarded by the four Sons of Horus.[12]

The Book of the Dead is made up of a number of individual texts and their accompanying illustrations. Most sub-texts begin with the word ro, which can mean mouth, speech, a chapter of a book, spell, utterance, or incantation. This ambiguity reflects the similarity in Egyptian thought between ritual speech and magical power.[13] In the context of the Book of the Dead, it is typically translated as either “chapter” or “spell”. In this article, the word “spell” is used.

At present, some 192 spells are known,[14] though no single manuscript contains them all. They served a range of purposes. Some are intended to give the deceased mystical knowledge in the afterlife, or perhaps to identify them with the gods: for instance, Spell 17, an obscure and lengthy description of the god Atum.[15] Others are incantations to ensure the different elements of the dead person’s being were preserved and reunited, and to give the deceased control over the world around him. Still others protect the deceased from various hostile forces, or guide him through the underworld past various obstacles. Famously, two spells also deal with the judgement of the deceased in the Weighing of the Heart ritual.

Such spells as 26-30, and sometimes spells 6 and 126 relate to the heart, and were inscribed on scarabs.[16]

The texts and images of the Book of the Dead were magical as well as religious. Magic was as legitimate an activity as praying to the gods, even when the magic was aimed at controlling the gods themselves.[17] Indeed, there was little distinction for the Ancient Egyptians between magical and religious practice.[18] The concept of magic (heka) was also intimately linked with the spoken and written word. The act of speaking a ritual formula was an act of creation;[19] there is a sense in which action and speech were one and the same thing.[18] The magical power of words extended to the written word. Hieroglyphic script was held to have been invented by the god Thoth, and the hieroglyphs themselves were powerful. Written words conveyed the full force of a spell.[19] This was even true when the text was abbreviated or omitted, as often occurred in later Book of the Dead scrolls, particularly if the accompanying images were present.[20] The Egyptians also believed that knowing the name of something gave power over it; thus, the Book of the Dead equips its owner with the mystical names of many of the entities he would encounter in the afterlife, giving him power of them.[21]

The spells of the Book of the Dead made use of several magical techniques which can also be seen in other areas of Egyptian life. A number of spells are for magical amulets, which would protect the deceased from harm. In addition to being represented on a Book of the Dead papyrus, these spells appeared on amulets wound into the wrappings of a mummy.[17] Everyday magic made use of amulets in huge numbers. Other items in direct contact with the body in the tomb, such as headrests, were also considered to have amuletic value.[22] A number of spells also refer to Egyptian beliefs about the magical healing power of saliva.[17]

Organization

Almost every Book of the Dead was unique, containing a different mixture of spells drawn from the corpus of texts available. For most of the history of the Book of the Dead there was no defined order or structure.[23] In fact, until Paul Barguet‘s 1967 “pioneering study” of common themes between texts,[24] Egyptologists concluded there was no internal structure at all.[25] It is only from the Saite period (26th dynasty) onwards that there is a defined order.[26]

The Books of the Dead from the Saite period tend to organize the Chapters into four sections:

  • Chapters 1–16 The deceased enters the tomb, descends to the underworld, and the body regains its powers of movement and speech.
  • Chapters 17–63 Explanation of the mythic origin of the gods and places, the deceased are made to live again so that they may arise, reborn, with the morning sun.
  • Chapters 64–129 The deceased travels across the sky in the sun ark as one of the blessed dead. In the evening, the deceased travels to the underworld to appear before Osiris.
  • Chapters 130–189 Having been vindicated, the deceased assumes power in the universe as one of the gods. This section also includes assorted chapters on protective amulets, provision of food, and important places.[25]

Afterlife

The nature of the afterlife which the dead person enjoyed is difficult to define, because of the differing traditions within Ancient Egyptian religion. In the Book of the Dead, the dead were taken into the presence of the god Osiris, who was confined to the subterranean Duat. There are also spells to enable the ba or akh of the dead to join Ra as he travelled the sky in his sun-barque, and help him fight off Apep.[35] As well as joining the Gods, the Book of the Dead also depicts the dead living on in the ‘Field of Reeds’, a paradisaical likeness of the real world.[36] The Field of Reeds is depicted as a lush, plentiful version of the Egypt of the living. There are fields, crops, oxen, people and waterways. The deceased person is shown encountering the Great Ennead, a group of gods, as well as his or her own parents. While the depiction of the Field of Reeds is pleasant and plentiful, it is also clear that manual labour is required. For this reason burials included a number of statuettes named shabti, or later ushebti. These statuettes were inscribed with a spell, also included in the Book of the Dead, requiring them to undertake any manual labour that might be the owner’s duty in the afterlife.[37] It is also clear that the dead not only went to a place where the gods lived, but that they acquired divine characteristics themselves. In many occasions, the deceased is mentioned as “The Osiris – [Name]” in the Book of the Dead.

Two ‘gate spells’. On the top register, Ani and his wife face the ‘seven gates of the House of Osiris’. Below, they encounter ten of the 21 ‘mysterious portals of the House of Osiris in the Field of Reeds’. All are guarded by unpleasant protectors.[38]

The path to the afterlife as laid out in the Book of the Dead was a difficult one. The deceased was required to pass a series of gates, caverns and mounds guarded by supernatural creatures.[39] These terrifying entities were armed with enormous knives and are illustrated in grotesque forms, typically as human figures with the heads of animals or combinations of different ferocious beasts. Their names—for instance, “He who lives on snakes” or “He who dances in blood”—are equally grotesque. These creatures had to be pacified by reciting the appropriate spells included in the Book of the Dead; once pacified they posed no further threat, and could even extend their protection to the dead person.[40] Another breed of supernatural creatures was ‘slaughterers’ who killed the unrighteous on behalf of Osiris; the Book of the Dead equipped its owner to escape their attentions.[41] As well as these supernatural entities, there were also threats from natural or supernatural animals, including crocodiles, snakes, and beetles.[42]

Judgement

The Weighing of the Heart ritual, shown in the Book of the Dead of Sesostris.

If all the obstacles of the Duat could be negotiated, the deceased would be judged in the “Weighing of the Heart” ritual, depicted in Spell 125. The deceased was led by the god Anubis into the presence of Osiris. There, the dead person swore that he had not committed any sin from a list of 42 sins,[43] reciting a text known as the “Negative Confession”. Then the dead person’s heart was weighed on a pair of scales, against the goddess Maat, who embodied truth and justice. Maat was often represented by an ostrich feather, the hieroglyphic sign for her name.[44] At this point, there was a risk that the deceased’s heart would bear witness, owning up to sins committed in life; Spell 30B guarded against this eventuality. If the scales balanced, this meant the deceased had led a good life. Anubis would take them to Osiris and they would find their place in the afterlife, becoming maa-kheru, meaning “vindicated” or “true of voice”.[45] If the heart was out of balance with Maat, then another fearsome beast called Ammit, the Devourer, stood ready to eat it and put the dead person’s afterlife to an early and unpleasant end.[46]

This scene is remarkable not only for its vividness but as one of the few parts of the Book of the Dead with any explicit moral content. The judgement of the dead and the Negative Confession were a representation of the conventional moral code which governed Egyptian society. For every “I have not…” in the Negative Confession, it is possible to read an unexpressed “Thou shalt not”.[47] While the Ten Commandments of Judaeo-Christian ethics are rules of conduct laid down by a perceived divine revelation, the Negative Confession is more a divine enforcement of everyday morality.[48] Views differ among Egyptologists about how far the Negative Confession represents a moral absolute, with ethical purity being necessary for progress to the Afterlife. John Taylor points out the wording of Spells 30B and 125 suggests a pragmatic approach to morality; by preventing the heart from contradicting him with any inconvenient truths, it seems that the deceased could enter the afterlife even if their life had not been entirely pure.[46] Ogden Goelet says “without an exemplary and moral existence, there was no hope for a successful afterlife”,[47] while Geraldine Pinch suggests that the Negative Confession is essentially similar to the spells protecting from demons, and that the success of the Weighing of the Heart depended on the mystical knowledge of the true names of the judges rather than on the deceased’s moral behaviour.[49]

Producing a Book of the Dead

Part of the Book of the Dead of Pinedjem II. The text is hieratic, except for hieroglyphics in the vignette. The use of red pigment, and the joins between papyrus sheets, are also visible

A close-up of the Papyrus of Ani, showing the cursive hieroglyphs of the text

A Book of the Dead papyrus was produced to order by scribes. They were commissioned by people in preparation for their own funeral, or by the relatives of someone recently deceased. They were expensive items; one source gives the price of a Book of the Dead scroll as one deben of silver,[50] perhaps half the annual pay of a labourer.[51] Papyrus itself was evidently costly, as there are many instances of its re-use in everyday documents, creating palimpsests. In one case, a Book of the Dead was written on second-hand papyrus.[52]

Most owners of the Book of the Dead were evidently part of the social elite; they were initially reserved for the royal family, but later papyri are found in the tombs of scribes, priests and officials. Most owners were men, and generally the vignettes included the owner’s wife as well. Towards the beginning of the history of the Book of the Dead, there are roughly 10 copies belonging to men for every one for a woman. However, during the Third Intermediate Period, 2/3 were for women; and women owned roughly a third of the hieratic paypri from the Late and Ptolemaic Periods.[53]

The dimensions of a Book of the Dead could vary widely; the longest is 40m long while some are as short as 1m. They are composed of sheets of papyrus joined together, the individual papyri varying in width from 15 cm to 45 cm. The scribes working on Book of the Dead papyri took more care over their work than those working on more mundane texts; care was taken to frame the text within margins, and to avoid writing on the joints between sheets. The words peret em heru, or ‘coming forth by day’ sometimes appear on the reverse of the outer margin, perhaps acting as a label.[52]

Books were often prefabricated in funerary workshops, with spaces being left for the name of the deceased to be written in later.[54] For instance, in the Papyrus of Ani, the name “Ani” appears at the top or bottom of a column, or immediately following a rubric introducing him as the speaker of a block of text; the name appears in a different handwriting to the rest of the manuscript, and in some places is mis-spelt or omitted entirely.[51]

The text of a New Kingdom Book of the Dead was typically written in cursive hieroglyphs, most often from left to right, but also sometimes from right to left. The hieroglyphs were in columns, which were separated by black lines – a similar arrangement to that used when hieroglyphs were carved on tomb walls or monuments. Illustrations were put in frames above, below, or between the columns of text. The largest illustrations took up a full page of papyrus.[55]

From the 21st Dynasty onward, more copies of the Book of the Dead are found in hieratic script. The calligraphy is similar to that of other hieratic manuscripts of the New Kingdom; the text is written in horizontal lines across wide columns (often the column size corresponds to the size of the papyrus sheets of which a scroll is made up). Occasionally a hieratic Book of the Dead contains captions in hieroglyphic.

The text of a Book of the Dead was written in both black and red ink, regardless of whether it was in hieroglyphic or hieratic script. Most of the text was in black, with red used for the titles of spells, opening and closing sections of spells, the instructions to perform spells correctly in rituals, and also for the names of dangerous creatures such as the demon Apep.[56] The black ink used was based on carbon, and the red ink on ochre, in both cases mixed with water.[57]

The style and nature of the vignettes used to illustrate a Book of the Dead varies widely. Some contain lavish colour illustrations, even making use of gold leaf. Others contain only line drawings, or one simple illustration at the opening.[58]

Book of the Dead papyri were often the work of several different scribes and artists whose work was literally pasted together.[52] It is usually possible to identify the style of more than one scribe used on a given manuscript, even when the manuscript is a shorter one.[59] The text and illustrations were produced by different scribes; there are a number of Books where the text was completed but the illustrations were left empty.[60]

Discovery, translation, interpretation and preservation

Karl Richard Lepsius, first translator of a complete Book of the Dead manuscript

The existence of the Book of the Dead was known as early as the Middle Ages, well before its contents could be understood. Since it was found in tombs, it was evidently a document of a religious nature, and this led to the widespread misapprehension that the Book of the Dead was the equivalent of a Bible or Qu’ran.[61]

The first modern facsimile of a Book of the Dead was produced in 1805 and included in the Description de l’Égypte produced by the staff of Napoleon’s expedition to Egypt. In 1822, Jean Francois Champollion began to translate hieroglyphic text; he examined some of the Book of the Dead papyri and identified them as a funerary ritual.[62]

In 1842 Karl Richard Lepsius published a translation of a manuscript dated to the Ptolemaic era and coined the name “Book of The Dead”. He also introduced the spell numbering system which is still in use, identifying 165 different spells.[14] Lepsius promoted the idea of a comparative edition of the Book of the Dead, drawing on all relevant manuscripts. This project was undertaken by Edouard Naville, starting in 1875 and completed in 1886, producing a three-volume work including a selection of vignettes for every one of the 186 spells he worked with, the variations of the text for every spell, and commentary. In 1876, Samuel Birch of the British Museum published a photographic copy of the papyrus of Nebseny.[63]

The work of E. A. Wallis Budge, Birch’s successor at the British Museum, is still in wide circulation – including both his hieroglyphic editions and his English translations, though the latter are now considered inaccurate and out-of-date.[64] More recent translations in English have been published by T. G. Allen (1974) and Raymond O. Faulkner (1972).[65] As more work has been done on the Book of the Dead, more spells have been identified, and the total now stands at 192.[14]

Research work on the Book of the Dead has always posed technical difficulties thanks to the need to copy very long hieroglyphic texts. Initially, these were copied out by hand, with the assistance either of tracing paper or a camera lucida. In the mid-19th century, hieroglyphic fonts became available and made lithographic reproduction of manuscripts more feasible. In the present day, hieroglyphics can be rendered in desktop publishing software and this, combined with digital print technology, means that the costs of publishing a Book of the Dead may be considerably reduced. However, a very large amount of the source material in museums around the world remains unpublished.[66]

Source

The Mystery of the Missing Pyramidion of Khufu

I have many times wondered, that when you watch the Great Pyramid you notice that there is something missing on the top, the cap stone. Where is it and what was the purpose of it. Here’s a little article about that stone:

The Mystery of the Missing Pyramidion of Khufu

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One of the mysteries of Giza is the missing pyramidion or capstone of the Great Pyramid of Khufu. Since modern recorded history, the Great Pyramid has been topless, with several meters of its apex missing. Egyptologists have assumed that the pyramid was originally capped by a small pyramid called a pyramidion. If that is true, then what happened to it, and what could it have looked like?

It is possible, indeed highly probable, that the great Egyptian architect and royal vizier, Imhotep, was still alive when Khufu planned his pyramid. Imhotep was the High Priest of Heliopolis, where the sacred Benben Stone was kept, and on its shape and symbolism was modeled the gilded capstones of pyramid called ‘Benben-t’. Could Imhotep have advised Khufu to conceal the Benben in his pyramid? But where?

This article below is culled from a discussion in Appendix 1 of my latest book, co-written with Thomas Brophy, Ph.D., Imhotep The African: Architect of the Cosmos (Disinformation Books).

In October 1900 the guards of the Egyptian Antiquities Organisation (EAO) in the area of Dashur, a site on the western desert that is some 20 kilometers south of modern Cairo, were attacked by a group of armed brigands. A few days later, Gaston Maspero, the head of the EAO went to inspect the site. It was then that he was taken to see an amazing and rather unique artifacts that had been found embedded in the sand near a pyramid of the 12th Dynasty belonging to the pharaoh Amenemhet III. There, sticking partially out of the sand, was a magnificent pyramidion made of black granite. Maspero could hardly believe his eyes at the amazing preservation of this 4000 years old artifacts which, in his excitement, he described as “polished like a mirror”.  The pyramid, which measured 1.85 meters at the base and had a height of 1.40 meters, was decorated with wonderful inscriptions. On one face was a winged solar-disk flanked by two ureus (sacred cobras), and under the solar-disk were two large eyes. Under the eyes were three lutes with a large sun disk underneath. On each side of the sun-disk were the royal cartouches bearing the names of Amennemhet III, and  at the base of the triangular face were two lines of hieroglyphs. In an article published in the Annales Du Services Des Antiquités in 1902, Maspero gave this translation:

“May the face of the king be opened so that he may see the Lord of the Horizon when he crosses the sky; may he cause the king to rise as a god, lord of eternity and indestructible… Horakhti has said I have given to the king of Upper and Lower Egypt the beautiful horizon who takes the inheritance of the two lands…so that you may unit with the horizon…the horizon has said that you rest upon it, which pleases me.”

In view of the mention of Horakhti (Horus of the Horizon) who was regarded as the symbol of the rising sun in the east, Maspero concluded that this face with the winged sun-disk was the East face of the pyramidion. Maspero did not give a full translation of the other threes faces which also bore two lines of inscriptions each, but nonetheless adds that “the invocation is similarly addressed on the South face to Anubis; on the West face to Ptah-Sokar-Osiris; on the North face to Sah-Orion.”

The same view was later expressed by the American Egyptologist James Henry Breasted in 1912. Breasted wrote:

“On the side which undoubtedly faced the east appears a winged sun-disk, surmounted by a pair of eyes, beneath which are the words ‘Beauty of the Sun’, the eyes of course indicate the idea of beholding which is to be understood with the words, ‘beauty of the sun’. Below is an inscription of two lines beginning: ‘The face of king Amenemhet III is opened, that he may behold the Lord of the Horizon when he sails across the sky’…”

In 1964 the American Egyptologist Alexander Piankoff, renowed for his translation of the Pyramid Texts, gave the translation of part of the East face which mentioned the constellation of Orion:

The sou) of Amenemhet is higher than the heights of  Orion, and it unites itself with the Duat…”

Piankoff interpreted the above by writing that “here, as in the Pyramid Texts, Orion is the visible manifestation of Osiris who, like this constellation, descends to the Netherworld (Duat) and then appears again in the sky.”

In 1946 the British Egyptologist Sir I.E.S. Edwards, an authority on the pyramids of Egypt, gave his own translation of the East face:

“May the face of the king be opened so that he may see the Lord of the Horizon [i.e., Harakhte] when he crosses the sky; may he cause the king to shine as a god, lord of eternity and indestructible, (Harakhte replies that he has) given the beautiful horizon to the king”

Today Egyptologists agree that the pyramids of ancient Egypt represented the dead kings. Indeed, the pyramidwas regarded as an actually personification of the dead king.  Indeed the name given to the pyramids show clearly that these monuments were considered to be the afterlife form of the king himself. According to A. Piankoff, for example,

“The embalmed body of the king lay in or under the pyramid, which together with its entire compound, was considered his body.”

Yet Egyptologists also agree that in the Pyramid Texts, the afterlife form of the king is said to be a ‘star’ in the sky.

This, then, may explain why in the case of at least three pyramids, the monuments were given stellar names while also personifying the dead king, such as “Djedefre is a Star in the Sky”, “Nebka is a Star” and the pyramid of Djoser being called “Horus is the Star at the head of the Sky”.  All this leads us to conclude that the pyramidion on top of the king’s pyramid was regarded as the stellar-transfigured king or his star-soul. It is only when we view it as such that the inscriptions on the East side of the pyramidion of Amenemhet III makes any sense: “May the face of the king be opened so that he may see the Lord of the Horizon…”

But two questions now must be also considered. For if indeed the pyramidion represented the form of the king as a star, then what could possibly have given the ancient Egyptians the idea that a star had the physical shape of a ‘pyramid” and, furthermore, that it was composed of very hard “black stone” such as black granite?

Most Egyptologists agree that the shape of pyramids was inspired by the Benben Stone that was venerated in the ‘Mansion Of The Phoenix’ at the city of Heliopolis. Many scholars claim that the Benben was symbolic of the sun. In 1912 the eminent American Egyptologist James H. Breasted noted the similarity of the word ‘Benben’ with the word ‘Benbenet’ –the pyramid-shaped apex of an obelisk– and concluded that “an obelisk is simply a pyramid upon a lofty base which has become a shaft… the obelisk, as is commonly known, is a symbol sacred to the Sun-god…[it followed that] the king was buried under the very symbol of the Sun-god which stood in the holy of holies in the Sun-temple at Heliopolis” This conclusion by an authority of the caliber of Breasted was quickly embraced by other authorities such as Sir I.E.S. Edwards who also proposed that the occasional sight of an immaterial triangle formed by the sun’s rays striking downwards through low clouds at sunset could have been the inspiration for the Benben’s shape “and its architectural derivative, the true Pyramid”.  Edwards quoted several passages from the Pyramid Texts that seem to support this idea:

“I have laid down for myself this sunshine of yours as a stairway under my feet…”

“May the sky make the sunlight strong for you, may you rise up to the sky…”

According to Edwards “the temptation to regard the true Pyramid as a material representation of the sun’s rays and consequently as a means whereby the dead king could ascend to heaven seems irresistible.” Yet it is also true that the Pyramid Texts give many other means for the dead pharaoh to ascend to the sky: on a ladder ( “The king climbs to the sky on a ladder”); on the wind (“the king is bound for the sky on the wind” (pyr. 309); on a storm-cloud/thunderbolt (“The king is a flame before the wind…there is brought to him a way of ascent to the sky”); on a hailstorm (“the hailstorms of the sky have taken me”); on a reed-floa: (“the reed-floats of the sky are set in place for me…I am ferried over to the eastern sky”); by climbing a rope (“set the rope aright, cross the Milky Way…”); on the thighs of Isis: (I ascend [to the sky] upon the thighs of Isis” ).  So the Pyramid Texts are full of such metaphors, and thus the idea of the dead king climbing on the sun’s rays is only another to describe poetically the celestial ascent, and cannot be taken as evidence for the shape of the Benben or the pyramid. There is, however, in the Pyramid Texts a passage which directly equate the actual pyramid to the king and Osiris: “This king is Osiris, this pyramid of the king is Osiris, this construction of his is Osiris, betake yourself to it, do not be far from it in its name of pyramid…”.

In the rebirth rituals of the Pyramid Texts the dead king’s name is compounded with the name of Osiris, showing that after his death the king became “an Osiris”. Now Osiris in the Pyramid Texts was a star-god whose soul was identified to the constellation of Orion:

“Behold Osiris has come as Orion”

“O king, you are this Great Star, the companion of Orion”

Could, therefore, the Benben Stone, and its derivatives the pyramid and the pyramidion, be regarded as ‘star’ symbols?  It is true that the ‘Mansion Of The Phoenix’ in which was kept the Benben Stone was in the City of Iunu, later called Heliopolis (City of the Sun) by the Greeks, an association of the Benben with the sun does not necessarily follow. Why, one must wonder, was a pyramid or conical shaped stone would be regarded as a manifestation of the sun when in all ancient Egyptian art the sun is represented as a disk or circle? Egyptologists have argued that the reason for this was because the Benben Stone may also have been a symbol of the so-called “Primeval Mound” in the Pyramid Texts on which it is said that the first sunrise took place, implying that the shape of the pyramid was inspired by the idea of a sacred mound. Edwards rejects this idea by pointing out that the Primeval Mound was linked to the much older Mastaba tomb structure of the first three Dynasties, which was not pyramid-shaped but rather in the form of a rectangular slab. Clearly, another more plausible explanation for the pyramidal or conical shape of the Benben Stone must be sought.

It is known that a sacred pillar was worshipped at Heliopolis before the Benben. The phallic symbolism of a pillar needs no emphasis; and its association to the “phallus” of Atum is implied in the Pyramid Texts

“Atum is he who once came into being, who masturbated in Heliopolis. He took his phallus in his grasp that he might create orgasm by means of it…”

“O Atum, the rising sun (-khoprer, the sacred beetle), you became high on the heights, , you rose as the Benben Stone in the Mansion Of The Phoenix in On…”

The Egyptologist Henry Frankfort made the plausible suggestion that the Benben was placed atop the sacred pillar, giving rise to the idea of the obelisk with a Benbenet/pyramidion at its top, and that the pyramidion may thus represent the “semen” or “seed” being ejaculated from a cosmic phallus associated to Atum. There are several well-known depiction of the Earth-God Geb (the son of Atum) laying down with an exaggeratedly long phallus pointing to the Sky-Goddess Nut, the “mother of Osiris”:

“…make the womb of Nut pregnant with the seed of the spirit which is in her”

“Pressure is in your womb, O Nut, through the seed of the god which is in you; it is I [the Osiris-king] who am the seed of the god which is in you…”

“…the king is an imperishable star, son of the sky-goddess Nut…”

“The king was fashioned by his father Atum…”

“O Atum, this king comes to you, an imperishable spirit (star)…your son comes to you, this king comes to you”

In my opinion, then, the idea of a pillar surging skywards and on top of which was the Benben Stone, is highly symbolic of a giant phallus offering its “star-seed” to the sky-goddess in order to gestate it in her womb and cause the departed king to be “reborn”. Bearing this in mind, it comes as no surprise to discover that the word “Benben” is often given the meaning to “copulate” or “seed a womb” confirmed by the hieroglyphic sign of an erect phallus shown ejaculating semen. Indeed, there are several words in the ancient Egyptian language that use the root word ‘Ben’ to describe sexual acts. Also in the famous Turin Papyrus which depicts sexual scenes, one image shows a beautiful naked woman inserting the tip of a pyramidion into her vagina, making clear that such objects were regarded phallis or capable of seeding a womb. The stellar aspect of these “seeding” rituals are depicted in the following passages of the Pyramid texts, where the departed king is somehow put into the womb of the sky-goddess (the ‘sarcophagus’) and is gestated there to eventually be reborn as star:

“The king is your seed”

“…the king comes to you, O mother of the king, he has come to Nut, that you may bring the sky to the king and hang the stars for him…”

“the sky-Goddess Nut conceives you with Orion…”

“Recitation by Nut, the greatly beneficent: the king is my eldest son who splits open my womb…”

“…O King, you are this Great Star, the companion of Orion…the sky has borne you with Orion…” (pyr.882-3).

“The King is a star brilliant…the King appears as a star…”

“You [Nut] have set this King as an imperishable Star who is in you…”

“The King is a star”

“I [the king] am a soul …a star of gold…”

“I [the king] am a star which illumines the sky…”

As we have said earlier in this article, the names of several monumental pyramids were given stellar names such as ‘Djedefre is a sehed  star’; ‘Nebka is a star’. Also the ‘ba’ i.e. soul, of the dead king is clearly to be regarded as a s ‘star’ in the Pyramid Texts, which indirectly also gives a stellar name to many other pyramids such as ‘The soul (ba) of Sahure gleams’ and ‘Neferirkare has become a soul (ba)’. The compounding of the pharaoh’s name with his pyramid implies, if not proves, that the monument (or perhaps mostly the pyramidion at the top) is to be regarded as the transfigured form of the king into a star-soul.

Still, why did the ancient Egyptians imagine that the star were shaped like a pyramid or a cone?

In antiquity the sight of “shooting stars” or  “falling stars” is, of course, a meteorite. Meteorites are debris from outer space, mostly from broken up asteroids, which enter the gravitational pull of the Earth and fall down to the ground –as opposed to meteors which completely burn up during atmospheric transit. Meteorites are either iron-meteorites (about 90% iron and 10-12% nickel) or stone meteorites. The largest that survive impact are the iron-meteorites for obvious reasons. Most meteorites are very small, but occasionally a large meteorite enters our atmosphere. If it is very large  it will retain most of its cosmic velocity, thus compressing the air in front of it as it approaches the ground, causing it to explode with dramatic effect. But if the meteorite is of medium size, somewhere between 10 and 60 tons, its cosmic velocity is slowed down by the earth’s atmosphere, causing the meteorite to eventually free fall and hit the ground almost intact. Some of these medium size meteorites retain their orientation as they speed through the earth’s atmosphere, which causes only the front part to melt and flow toward the rear. The result is a iron object having the shape of a rough pyramid or cone.

Bearing this in mind, I also discovered that the ancient Egyptians believed that iron actually came from heaven, which is clearly an allusion to the meteoritic origin of iron before the Iron Age. In other ancient cultures there were many sacred stones such as the Benben which were believed to have ‘fallen from heaven’. The Ephesians (see Acts xix-35 of the Bible) worshipped such a stone in the temple of Diana “that symbol of her which fell from heaven”. In Delphi a stone shaped like a cone was believed to have come from the sky. A conical iron-meteorite was also worshiped by the Phrygian in the 7th century BC. There was also the famous conical “black stone” called Elagalabus that was worshipped in Emessa. A modern example of such “stone from heaven” is the  black stone of the the Ka’aba in Mecca in Saudi Arabia which is a meteorite that was recovered in antiquity. The British Egyptologist Gerald Wainwright has shown how iron in early Egypt was obtained from iron-meteorites. The ancient Egyptian word for iron was ‘bja’ which was called “material of which heaven was made”. Significantly, in the Pyramid Texts we are told that,

“The king’s bones are iron and the king’s members are the imperishable stars…”

“I [the king] am pure, I take to myself my iron bones…my imperishable limbs are in the womb of Nut”

“…my bones are iron and my limbs are the imperishable stars”.

It is not very hard to see that chunks of meteoritic iron, which generally have a luster black appearance, were classified by the ancient Egyptians along with other hard black or dark stones such as diorite, basalt and granite. To a people unfamiliar with iron and its chemical properties, the resemblance of basalt to a rough iron meteorite can be uncanny. Not surprising then, black basalt was called ‘black iron’ (bja kam), suggesting that basalt, and possibly black granite, were associated to meteoritic iron, and consequently to the ‘bones’ of star-gods. Most pyramidions that were once placed on the top of pyramids were made of dark granite, such as the fine example of Amenemhet III. Also the hieroglyphic sign for ‘pyramid’ was a pyramid often with a yellow pyramidion, suggesting that the latter may have been covered with gold leaf. An inscription on the pyramid of queen Udjebten (6th Dynasty) speaks of the golden capstone on her pyramid. In the Pyramid Texts we read,

“O King, raise yourself upon your iron bones and golden members, for this body of yours belongs to a god… may your flesh be born to life and may your life be more than the life of the stars in their season of life…”

“I [the king] row Ra when traversing the sky, even I a star of gold…”

“…be a soul like a living star”.

Could the idea of the pyramidal shape of a “living star” made from golden flesh and black iron bones and shining high up in the sky, have been the reason for the pyramidion made of black granite covered in gold leaf and raised high up the pyramid? Was this how the lost pyramidion of Khufu looked like? And what could have happened to it? Could it have been removed by the priests of Heliopolis, under the orders of Imhotep, from its original sanctuary and hidden somewhere? Where?

In a ‘secret chamber’ inside the Great Pyramid?

Only time will tell…

Secret Sites part IV, Secrets Of Giza Plateau

 

 

Egypt has always been in my mind since I was a little boy. I have known that something very important is hidden in that area. Why Egypt’s officials don’t tell everything and all the fights between French and Britain of the artifacts, I know there’s something very important and it belongs to whole mankind. I wont tell the history about Giza Plateau but some facts first:

When Khufu, perhaps better known by his Greek name, Cheops, became king of Egypt after the death of Sneferu, there was no convenient space remaining at Dahshur, where Sneferu was buried, for Khufu’s own pyramid complex. Hence, he moved his court and residence farther north, where his prospectors had located a commanding rock cliff, overlooking present day Giza, appropriate for a towering pyramid. This rock cliff was in the northernmost part of the first Lower Egyptian nome, Ineb-hedj (“the white fortress”).

Giza is located only a few kilometers south of Cairo, several hundred meters from the last houses in the southernmost part of the city proper, where a limestone cliff rises abruptly from the other side of a sandy desert plateau. The ancient Egyptians called this place imentet, “The West” or kher neter, “the necropolis”.

Clickable Image Map of Giza

Clickable Image Map

of Giza According to a treatise on the geology of the pyramid plateau by Thomas Aigner, it is part of the Middle Eocene Mokattam Formation, which dips slightly southeast, comprising limestone and dolomites. To the south, the Mokattam and dolomitic limestones are overlain by the marly limestone and sandy marls of the Upper Eocene Maadi Formation. To the north and east, the Mokattam Formation is characterized by two steep escarpments about 30 meters (92 feet) high. It continues to the Great Sphinx ditch, which must at one time have formed a high peak. From there, the stonemasons cut the core blocks for the Great Pyramid.

Side View of Giza

Side View of Giza

The older pyramids of the third and early fourth dynasty were built on thick layers of marl and slate. These marl layers were easier to dig than limestone, so excavation of the large shafts that extended as much as 30 meters beneath the step pyramids was accomplished in a reasonable time. However, there was also a serious disadvantage, because the marl layers could not support their weight. The underlayer gave way, and the construction became unstable. This in fact happened with the South Pyramid at Dahshur, where cracks and serious damage appeared in the corridor system and in the chambers so that the pyramid had to be abandoned.

Another view of Giza

Another view of Giza

Hence, when Khufu planned his own ambitious pyramid, he was looking for a solid rock base, nearby quarries and a dominating position overlooking the Nile Valley, which he of course found at Giza.

Giza can be subdivided into two groupings of monuments, clearly defined and separated by a wadi. The larger grouping consists of the three “Great” pyramids of Khufu, Khephren (Khafre), and Menkaure, the Sphinx, attendant temples and outbuildings, and the private mastabas of the nobility.

The second grouping, located on the ridge to the southeast, contains a number of private tombs of citizens of various classes. While the majority of the monuments of the larger grouping are made from limestone that was quarried and transported to the site, the tombs of the smaller grouping are simply carved out of the native living rock.

Though the three Great Pyramids are the most famous and prominent monuments at Giza, the site has actually been a Necropolis almost since the beginning of Pharaonic Egypt. A tomb just on the outskirts of the Giza site dates from the reign of the First Dynasty Pharaoh Wadj (Djet), and jar sealings discovered in a tomb in the southern part of Giza mention the Second Dynasty Pharaoh Ninetjer. But it was the Fourth Dynasty Pharaoh Khufu (Cheops) who placed Giza forever at the heart of funerary devotion, a city of the dead that dwarfed the cities of the living nearby. In order to build his complex, he had to clear away many of the old tombs, filling in their shafts or even totally destroying them. His pyramid, the largest of all the pyramids in Egypt (though it should be noted that it surpasses the Red Pyramid at Dahshur built by his father Snefru by only ten meters), dominates the sandy plain.

On its southwest diagonal is the pyramid of his son, Khephren (Chephren, Khafre). Although it is smaller, a steeper angle results in the illusion that they are the same size. In fact, Kephren’s pyramid appears taller since it is on higher ground. The notion that this was done on purpose to out-do his father is without question. As it occupies the central point, has the illusion of greater size, and still has some of its casing stones intact, it is frequently mistaken to as the Great Pyramid, something that would no doubt please Khephren were he alive today.

Further along the southwest diagonal is the smallest of the three great pyramids, that ofKhephren‘s son, Menkaure. It is also the most unusual. First of all, it is not entirely limestone. The uppermost portions are brick, much like the several Pyramids at Dahshur, though separated from them by several centuries. One theory is that Menkaure died before his pyramid could be completed, and the remaining construction was hastily done to finish it in time for the burial. It is also not along the diagonal line that runs through the Great Pyramid and the Second Pyramid, but instead is nearly a hundred meters to the southeast. This error, if error it is, is of a magnitude not in keeping with the mathematical skill known to have been possessed by the ancient Egyptians. However, an idea has emerged in the last few years that the three large pyramids of Giza are actually meant to be in an alignment resembling that of the three “belt” stars in the constellation Orion: Alnitak, Alnilam, and Mintaka. This theory is largely discounted by the majority of Egyptologists, but some do believe it is a point to ponder. Actually, it should also be noted that, while the center of the pyramid does not line up with its larger counterparts, the southeast sides of all three pyramids are in alignment.

All three pyramids stand empty, probably plundered during the political unrest that ended the Old Kingdom when the monarchy collapsed. Yet there are the occasional surprises. Airtight pits along the southern and eastern walls of Khufu‘s pyramid contain boats (not small ritual boats, but fully-functional funerary barges with 40-ton displacements. One was excavated in 1954).

Exactly how big Giza is may never be known. Excavations have continued to find new tombs and artifacts since Bezoni, Caviglia, Perring, and Vyse began the first systematic study of Giza in the early 1800s. It has been explored and excavated more thoroughly than any other site in Egypt, possibly more than any other site in the world, yet no one believes the research is anywhere near complete today.

Throughout the Old Kingdom, the cemetery of Giza remained the most prominent, even when the kings moved again to Southern Saqqara. For example, important officials such as the architects of the ‘inti family, who constructed the pyramids of the 5th and 6th Dynasties, continued to live in the pyramid town of Khufu and had their family tombs at Giza.

During the First Intermediate Period, the pyramid town of Khufu and the cemetery of Giza were both abandoned, and they remained so during the Middle Kingdom. In fact, the pyramids were forcefully opened and plundered, and the private tombs were not ignored by thieves either. The causeways and temples were in fact even used as quarries by the architects of the kings of the 12th Dynasty.

The Great Sphinx at Giza

This all changed completely during the New Kingdom. The kings of the 18th Dynasty showed deep respect for the pyramids as monuments of their ancestors at Giza, and the area gained considerable religious significance as the center of royal worship to the Great Sphinx, “Lord of Setpet, the Chosen Place.” Princes and kings of the 18th and 19th Dynasties erected stelae between the paws of the Sphinx, which was no longer seen as a royal statue but rather as an image of the sun god Harmachis, “Horus in his Western Horizon”, which was actually a reference to the “Horizon of Khufu”. Amenhotep II dedicated a small temple to Harcachis to the northeast of the Sphinx. On foundation tables of that temple, the Sphinx is also named Harmachis-Hauron. Hauron was the name of a Syrian-Palestinian god of the netherworld that a community of Syrian-Palestinians living near the Great Sphinx identified with his image. Ramesses II installed a sanctuary within the forepaws of the Sphinx.

In the Late period, Osiris became the dominant god of the area, taking over the cult locations of Rostau from Sokar and installing his cult in the Sphinx. High, massive pedestals were actually added to the body of the Sphinx, on which chapels of Osiris and probably Isis stood. Isis became known as the “Lady of the Pyramids.”

Another View of the Great Sphinx at Giza

During the Sixth Century BC onward, Greek travelers admired the pyramids at Giza, and it was they who eventually placed the monuments in the list of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

After the Pharonic Period, and up until recently, stone from the monuments were taken and used to build buildings in nearby Cairo. First the polished white limestone “casing” was taken, then the softer core stones. Many of Cairo’s oldest buildings are built partly from stones from the pyramids. This destruction continued well into the Nineteenth Century until preservation efforts and a resurgence of national pride put a stop to it. It is believed that had the pyramids not been vandalized, they would still remain to this day much as they were when they were built. As the saying goes, “Man fears Time, but Time fears the Pyramids.”

Giza Pyramids

Giza Tombs

Eastern Necropolis

Western Necropolis

Other Structures

See also:

One of my favorite Egypt researchers is Graham Hancock and his ideas of Giza Plateau. Here is some info about hidden tunnels & doors in Giza Plateau:

THE “DOOR” IN THE GREAT PYRAMID

  • (c) 1996, Graham Hancock
    In March 1993, a small “door” made of marble or limestone with two copper handles fixed on it was discovered by a mechanized robot (Upuaut II, “Me opener of the way” in ancient Egyptian) at the end of a long narrow shaft (8 x 8 inches and 200 feet long). Since then the discoverer, robotics engineer Rudolf Gantenbrink from Munich, has been banned from resuming the exploration and opening the door. The official reason given by the Egyptian Antiquities Authorities (known as the Supreme Council of Antiquities – SCA) was that Gantenbrink leaked the news of the discovery to the British Press in April 1993 and thus, apparently, broke a “rule” of archeology. The Director of the German Archaeological Institute in Cairo, Dr. Rainer Stadelmann, sided with the Egyptians and condemned Gantenbrink for his press action. Dr. Stadelmann was adamant about the non-importance of the find. “This is not a door; there is nothing behind it.” The President of the Supreme Council for Antiquities, Dr. Muhamad Bakr, went as far as claiming a “hoax.” “The orifice of the shaft is too small for the robot to go through” and accused the “German scientist” of not having the correct “approvals” from the SCA to carry out the exploration. Dr. Bakr fired the Chief Inspector of the Giza Pyramid Plateau, Dr. Zahi Hawass, although the official reason given was that a valuable ancient “statue” under the custody of Hawass was stolen from Giza. Three months later, in June 1993, Dr. Bakr himself was fired and replaced by Dr. Nur El Din. Amid accusations of malpractice and fraud, Dr. Bakr spoke of a “mafia” which had been involved with the Pyramids for “the last twenty years”. Refusing to give names, Dr. Bakr said, “I wanted the whole matter investigated by the prosecution authorities, but my request was refused.” Meanwhile, Dr. Hawass, who went to the USA, claimed that the discovery of the “door” was “THE discovery in Egypt,” and speculated on important artifacts behind it. In early 1994, Dr. Hawass was reinstalled at his post at the Giza Pyramids. Meanwhile, Gantenbrink offered his robot to the Egyptians and also offered to train an Egyptian technician to man the equipment and open the door. The Egyptians rejected the offer; “We are very busy at the moment,” replied Dr. Nur El Din. About the same time, Dr. Hawass was to declare that “I do not think this is a “door” and there is nothing behind it.” In March 1996 however, Dr. Hawass changed his mind once again and declared Gantenbrink’s find as being one of huge interest and that the “door” would be opened in September 1996 by a Canadian “mission”, but not including Rudolf Gantenbrink or his robot. The Canadian “mission” is owned by Amtex Corporation of Canada, a mulit-media CD-ROM company, who are reported to be raising the huge sum of $10 million to promote a staged a “live opening” of the door on television networks. “I’m working with a private guy who is a personal friend of Hawass and we are absolutely going to drum this thing to death. Whatever the event we are going to stage, it will be televised live,” reported Amtex Corporation’s president, Mr Peter Zuuring.

TUNNELS & CHAMBERS UNDER THE GREAT SPHINX

I. In a series of expeditions between 1991 and 1993 led by John Anthony West, an independent Egyptologist, scientific investigators conducted geological and seismic surveys around the Great Sphinx of Egypt. The chief geologist was Dr. Robert Schoch, Professor of Geology at Boston University, and the chief seismologist was Thomas Dobecki, from the highly-respected Houston consulting firm, McBride-Ratclif & Associates.

II.The team’s conclusions were as follows: A. Geology, The pattern of erosion on the Sphinx indicates that it was carved at the end of the last Ice Age, when heavy rains fell on the eastern Sahara – perhaps more than 12, 000 years ago. This contrasts starkly with the “orthodox” Egyptological dating for the Sphinx of around 4,500 years ago. B. Seismography. The seismic survey indicated the existence of several unexplored tunnels and cavities in the bedrock beneath the Sphinx, including a large rectangular chamber at a depth of some 25 feet beneath the monuments front paws.

III., In 1993, John West and his team were physically expelled from the site by Dr. Zawi Hawass then (and now) the Egyptian government’s Chief Inspector of Antiquities for the Pyramids and Sphinx. He appeared to be angered by the suggestion that the Sphinx might be far older than the civilization of Egypt itself – and thus the work of a lost civilization – and was particularly incensed by an NBC television film that was made about the team’s work This film linked the Sphinx to Atlantis and suggested that the chamber beneath the paws might contain the legendary “Hall of Records” of Atlantis. Hawass called these claims, “American hallucinations .. There is no scientific base for any of this. We have older monuments in the same area. They definitely weren’t built by men from Atlantis. It’s nonsense and we won’t allow our monuments to be exploited for personal enrichment. The Sphinx is the soul of Egypt.”

IV. An article in the Egyptian press responding to the NBC film quoted Dr. Hawass on his further reasons for expelling John West and his team from the Sphinx enclosure: “I have found that their work is carried out by installing endoscopes in the Sphinx body and shooting film for all phases of the work in a propagandistic but not scientific manner. I therefore suspended the work of this unscientific mission and made a report which was presented to the permanent commission who rejected the mission’s work in the future.”

V. The NBC film was produced by a certain Boris Said and partially financed by investments from the members of the Association for Research and Enlightenment (ARE). The ARE, headquartered in Virginia Beach in the US, is a multimillion dollar organization that exists to promulgate the teachings and prophecies of an American psychic, Edgar Cayce, who died in 1947. Prominent amongst Cayce’s pronouncements were many statements to the effect that the Sphinx had been built in 10,500 BC by the survivors of the lost civiliaztion of Atlantis and that the survivors had concealed beneath it a “Hall of Records” containing all the wisdom of their lost civilization and the true history of the human race. Cayce prophesied that this Hall of Records would be rediscovered and opened between 1996 and 1998. He connected the opening to second coming of Christ.

VI. In 1995, John West and Professor Robert Schoch of Boston University put in an application to the Egyptian authorities to resume their research. their application was ignored.

VII At the beginning of April 1996, the Egyptian authorities granted a one-year license to a new team to conduct surveys around the Sphinx and the Giza necropolis using seismic equipment and ground-penetrating radar. This team, which claims academic sponsorship from Florida State University , is largely financed through the Schor Foundation of New York – by Dr. Joseph Schor, an American multimillionaire. Dr. Schor is a life member of the ARE and wrote on 24th May 1994 of his great personal interest in corroborating “the Cayce records which indicated that the culture which led to the building of the Pyramids dates to 10,400 BC.’: He also staated his wish “to further delineate that civilization.”

VIII On April 11th 1996 Dr. Schor stated of his current project at the Sphinx: “We do not work for the Edgar Cayce Group. The major purpose of the Schor Foundation and the Florida State University is to aid in the preservation and restoration of the Pyramids and Sphinx. In addition, we are surveying the underground of the Giza Plateau to find faults and chasms that might collapse. This will increase the safety of the plateau.”

IX Also financed by Dr. Schor is a short video film shot at the end of 1995 by Boris Said and produced in early 1996. The film opens with Dr. Zawi Hawass scrambling into a tunnel leading under the Sphinx. When he reaches the bottom he turns to face the camera and whispers to the viewer, “Even Indiana Jones woull never dream to be here. Can you believe it? We are now inside the Sphinx in this tunnel. This tunnel has never been opened before. No one really knows what’s inside this tunnel. But we are going to open it for the first time.” In commentary the film’s narrator goes on to state, “Edgar Cayce, America’s famous ‘Sleeping Prophet’, predicted that a chamber would be discovered beneath the Sphinx – a chamber containing the recorded history of human civilization. For the first time we’ll show you what lies beneath this great statue…a chamber which will be opened tonight, live, for our television cameras.”

X . Dr. Schor has stated (on 11th April 1996) that this video is not a promotional venture aimed at hooking a major US network to televise a live opening of a chamber under the Sphinx. On the contrary, he insists, ‘It was made to test script and equipment and was made in November 1995 which was many months before we received approval for our expedition. We have abandoned its use..”

XI. On 14th April 1996, Dr. Zawi Hawass announced in the Egyptian press that there were secret tunnels under the Sphinx and around the Pyramids and stated his belief that these tunnels would prove to “carry many secrets of the building of the Pyramids.”

Here Graham Hancock talks about the Great Pyramids, that they are not just ancient tombs:

 

And here is a Chris Dunn’s beautiful theory, that Pyramids could have been ancient power plants (4 parts):

 

 

I think that the “official” story about Great Pyramids and Giza Plateau stinks and it stinks very bad. We don’t know anything about the ancient technology, because of some little group of scholars who has decided that this is the “official” theory and there’s no more about it. I think that it’s foolish to built these kind of monuments just tombs, it’s just too stupid. Ancient had maybe anti-gravity technology and this knowledge belongs to mankind. We need to know the Truth about Giza Plateau and it can be found if you search deep enough. Let’s find the Truth and stay tuned for more SECRET SITES!!!

Mystery Of The Rosetta Stone

 

"A large dark grey-coloured slab of stone with text that uses Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, demotic and Greek script in three separate horizontal registers"
 

One of the fascinating archeological finding is an artifact called The Rosetta Stone. This piece of history made possible to translate some mysteries of the ancient Pyramids, because it bears three inscriptions: the top register in Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, the second in the Egyptian demotic script, and the third in Ancient Greek. Here is the description about the artifact:

The Rosetta Stone is an ancient Egyptiangranodioritestele inscribed with a decree issued at Memphis in 196 BC on behalf of King Ptolemy V. The decree appears in three scripts: the upper text is Ancient Egyptianhieroglyphs, the middle portion Demotic script, and the lowest Ancient Greek. Because it presents essentially the same text in all three scripts (with some minor differences between them), it provided the key to the modern understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphs.

Originally displayed within a temple, the stone was probably moved during the early Christian or medieval period and eventually used as building material in the construction of Fort Julien near the town of Rashid (Rosetta) in the Nile Delta. It was rediscovered there in 1799 by a soldier, Pierre-François Bouchard, of the French expedition to Egypt. As the first Ancient Egyptian bilingual text recovered in modern times, the Rosetta Stone aroused widespread public interest with its potential to decipher this hitherto untranslated ancient language. Lithographic copies and plaster casts began circulating among European museums and scholars. Meanwhile, British troops defeated the French in Egypt in 1801, and the original stone came into British possession under the Capitulation of Alexandria. Transported to London, it has been on public display at the British Museum since 1802. It is the most-visited object in the British Museum.

Study of the decree was already under way as the first full translation of the Greek text appeared in 1803. It was 20 years, however, before the transliteration of the Egyptian scripts was announced by Jean-François Champollion in Paris in 1822; it took longer still before scholars were able to read Ancient Egyptian inscriptions and literature confidently. Major advances in the decoding were: recognition that the stone offered three versions of the same text (1799); that the demotic text used phonetic characters to spell foreign names (1802); that the hieroglyphic text did so as well, and had pervasive similarities to the demotic (Thomas Young, 1814); and that, in addition to being used for foreign names, phonetic characters were also used to spell native Egyptian words (Champollion, 1822–1824).

Ever since its rediscovery, the stone has been the focus of nationalist rivalries, including its transfer from French to British possession during the Napoleonic Wars, a long-running dispute over the relative value of Young’s and Champollion’s contributions to the decipherment, and since 2003, demands for the stone’s return to Egypt.

Two other fragmentary copies of the same decree were discovered later, and several similar Egyptian bilingual or trilingual inscriptions are now known, including two slightly earlier Ptolemaic decrees (the Decree of Canopus in 238 BC, and the Memphis decree of Ptolemy IV, ca. 218 BC). The Rosetta Stone is therefore no longer unique, but it was the essential key to modern understanding of Ancient Egyptian literature and civilization. The term Rosetta Stone is now used in other contexts as the name for the essential clue to a new field of knowledge.

Description

The Rosetta Stone is listed as “a stone of black granite, bearing three inscriptions … found at Rosetta”, in a contemporary catalogue of the artifacts discovered by the French expedition and surrendered to British troops in 1801.[1] At some period after its arrival in London, the inscriptions on the stone were coloured in white chalk to make them more legible, and the remaining surface was covered with a layer of carnauba wax designed to protect the Rosetta Stone from visitors’ fingers.[2] This gave a dark colour to the stone that led to its mistaken identification as black basalt.[3] These additions were removed when the stone was cleaned in 1999, revealing the original dark grey tint of the rock, the sparkle of its crystalline structure, and a pink vein running across the top left corner.[4] Comparisons with the Klemm collection of Egyptian rock samples showed a close resemblance to rock from a small granodiorite quarry at Gebel Tingar on the west bank of the Nile, west of Elephantine in the region of Aswan; the pink vein is typical of granodiorite from this region.[5]

The Rosetta Stone is currently 114.4 centimetres (45 in) high at its highest point, 72.3 cm (28.5 in) wide, and 27.9 cm (11 in) thick. It weighs approximately 760 kilograms (1,700 lb).[6] It bears three inscriptions: the top register in Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, the second in the Egyptian demotic script, and the third in Ancient Greek.[7] The front surface is polished and the inscriptions lightly incised on it; the sides of the stone are smoothed, but the back is only roughly worked, presumably because this would have not been visible when it was erected.

Original stele

The Rosetta Stone is a fragment of a larger stele. No additional fragments were found in later searches of the Rosetta site.[9] Owing to its damaged state, none of the three texts is absolutely complete. The top register composed of Egyptian hieroglyphs suffered the most damage. Only the last 14 lines of the hieroglyphic text can be seen; all of them are broken on the right side, and 12 of them on the left. The following register of demotic text has survived best: it has 32 lines, of which the first 14 are slightly damaged on the right side. The final register of Greek text contains 54 lines, of which the first 27 survive in full; the rest are increasingly fragmentary due to a diagonal break at the bottom right of the stone.[10]

The full length of the hieroglyphic text and the total size of the original stele, of which the Rosetta Stone is a fragment, can be estimated based on comparable stelae that have survived, including other copies of the same order. The slightly earlier decree of Canopus, erected in 238 BC during the reign of Ptolemy III, is 219 centimetres (86 in) high and 82 centimetres (32 in) wide, and contains 36 lines of hieroglyphic text, 73 of demotic text, and 74 of Greek. The texts are of similar length.[11] From such comparisons it can be estimated that an additional 14 or 15 lines of hieroglyphic inscription are missing from the top register of the Rosetta Stone, amounting to another 30 centimetres (12 in).[12] In addition to the inscriptions, there would probably have been a scene depicting the king being presented to the gods, topped with a winged disk, as on the Canopus Stele. These parallels, and a hieroglyphic sign for “stela” on the stone itself (Gardiner’s SignO26)

O26

suggest that it originally had a rounded top.[7][13] The height of the original stele is estimated to have been about 149 centimetres (59 in).

Memphis decree and its context

The stele was erected after the coronation of King Ptolemy V, and was inscribed with a decree that established the divine cult of the new ruler.[14] The decree was issued by a congress of priests who gathered at Memphis. The date is given as “4 Xandicus” in the Macedonian calendar and “18 Meshir” in the Egyptian calendar, which corresponds to March 27, 196 BC. The year is stated as the ninth year of Ptolemy V’s reign (equated with 197/196 BC), and it is confirmed by naming four priests who officiated in that same year: Aëtus son of Aëtus was priest of the divine cults of Alexander the Great and the five Ptolemies down to Ptolemy V himself; his three colleagues, named in turn in the inscription, led the worship of Berenice Euergetis (wife of Ptolemy III), Arsinoe Philadelpha (wife and sister of Ptolemy II) and Arsinoe Philopator, mother of Ptolemy V.[15] However, a second date is also given in the Greek and hieroglyphic texts, corresponding to 27 November 197 BC, the official anniversary of Ptolemy’s coronation.[16] The inscription in demotic conflicts with this, listing consecutive days in March for the decree and the anniversary;[16] although it is uncertain why such discrepancies exist, it is clear that the decree was issued in 196 BC and that it was designed to re-establish the rule of the Ptolemaic kings over Egypt.[17]

The decree was issued during a turbulent period in Egyptian history. Ptolemy V Epiphanes (reigned 204–181 BC), son of Ptolemy IV Philopator and his wife and sister Arsinoe, had become ruler at the age of five after the sudden death of both of his parents, murdered, according to contemporary sources, in a conspiracy that involved Ptolemy IV’s mistress Agathoclea. The conspirators effectively ruled Egypt as Ptolemy V’s guardians,[18][19] until, two years later, a revolt broke out under the general Tlepolemus and Agathoclea and her family were lynched by a mob in Alexandria. Tlepolemus, in turn, was replaced as guardian in 201 BC by Aristomenes of Alyzia, who was chief minister at the time of the Memphis decree.[20]

Political forces beyond the borders of Egypt exacerbated the internal problems of the Ptolemaic kingdom. Antiochus III the Great and Philip V of Macedon had made a pact to divide Egypt’s overseas possessions. Philip had seized several islands and cities in Caria and Thrace, while the Battle of Panium (198 BC) had resulted in the transfer of Coele-Syria, including Judea, from the Ptolemies to the Seleucids. Meanwhile, in the south of Egypt, there was a long-standing revolt that had begun during the reign of Ptolemy IV,[16] led by Horwennefer and by his successor Ankhwennefer.[21] Both the war and the internal revolt were still ongoing when the young Ptolemy V was officially crowned at Memphis at the age of 12 (seven years after the start of his reign), and the Memphis decree issued.

The stele is a late example of a class of donation stelae, which depicts the reigning monarch granting a tax exemption to the resident priesthood.[22] Pharaohs had erected these stelae over the previous 2,000 years, the earliest examples dating from the Egyptian Old Kingdom. In earlier periods all such decrees were issued by the king himself, but the Memphis decree was issued by the priests, as the maintainers of traditional Egyptian culture.[23] The decree records that Ptolemy V gave a gift of silver and grain to the temples.[24] It also records that in the eighth year of his reign during a particularly high Nile flood, he had the excess waters dammed for the benefit of the farmers.[24] In return for these concessions, the priesthood pledged that the king’s birthday and coronation days would be celebrated annually, and that all the priests of Egypt would serve him alongside the other gods. The decree concludes with the instruction that a copy was to be placed in every temple, inscribed in the “language of the gods” (hieroglyphs), the “language of documents” (demotic), and the “language of the Greeks” as used by the Ptolemaic government.[25][26]

Securing the favour of the priesthood was essential for the Ptolemaic kings to retain effective rule over the populace. The High Priests of Memphis—where the king was crowned—were particularly important, as they were the highest religious authority of the time and had influence throughout the kingdom.[27] Given that the decree was issued at Memphis, the ancient capital of Egypt, rather than Alexandria, the centre of government of the ruling Ptolemies, it is evident that the young king was anxious to gain their active support.[28] Hence, although the government of Egypt had been Greek-speaking ever since the conquests of Alexander the Great, the Memphis decree, like the two preceding decrees in the series, included texts in Egyptian to display its relevance to the general populace by way of the literate Egyptian priesthood.[29]

There exists no one definitive English translation of the decree because of the minor differences between the three original texts and because modern understanding of the ancient languages continues to develop. An up-to-date translation by R. S. Simpson, based on the demotic text, appears on the British Museum website.[30] It can be compared with Edwyn R. Bevan‘s full translation in The House of Ptolemy (1927),[31] based on the Greek text with footnote comments on variations between this and the two Egyptian texts.

The stele almost certainly did not originate in the town of Rashid (Rosetta) where it was found, but more likely came from a temple site farther inland, possibly the royal town of Sais.[32] The temple it originally came from was probably closed around AD 392 when Eastern Roman emperor Theodosius I ordered the closing of all non-Christian temples of worship.[33] At some point the original stele broke, its largest piece becoming what we now know as the Rosetta Stone.[34] Ancient Egyptian temples were later used as quarries for new construction, and the Rosetta Stone probably was re-used in this manner. Later it was incorporated in the foundations of a fortress constructed by the MamelukeSultanQaitbay (ca. 1416/18–1496) to defend the Bolbitine branch of the Nile at Rashid.[34] There it would lie for at least another three centuries until its rediscovery.[34]

Two other inscriptions of the Memphis decrees have been found since the discovery of the Rosetta Stone: the Nubayrah Stele and an inscription found at the Temple of Philae. Unlike the Rosetta Stone, their hieroglyphic inscriptions were relatively intact, and though the inscriptions on the Rosetta Stone had been deciphered long before the discovery of the other copies of the decree, subsequent Egyptologists including Wallis Budge used these other inscriptions to further refine the actual hieroglyphs that must have been used in the lost portions of the hieroglyphic register on the Rosetta Stone.[35]

Rediscovery

On Napoleon‘s 1798 campaign in Egypt, the expeditionary army was accompanied by the Commission des Sciences et des Arts, a corps of 167 technical experts (savants). On July 15, 1799, as French soldiers under the command of Colonel d’Hautpoul were strengthening the defences of Fort Julien, a couple of miles north-east of the Egyptian port city of Rosetta (Modern day Rashid), Lieutenant Pierre-François Bouchard spotted a slab with inscriptions on one side that the soldiers had uncovered.[36] He and d’Hautpoul saw at once that it might be important and informed general Jacques-François Menou, who happened to be at Rosetta.[A] The find was announced to Napoleon’s newly founded scientific association in Cairo, the Institut d’Égypte, in a report by Commission member Michel Ange Lancret noting that it contained three inscriptions, the first in hieroglyphs and the third in Greek, and rightly suggesting that the three inscriptions would be versions of the same text. Lancret’s report, dated July 19, 1799, was read to a meeting of the Institute soon after July 25. Bouchard, meanwhile, transported the stone to Cairo for examination by scholars. Napoleon himself inspected what had already begun to be called la Pierre de Rosette, the Rosetta Stone, shortly before his return to France in August 1799.[9]

The discovery was reported in Courrier de l’Égypte, the official newspaper of the French expedition, in September: the anonymous reporter expressed a hope that the stone might one day be the key to deciphering hieroglyphs.[A][9] In 1800, three of the Commission’s technical experts devised ways to make copies of the texts on the stone. One of these, the printer and gifted linguist Jean-Joseph Marcel, is credited as the first to recognise that the middle text, originally guessed to be Syriac, was, in fact, written in the Egyptian demotic script, rarely used for stone inscriptions and, therefore, seldom seen by scholars at that time.[9] It was the artist and inventor Nicolas-Jacques Conté who found a way to use the stone itself as a printing block;[37] a slightly different method for reproducing the inscriptions was adopted by Antoine Galland. The prints that resulted were taken to Paris by General Charles Dugua. Scholars in Europe were now able to see the inscriptions and attempt to read them.[38]

After Napoleon’s departure, French troops held off British and Ottoman attacks for a further 18 months. In March 1801, the British landed at Aboukir Bay. General Jacques-François Menou, who had been one of the first to see the stone in 1799, was now in command of the French expedition. His troops, including the Commission, marched north towards the Mediterranean coast to meet the enemy, transporting the stone along with other antiquities of all kinds. Defeated in battle, Menou and the remnant of his army retreated to Alexandria where they were surrounded and besieged, the stone now inside the city. He admitted defeat and surrendered on August 30.[39][40]

From French to British possession

After the surrender, a dispute arose over the fate of French archaeological and scientific discoveries in Egypt, including a group of artifacts, biological specimens, notes, plans and drawings collected by the members of the commission. Menou refused to hand them over, claiming that they belonged to the Institute. British General John Hely-Hutchinson refused to relieve the city until Menou gave in. Scholars Edward Daniel Clarke and William Richard Hamilton, newly arrived from England, agreed to examine the collections in Alexandria and claimed to have found many artefacts that the French had not revealed. In a letter home, Clarke said that “we found much more in their possession than was represented or imagined”.[41]

When Hutchinson claimed all materials were property of the British Crown, a French scholar, Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, said to Clarke and Hamilton that they would rather burn all their discoveries—referring ominously to the destruction of the Library of Alexandria—than turn them over. Clarke and Hamilton pleaded the French scholars’ case and Hutchinson finally agreed that items such as natural history specimens would be the scholars’ private property.[40][42] Menou quickly claimed the stone, too, as his private property;[43] had this been accepted, he would have been able to take it to France.[40] Equally aware of the stone’s unique value, General Hutchinson rejected Menou’s claim. Eventually an agreement was reached, and the transfer of the objects was incorporated into the Capitulation of Alexandria signed by representatives of the British, French and Ottoman forces.

How exactly the stone was transferred into British hands is not clear, as contemporary accounts differ. Colonel Tomkyns Hilgrove Turner, who was to escort it to England, claimed later that he had personally seized it from Menou and carried it away on a gun-carriage. In a much more detailed account, Edward Daniel Clarke stated that a French “officer and member of the Institute” had taken him, his student John Cripps, and Hamilton secretly into the back streets behind Menou’s residence and revealed the stone hidden under protective carpets among Menou’s baggage. According to Clarke, their informant feared that the stone might be stolen if French soldiers saw it. Hutchinson was informed at once and the stone was taken away—possibly by Turner and his gun-carriage.[44]

Turner brought the stone to England aboard the captured French frigate HMS Egyptienne, landing in Portsmouth in February 1802.[45] His orders were to present it and the other antiquities to King George III. The King, represented by the War SecretaryLord Hobart, directed that it should be placed in the British Museum. According to Turner’s narrative, he urged—and Hobart agreed—that before its final deposit in the museum, the stone should be presented to scholars at the Society of Antiquaries of London, of which Turner was a member. It was first seen and discussed there at a meeting on March 11, 1802.[B][H]

During the course of 1802, the Society created four plaster casts of the inscriptions, which were given to the universities of Oxford, Cambridge and Edinburgh and to Trinity College Dublin. Soon afterwards, prints of the inscriptions were made and circulated to European scholars.[E] Before the end of 1802, the stone was transferred to the British Museum, where it is located today.[45] New inscriptions painted in white on the left and right edges of the slab stated that it was “Captured in Egypt by the British Army in 1801″ and “Presented by King George III”.[2]

The stone has been exhibited almost continuously in the British Museum since June 1802.[6] During the middle of the 19th century, it was given the inventory number “EA 24”, “EA” standing for “Egyptian Antiquities”. It was part of a collection of ancient Egyptian monuments captured from the French expedition, including a sarcophagus of Nectanebo II (EA 10), the statue of a high priest of Amun (EA 81) and a large granite fist (EA 9).[46] The objects were soon discovered to be too heavy for the floors of Montagu House (the original building of The British Museum), and they were transferred to a new extension that was built onto the mansion. The Rosetta Stone was transferred to the sculpture gallery in 1834 shortly after Montagu House was demolished and replaced by the building that now houses the British Museum.[47] According to the museum’s records, the Rosetta Stone is its most-visited single object[48] and a simple image of it has been the museum’s best selling postcard for several decades.[49]

The Rosetta Stone was originally displayed at a slight angle from the horizontal, and rested within a metal cradle that was made for it, which involved shaving off very small portions of its sides to ensure that the cradle fitted securely.[47] It originally had no protective covering, and despite the efforts of attendants to ensure that it was not touched by visitors, by 1847 it was found necessary to place it in a protective frame.[50] Since 2004, the conserved stone has been on display in a specially built case in the centre of the Egyptian Sculpture Gallery. A replica of the Rosetta Stone as it would have appeared to early 19th-century visitors—without a case and free to touch—is now available in the King’s Library of the British Museum.[51]

Toward the end of the First World War, in 1917, the museum was concerned about heavy bombing in London and moved the Rosetta Stone to safety along with other portable objects of value. The stone spent the next two years 15.24 metres (50 ft) below ground level in a station of the Postal Tube Railway at Mount Pleasant near Holborn.[6] Other than during wartime, the Rosetta Stone has left the British Museum only once: for one month in October 1972, to be displayed alongside Champollion’s Lettre at the Louvre in Paris on the 150th anniversary of its publication.[49] Even when the Rosetta Stone was undergoing conservation measures in 1999, the work was done in the gallery so that it could remain visible to the public.[52]

Reading the Rosetta Stone

Prior to the discovery of the Rosetta Stone and its eventual decipherment, there had been no understanding of the Ancient Egyptian language and script since shortly before the fall of the Roman Empire. The usage of the hieroglyphic script had become increasingly specialised even in the later Pharaonic period; by the 4th century AD, few Egyptians were capable of reading hieroglyphs. Monumental use of hieroglyphs ceased after the closing of all non-Christian temples in the year 391 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius I; the last known inscription, found at Philae and known as The Graffito of Esmet-Akhom, is dated to 24 August 396 AD.[53]

Hieroglyphs retained their pictorial appearance and classical authors emphasised this aspect, in sharp contrast to the Greek and Roman alphabets. For example, in the 5th century the priest Horapollo wrote Hieroglyphica, an explanation of almost 200 glyphs. Believed to be authoritative yet in many ways misleading, this and other works were a lasting impediment to the understanding of Egyptian writing.[54] Later attempts at deciphering hieroglyphs were made by Arab historians in medieval Egypt during the 9th and 10th centuries. Dhul-Nun al-Misri and Ibn Wahshiyya were the first historians to study this ancient script, by relating them to the contemporary Coptic language used by Coptic priests in their time.[55][56] The study of hieroglyphs continued with fruitless attempts at decipherment by European scholars, notably Johannes Goropius Becanus in the 16th century, Athanasius Kircher in the 17th and Georg Zoëga in the 18th.[57] The discovery of the Rosetta Stone in 1799 provided critical missing information, gradually revealed by a succession of scholars, that eventually allowed Jean-François Champollion to determine the nature of this mysterious script.

Greek text

The Greek text on the Rosetta Stone provided the starting point. Ancient Greek was widely known to scholars, but the details of its use in the Hellenistic period as a government language in Ptolemaic Egypt were not familiar: large scale discoveries of Greek papyri were a long way in the future. Thus the earliest translations of the Greek text of the stone show the translators still struggling with the historical context and with administrative and religious jargon. Stephen Weston verbally presented an English translation of the Greek text at a Society of Antiquaries meeting in April 1802.[35][58] Meanwhile, two of the lithographic copies made in Egypt had reached the Institut de France in Paris, in 1801. There, the librarian and antiquarian Gabriel de La Porte du Theil set to work on a translation of the Greek. Almost immediately dispatched elsewhere on Napoleon’s orders, he left his unfinished work in the hands of a colleague, Hubert-Pascal Ameilhon, who in 1803 produced the first published translations of the Greek text, in both Latin and French to ensure that they would circulate widely.[F] At Cambridge, Richard Porson worked on the missing lower right corner of the Greek text. He produced a skillful suggested reconstruction, which was soon being circulated by the Society of Antiquaries alongside its prints of the inscription. At Göttingen at almost the same moment, the Classical historian Christian Gottlob Heyne, working from one of these prints, made a new Latin translation of the Greek text that was more reliable than Ameilhon’s. First published in 1803,[G] it was reprinted by the Society of Antiquaries, alongside Weston’s previously unpublished English translation, Colonel Turner’s narrative, and other documents, in a special issue of its journal Archaeologia in 1811.[H][59][60]

Demotic text

At the time of the stone’s discovery, the Swedishdiplomat and scholar Johan David Åkerblad was working on a little-known script of which some examples had recently been found in Egypt, which came to be known as Demotic. He called it “cursive Coptic” because, although it had few similarities with the later Coptic script, he was convinced that it was used to record some form of the Coptic language (the direct descendant of Ancient Egyptian). The French Orientalist Antoine-Isaac Silvestre de Sacy, who had been discussing this work with Åkerblad, received in 1801 from Jean-Antoine Chaptal, French minister of the interior, one of the early lithographic prints of the Rosetta Stone, and realised that the middle text was in this same script. He and Åkerblad set to work, both focusing on the middle text and assuming that the script was alphabetic. They attempted, by comparison with the Greek, to identify within this unknown text the points where Greek names ought to occur. In 1802, Silvestre de Sacy reported to Chaptal that he had successfully identified five names (“Alexandros“, “Alexandreia“, “Ptolemaios“, “Arsinoe” and Ptolemy’s title “Epiphanes“),[C] while Åkerblad published an alphabet of 29 letters (more than half of which were correct) that he had identified from the Greek names in the demotic text.[D][35] They could not, however, identify the remaining characters in the Demotic text, which, as is now known, included ideographic and other symbols alongside the phonetic ones.[61]

Hieroglyphic text

Silvestre de Sacy eventually gave up work on the stone, but he was to make another contribution. In 1811, prompted by discussions with a Chinese student about Chinese script, Silvestre de Sacy considered a suggestion made by Georg Zoëga in 1797 that the foreign names in Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions might be written phonetically; he also recalled that as long ago as 1761, Jean-Jacques Barthélemy had suggested that the characters enclosed in cartouches in hieroglyphic inscriptions were proper names. Thus, when Thomas Young, foreign secretary of the Royal Society of London, wrote to him about the stone in 1814, Silvestre de Sacy suggested in reply that in attempting to read the hieroglyphic text, Young might look for cartouches that ought to contain Greek names and try to identify phonetic characters in them.[62]

Young did so, with two results that together paved the way for the final decipherment. He discovered in the hieroglyphic text the phonetic characters “p t o l m e s” (in today’s transliteration “p t w l m y s“), that were used to write the Greek name “Ptolemaios“. He also noticed that these characters resembled the equivalent ones in the Demotic script, and went on to note as many as 80 similarities between the hieroglyphic and demotic texts on the stone, an important discovery because the two scripts were previously thought to be entirely different from one another. This led him to deduce correctly that the demotic script was only partly phonetic, also consisting of ideographic characters imitated from hieroglyphs.[I] Young’s new insights were prominent in the long article “Egypt” that he contributed to the Encyclopædia Britannica in 1819.[J] He could, however, get no further.[63]

In 1814, Young first exchanged correspondence about the stone with Jean-François Champollion, a teacher at Grenoble who had produced a scholarly work on ancient Egypt. Champollion, in 1822, saw copies of the brief hieroglyphic and Greek inscriptions of the Philae obelisk, on which William John Bankes had tentatively noted the names “Ptolemaios” and “Kleopatra” in both languages.[64] From this, Champollion identified the phonetic characters k l e o p a t r a (in today’s transliteration q l i҆ w p ꜣ d r ꜣ.t).[65] On the basis of this and the foreign names on the Rosetta Stone, he quickly constructed an alphabet of phonetic hieroglyphic characters, which appears, printed from his hand-drawn chart, in his “Lettre à M. Dacier“, addressed at the end of 1822 to Bon-Joseph Dacier, secretary of the Paris Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres and immediately published by the Académie.[K] This “Letter” marks the real breakthrough to reading Egyptian hieroglyphs, for not only the alphabet chart and the main text, but also the postscript in which Champollion notes that similar phonetic characters seemed to occur in not only Greek names but also native Egyptian names. During 1823, he confirmed this, identifying the names of pharaohs Ramesses and Thutmose written in cartouches in far older hieroglyphic inscriptions that had been copied by Bankes at Abu Simbel and sent on to Champollion by Jean-Nicolas Huyot.[M] From this point, the stories of the Rosetta Stone and the decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphs diverge, as Champollion drew on many other texts to develop a first Ancient Egyptian grammar and a hieroglyphic dictionary, both of which were to be published after his death.[66]

Later work

Work on the stone now focused on fuller understanding of the texts and their contexts by comparing the three versions with one another. In 1824, the Classical scholar Antoine-Jean Letronne promised to prepare a new literal translation of the Greek text for Champollion’s use; Champollion promised in return an analysis of all the points at which the three texts seemed to differ. Following Champollion’s sudden death in 1832, his draft of this analysis could not be found, and Letronne’s work stalled. At the death in 1838 of François Salvolini, Champollion’s former student and assistant, this and other missing drafts were found among his papers (incidentally demonstrating that Salvolini’s own publication on the stone, in 1837, was plagiarism).[O] Letronne was at last able to complete his commentary on the Greek text and his new French translation of it, which appeared in 1841.[P] During the early 1850s, two German Egyptologists, Heinrich Brugsch and Max Uhlemann, produced revised Latin translations based on the demotic and hieroglyphic texts;[Q][R] the first English translation, the work of three members of the Philomathean Society at the University of Pennsylvania, followed in 1858.[S]

The question of whether one of the three texts was the standard version from which the other two were originally translated has remained controversial. Letronne, in 1841, attempted to show that the Greek version (that of the Egyptian government under its Ptolemaic dynasty) was the original.[P] Among recent authors, John Ray has stated that “the hieroglyphs were the most important of the scripts on the stone: they were there for the gods to read, and the more learned of their priesthood”.[7] Philippe Derchain and Heinz Josef Thissen have argued that all three versions were composed simultaneously, while Stephen Quirke sees in the decree “an intricate coalescence of three vital textual traditions”.[67]Richard Parkinson points out that the hieroglyphic version, straying from archaic formalism, occasionally lapses into language closer to that of the demotic register that the priests more commonly used in everyday life.[23] The fact that the three versions cannot be matched word for word helps to explain why its decipherment has been more difficult than originally expected, especially for those original scholars who were expecting an exact bilingual key to Egyptian hieroglyphs.[68]

Rivalries

Even before the Salvolini affair, disputes over precedence and plagiarism punctuated the decipherment story. Thomas Young’s work is acknowledged in Champollion’s 1822 Lettre à M. Dacier, but incompletely, according to British critics: for example, James Browne, a sub-editor on the Encyclopædia Britannica (which had published Young’s 1819 article), contributed anonymously a series of review articles to the Edinburgh Review in 1823, praising Young’s work highly and alleging that the “unscrupulous” Champollion plagiarised it.[69][70] These articles were translated into French by Julius Klaproth and published in book form in 1827.[N] Young’s own 1823 publication reasserted the contribution that he had made.[L] The early deaths of Young and Champollion, in 1829 and 1832, did not put an end to these disputes; the authoritative work on the stone by the British Museum curator E. A. Wallis Budge, published in 1904, gives special emphasis to Young’s contribution by contrast with Champollion’s.[71] In the early 1970s, French visitors complained that the portrait of Champollion was smaller than one of Young on an adjacent information panel; English visitors complained that the opposite was true. Both portraits were in fact the same size.[49]

Requests for repatriation to Egypt

In July 2003, on the occasion of the British Museum’s 250th anniversary, Egypt first requested the return of the Rosetta Stone. Zahi Hawass, the former chief of Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities, asked that the stele be repatriated to Egypt, urging in comments to reporters: “If the British want to be remembered, if they want to restore their reputation, they should volunteer to return the Rosetta Stone because it is the icon of our Egyptian identity”.[72] Two years later in Paris he repeated the proposal, listing the stone as one of several key items belonging to Egypt’s cultural heritage, a list which also included the iconic bust of Nefertiti in the Egyptian Museum of Berlin; a statue of the Great Pyramid architect Hemiunu in the Roemer-und-Pelizaeus-Museum in Hildesheim, Germany; the Dendara Temple Zodiac in the Louvre in Paris; and the bust of Ankhhaf from the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.[73] During 2005, the British Museum presented to Egypt a full-size replica of the stele. This was initially displayed in the renovated Rashid National Museum, close to the site where the stone was found.[74] By November 2005, Hawass was suggesting a three-month loan of the Rosetta Stone, while reiterating the eventual goal of a permanent return;[75] in December 2009, he proposed to drop his claim for the permanent return of the Rosetta Stone if the British Museum loaned the stone to Egypt for three months, for the opening of the Grand Egyptian Museum at Giza in 2013.[76]

As John Ray has observed, “the day may come when the stone has spent longer in the British Museum than it ever did in Rosetta.”[77] There is strong opposition among national museums to the repatriation of objects of international cultural significance such as the Rosetta Stone. In response to repeated Greek requests for return of the Elgin Marbles and similar requests to other museums around the world, in 2002, over 30 of the world’s leading museums — including the British Museum, the Louvre, the Pergamon Museum in Berlin and the Metropolitan Museum in New York City — issued a joint statement declaring that “objects acquired in earlier times must be viewed in the light of different sensitivities and values reflective of that earlier era” and that “museums serve not just the citizens of one nation but the people of every nation”.[78]

Idiomatic use

The term Rosetta stone has been used idiomatically to represent a crucial key to the process of decryption of encoded information, especially when a small but representative sample is recognized as the clue to understanding a larger whole.[79] According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first figurative use of the term appeared in the 1902 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica relating to an entry on the chemical analysis of glucose.[79] An almost literal use of the phrase appears in popular fiction within H. G. Wells‘ 1933 novel The Shape of Things to Come, where the protagonist finds a manuscript written in shorthand that provides a key to understanding additional scattered material that is sketched out in both longhand and on typewriter.[79] Perhaps its most important and prominent usage in scientific literature was Nobel laureateTheodor W. Hänsch‘s reference in a 1979 Scientific American article on spectroscopy where he says that “the spectrum of the hydrogen atoms has proved to be the Rosetta stone of modern physics: once this pattern of lines had been deciphered much else could also be understood”.[79]

Since then the term has been widely used in other contexts. For example, fully understanding the key set of genes to the human leucocyte antigen has been described as being “the Rosetta Stone of immunology”.[80] The flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana has been called the “Rosetta Stone of flowering time”.[81] A Gamma ray burst (GRB) found in conjunction with a supernova has been called a Rosetta Stone for understanding the origin of GRBs.[82] The technique of Doppler echocardiography has been called a Rosetta Stone for clinicians trying to understand the complex process by which the left ventricle of the human heart can be filled during various forms of diastolic dysfunction.[83]

The name has also become used in various forms of translation software. Rosetta Stone is a brand of language-learning software published by Rosetta Stone Ltd., headquartered in Arlington County, Virginia, US. “Rosetta” is the name of a “lightweight dynamic translator” that enables applications compiled for PowerPC processor to run on Apple systems using an x86 processor. “Rosetta” is an online language translation tool to help localisation of software, developed and maintained by Canonical as part of the Launchpad project. Similarly, Rosetta@home is a distributed computing project for predicting (or translating) protein structures. The Rosetta Project brings language specialists and native speakers together to develop a meaningful survey and near permanent archive of 1,500 languages, intended to last from AD 2000 to 12,000. The Rosetta spacecraft is on a ten-year mission to study the comet67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, in the hopes that determining its composition will reveal the origins of the Solar System.

Source

So there you have a nice information pack and then we have a nice document about the stone and the story how French and British fought about these archeological findings. I find it fascinating that we the “people” can’t make cooperation with these findings. We are always fighting about anything, sad really:

 

And here is the Rosetta Stone’s text in translated in English:

The Rosetta Stone is an ancient Egyptian granodiorite stele inscribed with a decree issued at Memphis in 196 BC on behalf of King Ptolemy V. The decree appears in three scripts: the upper text is Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, the middle portion Demotic script, and the lowest Ancient Greek. Because it presents essentially the same text in all three scripts (with some minor differences between them), it provided the key to the modern understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphs.

 

 

Nice piece of history and very interesting artifact. This was the key to understand the ancient hieroglyphs in the Egypt and in the Pyramids. It’s like an ancient dictionary if you like.  More ancient and secret sites coming, so stay tuned and keep on searching!