DARPA’s New Biotech Division Wants to Create a Transhuman Future

Transhumanism is pushed in every corner of DARPA:

The Pentagon’s advanced research wing has announced its latest budget – and whoa, does DARPA ever have some ambitious plans for the future.

Their new Biotech unit will be harnessing biology for national security, and dealing with everything from stopping plagues to building synthetic soldiers. DARPA’s commitment to cutting-edge innovation is unquestioned.

The very essence of the defense agency is to make sure that U.S. military technology is more sophisticated than that of the nation’s rivals.

Among its many current initiatives, DARPA is working on,

In addition to these projects, DARPA has been busy at work on various biotechnology-related endeavors, but these attempts to date have lacked cohesion and focus.

Looking to change this, DARPA has announced the creation of its Biological Technologies Office (BTO) – an effort to,

“explore the the increasingly dynamic intersection of biology and the physical sciences.”

The new division will expand upon its Defense Sciences (DSO) and Microsystems Technology (MTO) Offices.

Speaking to the U.S. House of Representatives last week, DARPA Director Arati Prabhakar said that,

“Biology is nature’s ultimate innovator, and any agency that hangs its hat on innovation would be foolish not to look to this master of networked complexity for inspiration and solutions.”

Indeed, the new division will look into three incredibly promising research areas.

The Transhuman Soldier

A priority for DARPA is in restoring and maintaining the abilities of its war-fighters. It wants to maintain peak soldier abilities and then restore those abilities as soon as possible after an injury.

This will include the development of advanced prosthetics (featuring mind-controlled limbs), neural interfaces, the ability to survive blood loss, and even neurotechnological solutions to treat psychological trauma such as PTSD.

DARPA has already made tremendous strides in this area.

Speaking to NPR’s Marketplace, Prabhakar noted:

We had quadriplegic volunteers who agreed to have brain surgery, essentially have a small array placed on the surface of their brains, to pick up these neural signals for motor control, and then to use those to control these new, very sophisticated, robotic, prosthetic arms.

In a sense we’ve opened a door – a connection between the human brain and the rest of the world. You can let your imagination go wild about where that’s going to take us.

No doubt – many of these therapeutic technologies will be leveraged to enhance the capacities of soldiers.

For example, work on memory impairments is leading to new insights into the brain’s functioning. This will inform the development of technologies that will help soldiers interact with complex systems; future interfaces and tools will deliver information to soldiers in a way that’s easier for them to understand (which is a growing problem – our systems are starting to operate faster than human comprehension).

As Prabhakar says, there’s,

“going to be a future where we start learning radically new ways to interact between the complexity of the human brain and the complexity of the world around us.”

And with the introduction of its biochronicity program, DARPA could get a handle on human metabolism and aging, resulting in enhanced human combat performance and freakishly resilient soldiers (both in terms of resisting and recovering from physical injury and resistance to disease).

In addition, DARPA is looking to develop technologies that will identify and protect against infectious diseases, such as tools that will neutralize biological threats.

To Seek Out – And Create – New Life

The Pentagon also wants to dabble in artificial life as a way to create completely new biological systems, products, and materials.

It’s hoping to gain a better understanding of natural process and the underlying design rules that govern the behavior of biological systems, and then apply that knowledge to forward-engineer new systems and products with completely novel functionality.

This is particularly interesting news considering that biologists have recently built an artificial chromosome from scratch.

Once refined, this biotechnology will allow for the creation of entirely new organisms, while adding new capacities (or “features”) to existing ones – including humans. Imagine a soldier who never needs to sleep, requires minimal sustenance, or who has cat-like infrared vision.

Artificial chromosomes could pave the way towards this kind of future – technologies that could eventually trickle into the civilian domain (much like the Internet and GPS has – both military innovations).

Interestingly, this meshes well with DARPA’s existing BioDesign program which is studying the potential for synthetic organisms to be engineered for immortality and programmed with a kill switch that allows it to be turned off at any time.

This recently prompted Motherboard‘s Meghan Neal to ask,

“Why bother with mechanical robots when you can engineer fake human replicants to fight your battles?

We haven’t heard much about the Pentagon’s would-be synthetic soldiers since then, but the BioDesign program got a bump from $11.4 to $19.3 million in next year’s budget.”

As part of the BTO initiative, DARPA’s Living Foundries program will focus on:

…creating a biologically based manufacturing platform to provide rapid, scalable access to new materials with novel properties that can enable a new generation of mechanical, electrical, and optical products.

While its Chronicle of Lineage Indicative of Origins (CLIO) program aims to:

  • make biological engineering safer by establishing enduring control elements that protect against intentionally harmful genetic engineering

  • prevent illegal acquisition or misuse of proprietary strains,

  • provide novel forensic tools to assist in the investigation of biological incidents

  • allow responsible investigators to document compliance with safe biological manipulation practices

Preventing Plagues

Smartly, DARPA is also looking into ways of preventing and mitigating the effects of a global pandemic.

The complexity and unpredictability of outbreaks, it says, is a reflection of our poor understanding of the dynamics involved. In addition, the research agency wants to study larger biological and ecological phenomena, including population-level effects of relevance to agriculture and food security.

With its launch of BTO, DARPA says it also wants to consider the implications of what it’s doing.

To that end, DARPA will periodically converse with experts in these issues to discuss relevant ethical, legal, and social issues

Source

DARPA do Genetically Engineer Humans by Adding a 47th Chromosome

DARPA is just group of transhumanists, which want to turn humans into androids and robots:

We’re no molecular biologists over here,

but have you ever seen the sci-fi flick Gattaca?

In that 1997 film, society is structured around eugenics as people are bioengineered to be ‘perfect specimens’, and one’s entire life and position in the world is based on their genetics.

Those conceived naturally without genetic screening are proclaimed “invalid” and only allowed menial jobs, despite the innate talents and skills they may possess.

Alternately, the 2011 movie In Time portrays a dystopic future where humans are genetically programmed to stop aging at 25 and could live forever – so long as they earn enough “time credits” to afford to stay alive; the poor perish swiftly under an artificially skyrocketing cost of living that times out their clocks, while the rich who steer the technocracy are gaming the system and living indefinitely.

Such nightmare scenarios place obvious restrictions on the natural right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.

Back in reality, alarmingly similar ends are being pursued.

DARPA, the Department of Defense’s research arm, has just put out a new solicitation for a project called, “Advanced Tools for Mammalian Genome Engineering” on the government’s Federal Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) site.

This project isn’t just for engineering any mammal’s genome, however; it’s specifically for the bioengineering of humans.

The proposal explains the project’s details:

“The ability to deliver exogenous DNA to mammalian cell lines is a fundamental tool in the development of advanced therapeutics, vaccines, and cellular diagnostics, as well as for basic biological and biomedical research…

The successful development of technologies for rapid introduction of large DNA vectors into human cell lines will enable the ability to engineer much more complex functionalities into human cell lines than are currently possible.”

The project’s stated objective is to,

“improve the utility of Human Artificial Chromosomes (HACs).”

(Gallows humor jokes about how DARPA wants to literally HAC(k) you can be made at any time.)

A Wikipedia entry explains in relatively plain language what a HAC is and what it does:

“A human artificial chromosome (HAC) is a microchromosome that can act as a new chromosome in a population of human cells.

That is, instead of 46 chromosomes, the cell could have 47 with the 47th being very small, roughly 6-10 megabases in size, and able to carry new genes introduced by human researchers.”

So DARPA and its team of associated scientists want to introduce an entirely new 47th chromosome into human genetics as a vector platform for inserting bio-alterations and wholesale genetic “improvements”  into our DNA.

The agency hopes that development of a new chromosome will allow a solution to the limitations of current “state-of-the-art” gene transfer technologies (including plasmids, adenovirus-, lentivirus-, and retrovirus-vectors, cDNA, and minigene constructs).

The proposal explains that existing approaches must be improved due to known drawbacks in the scientists’ failure to control their results, causing a few minor major problems:

“These include random DNA insertion into the host genome, variation in stable integration sites between cell lines, variation in the copy number and expression level of DNA that is delivered, limitations on the number and size of DNA constructs that can be delivered, and immunological responses to foreign DNA. “

Yet these techniques are already in use? How reassuring.

Ever hear the term ‘playing God’? Scientists who work in these fields not only refer to themselves as “genome engineers,” but “biological designers” in their journal articles.

This January 2013 piece in the journal Molecular Systems Biology introduces the topic with a chilling description:

“The phrase ‘genome-scale engineering’ invokes a future in which organisms are custom designed to serve humanity. Yet humans have sculpted the genomes of domesticated plants and animals for generations.

Darwin’s contemporary William Youatt described selective breeding as ‘that which enables the agriculturalist, not only to modify the character of his flock, but to change it altogether. It is the magician’s wand, by means of which he may summon into life whatever form and mold he pleases’ (Youatt, 1837).”

It’s impossible to even compile an accurate listing of all the potential slippery slopes at play here, yet it is clear that this entails a momentous grasp at controlling life, which not only empowers an already dictatorial technocratic elite, but emboldens a delusional and destructive cadre intent on overwriting the existing species now on Earth.

….

Through DARPA, our government funds a laundry list of projects to gain technocratic control of the future that reads more like a summary of the latest sci-fi horror film plots.

Case in point: just today it was reported “Secret DARPA Mind Control Project Revealed – Leaked Document“.

When looking at one DARPA project to perfect mind control techniques – or a second DARPA project to study the human hormone oxytocin to ‘improve’ our response to government propaganda – or a third DARPA brain interface project that would literally turn soldiers into cyborgs, it’s creepy enough.

However, when looking at all of these projects together as a combined effort… it raises chilling questions as to what kind of dystopic, technocratic future they are forcing us into.

These developments only include a small sampling of what we know is admittedly going on. Who knows what is actually taking place behind the scenes.

Exactly how many far-reaching and potentially disastrous implications of our government literally playing God are there?

Source

Here’s some videos about this agenda:

Top Transhumanist Claims He Will Become God and Kill Anyone Who Tries To Stop Him!!:

 

Richard Seed is a retired nuclear physicist. Richard Seed graduated cum laude from Harvard and received a Ph.D. in physics in 1953.

‘We are going to become Gods, period. {Through advancing technology.} If you don’t like it, get off. You don’t have to contribute, you don’t have to participate, but if you are going to interfere with me becoming a God, you’re going to have trouble. There’ll be warfare.’:

 

 

Giants on The Earth

And the story of Nephilims and giants continues…:

Since the offspring of the Nephilim were said to be giants, and because virtually every tradition relating to the Flood and the subsequent arrival of the tutelary gods also has to do with giants, I have spent several years making note of giant lore, both mythological and purportedly historical.

I’ve even taken to the road in an attempt to verify reported discoveries of gigantic skeletons in parts of the United States and UK (without luck, unfortunately). Though such discoveries were widely reported in the mainstream press at the times in which they were made, whatever became of the skeletons remains a mystery.

Some maintain that the orthodoxy of the scientific/archeological community has created a conspiracy of silence around such anomalous finds because they can’t be adequately explained, and thus constitute some sort of threat to the prevailing paradigm. Of course, such finds can only be viewed as anomalies if taken singly. Many such discoveries would constitute the emergence of a pattern – a pattern possibly indicative of the need to rethink the prevailing wisdom.

Fortunately, the ancients charged with the transmission of their people’s history, myth, and folklore felt no need to alter it for public consumption. They simply retold the stories that had been passed down to them by their ancestors. And here too, a pattern emerges, because the creation myths central to so many ancient cultures contain nearly identical themes concerning a race of giants. Often the giants were father gods, tutelary deities, or mythic kings. Often there was a race of giants, frequently said to be the offspring of intermarriage between gods and mortals. Repeatedly, such figures are connected with the legend of a global deluge.

What follows is a brief overview of some figures or groups central to giant lore:

  • The Nephilim: These were the Sons of God who in Genesis interbred with humans, creating a race of giants. They were called “The Watchers” in The Book of Enoch.
  • The Cainites: This was a race of giants descended from Cain who lived in an underworld kingdom called “Arka.” Note that the well-known statement in Genesis that “in those days, and after that, there were giants on the earth” is in fact not what the original text stated. What it really said was “giants in the earth.”(1)
  • The Anakim: This was another name for the Watchers. It means “the descendants of Anak”, or Enoch, Cain’s son. Though it was said that a flood had been sent to destroy them, there were still entire cities of Anakim in Canaan as late as the time of Moses. And Jewish chronicler Josephus states that even in his own day it was not uncommon for people to dig up gigantic skeletal remains. Spies sent by Moses to scout Anakim strongholds reported back that the Anakim were so large that the Hebrews seemed “like grasshoppers” in comparison.
  • The Tritons: This was a race of giant gods, spawned by the interbreeding of Poseidon with a mortal woman named Cleito.(2) In some versions of the story they are part-fish. Some are said to have escaped the flood that destroyed Atlantis.
  • The Titans: These were a Greek race of giants born to Ouranos and Gaia. It is undoubtedly a later retelling of the Triton saga.
  • Atlas: He was the King of Atlantis, and a Triton/giant. He was so large and so strong that he was often represented holding the Earth upon his shoulders.
  • Quetzalcoatl: This was the giant white god who appeared to native South Americans and founded their civilizations, according to their folktales. He too is depicted supporting the Earth on his shoulders, and he told the natives that the civilization from which he originated was destroyed by a flood which he escaped by building a ship.
  • Hercules: He is also a giant, and is said to have piloted an ark.
  • Cuculainn: He is called the Irish Hercules, and came to Ireland in a ship when his homeland was destroyed by a flood. Interestingly, he seems to equate with the South American white god Kukulcan, a figure of “very tall stature” who arrived on a boat telling much the same story.
  • Votan: This is yet another tall white tutelary deity of South America. Once again we see the strange circumstance that his name sounds exactly like that of the Northern European god Wotan, a deity worshipped in an altogether different hemisphere.
  • The Ari: These were a race of Sumerian deified kings. “Ari” is a royal title meaning “the Shining Ones.” They were obviously the prototypes of The Book of Enoch’s Watchers. Numerous Sumerian seals depict them as men of gigantic stature. They are often taller than members of their courts, even when depicted seated on thrones. In the numerous seals that show them standing, they tower above those standing next to them.
  • The Tuatha de Danaan: This was a race of Celtic giants and father gods. Like the Cainites and other giants, they were said to dwell in underground kingdoms or inside hollow mountains. One of the chief deities was Lugus, a name that translates to “shining one”, revealing an astonishing connection to Sumer’s deified giant kings.
  • The Ellu: This was a race of Mesopotamian kings said to be descendants of the gods. Yet again, “Ellu” is a royal court title which translates to “the Shining Ones.” It is thought that “Ellu” was the basis of the word “Elohim”, a term translated generally as “the sons of God.” The Elohim are considered by some to be synonymous with the Nephilim of Genesis.
  • Albion: He was one of the Titan giants fathered by Poseidon. He came to England after the Flood and was for many years the island’s principle god. In those times England was actually called “Albion”, after their Titan god/king. In fact, many British places place-names retain the words “Albion” or “Albany” to this very day.
  • Iberius: A Titan and brother of Albion, he went to Spain after the Flood. And likewise, Spain was for centuries named “Iberia” in his honor.
  • King Arthur: There is some Arthurian lore which claims that he piloted an ark during the Deluge, and this legend also relates that he stood just over nine feet tall. King Henry II, inspired by stories that Arthur was buried at Glastonbury, dispatched a team there to excavate the area. At a depth of nine feet they found a lead cross inscribed with the words: “Here lies the body of King Arthur.” Sixteen feet below that was a stone sarcophagus containing the bones of a man nine feet tall. Skeptics put forth the argument that the lead cross could have been forged by local abbots wishing to draw attention (and donations) to their abbey. Such an argument, however, fails to address the fact that the nine-foot skeleton discovered beneath the cross would tend to negate the notion that this could have been a mere hoax. Later, in the early 1500s, another gigantic coffin was disinterred, and found to contain a skeleton eight feet and three inches tall. History fails to record what became of these later bones, although those of Arthur were respectfully re-interred.
  • The Cyclopses: The Cyclopses were one-eyed giants in Greek mythology. It was said that they built the city of Mycenae in Greece out of massive blocks weighing many tons each. This is why similar constructions found at Baalbek, Lake Titicaca and elsewhere are referred to as having “cyclopean” architecture.
  • The Cabiri: This was a race of giant blacksmith gods said to live in hollowed-out volcanoes. They had tattoos on their foreheads of a large solar disc, leading to speculation that the myth of the one-eyed Cyclopses may have originated with them.
  • The Cimbri: These were giants living in Celtic Gaul. They had long manes of blond hair and a fierce, warlike demeanor, all of which lead them to be compared to lions. They were also known as the “Cimmerians”, which may be suggestive of a Sumerian connection.

It was difficult in writing the foregoing descriptions not to make them all sound incredibly redundant.

But in order to state the basic facts in their simplest form, redundancy was a necessity, because all of these legends involve essentially the same story told over and over again. In some instances, not only were the stories identical, but so too were the names of the protagonists, such as Kukulcan/Cuculainn, and Votan/Wotan.

It is astounding enough that we should see identical myths in places as widely removed from one another as South America and the British Isles, but that the names of the respective flood heroes so echo one another is utterly remarkable. It would seem an altogether reasonable conclusion to draw from such evidence that perhaps these myths might have some basis in truth. Perhaps the figures were indeed real men, and perhaps those men were giants.

But if a real race of giants once inhabited the Earth, why haven’t people in recent centuries been digging up gigantic skeletons? According to author Stephen Quayle, they have. Quayle recently published Genesis 6 Giants, the result of over thirty years of research into Grail lore. The book is replete with biblical and extra-biblical accounts of giants, mythological accounts of giants, profiles on famous giants in history, and countless reports of people across the globe digging up the remains of giants. What follows are a few accounts of such excavations:

  • Item: In 1891, at Crittenden, Arizona, some workers digging the foundation of a new building at a depth of eight feet struck a huge stone sarcophagus. When they were able to open the lid, inside were the remains of a nine-foot tall giant which time had reduced mostly to a pile of dust.
  • Item: While searching in a cave near the great canyon of Barranc de Cobre in northern Mexico in the early 1930s, explorer Paxton Hayes came across 34 mummified men and women. All had blond hair. All rose to heights between seven and eight feet.
  • Item: In 1833, soldiers digging a pit at Lompock Rancho, California unearthed a twelve-foot tall giant with double rows of teeth, both on top and on the bottom. The Lompock giant’s teeth, while unusual, were not unique. Another ancient skeleton later found on Santa Rosa island off the coast of California showed the same dental peculiarity.
  • Item: In 1879, some Indiana archeologists dug into an ancient burial mound in Brewersville, Indiana and unearthed a human skeleton that measured nine feet and eight inches in length. The bones, which were stored in a grain mill, were swept away in the 1937 Flood.
  • Item: In the 1880s, while digging in a mound at Sayre in Bradford County, Pennsylvania, a reputable group of antiquarians found skeletons of humans measuring not only above seven feet tall, but having skulls with horns (located about two inches above the eyebrows.) The diggers, including two professors and a Pennsylvania state historian, turned what they found over to the American Investigating Museum in Philadelphia, but the bones were afterwards either misplaced, stolen, or lost.
  • Item: In 1903, on an archeological outing at Fish Creek, Montana, Professor S. Farr and his group of Princeton University students came across several burial mounds. Choosing one to dig into, they unearthed the skeleton of a man about nine feet tall. Next to him were the bones of a woman who had been almost as tall.
  • Item: Nature, in its December 17, 1891 issue, reported that at a depth of fourteen feet into a large Ohio burial mound, excavators found the skeleton of a massive man in copper armor. He wore a copper cap, while copper moldings encased his jaws. Copper armor also protected his arms, chest and stomach. At his side lay the skeleton of a woman, probably his wife.
  • Item: In the 1860s, some excavators digging up a hill in Marion, Ohio uncovered thirty skeletons who ranged in height from seven to eight feet.
  • Item: In the early years of the twentieth century, a team clearing out bat guano from a cavern near Lovelock, Nevada discovered several giant cadavers measuring well over eight feet in height. Their hair, still intact, was said to have been long and “reddish” in color.

The foregoing accounts, taken almost in their entirety from Quayle’s Genesis 6 Giants, have been culled from a wide variety of sources, and represent only a small sample of those documented.

They are largely reports from the United States, but reveal striking similarities to kindred finds in Europe, South America, the British Isles, Africa, China, the Middle and Near-East, Australia, and New Zealand – that is to say, virtually every corner of the earth.

Though the tales vary in detail, the fundamentals of the stories are often quite cohesive: giants corpses, frequently with light-colored hair, generally buried at a depth of between nine and twelve feet, and often interred with artifacts made of copper. Some accounts report the presence of items bearing strange hieroglyphs or symbols. That several of these finds were excavated from burial mounds seems to lend credence to the stories told to early settlers by Native Americans, i.e., that they didn’t know who built the mounds, because they were already there at the time that the “natives” arrived.

A number of Native American tribes (such as those in Colorado) have folk tales relating that a race of giants lived in America at a time prior to when their ancestors came there. Still others tell the story that a group of giant white gods came to live among them, after their own homeland (called the “White Man’s Island”) was destroyed by a flood.

It is almost a certainty that some Native American tribes not only coexisted with the giants, but also interbred with them, because the earliest explorers to the New World repeatedly documented coming into contact with Indian tribes of gigantic stature. Such episodes are noted in the chronicles of Amerigo Vespucci, Magellan, Coronado, De Soto, and Sir Francis Drake, both in North and South America.

Though the numerous accounts cited earlier are compelling, and are certainly supported by the eyewitness accounts of some of the world’s most esteemed and illustrious explorers, the sad fact remains that the most persistent commonality between all of these tales seems to be that the bones – the physical evidence – have all somehow gone missing.

In some instances, this can be explained by the fact that local authorities, presuming the remains to be the property of indigenous peoples (Native Americans, Aborigines, Maoris, etc.), simply turned them over to tribal chieftains for reburial, and this without taking a single photograph, X-Ray, or DNA sample for testing (so as not to profane the relics).

Of course, the lion’s share of these discoveries were made in the 1800s, and many far earlier, at a time in which the rights of indigenous peoples and regard for their religious institutions constituted a matter of far less circumspection than in recent years. If, as Stephen Quayle seems convinced, there is a concerted conspiracy of silence surrounding this archeological evidence, then it is a conspiracy of, well, gigantic proportions.

The accounts of these giant remains are too numerous and too far-flung for all of them to have been lost, stolen, or secreted away. And yet, I truly believe the accounts. They are supported not only by an overwhelming body of evidence found in mythology, but an equally overwhelming body of archeological evidence.

Witness the ruins of the many cyclopean cities referred to earlier. No one knows with any certainty either who built them, or (more importantly) how they were built. Witness the vast complexes of tunnels and underground cities associated with the fallen angels, and recall that many of their myths include the detail that they dwelt in underground kingdoms.

Again, no one knows who built these cities or how they were built. But an interesting fact to keep in mind is that the tunnels associated with them were generally nine, ten, or even twelve feet in ceiling height (the same average heights as those of the giant skeletons found). Such tunnels can be found in South America, the Middle East, and even the Pacific Northwest of the United States. They are reputed to exist still undiscovered in Europe, Egypt, and the British Isles.

Regular readers of this magazine will already be aware of what a pivotal role the story of the Watchers plays in regards to our own research into the Grail mythos and the bloodline connected to it. So many avenues of inquiry central to our own basic thesis seem to have a direct relationship to the Giant lore connected with the Watchers. The kings of Atlantis? Giants. The Shining Ones? Giants. King Arthur, a figure central to the Grail lore? Also a giant.

One of the first well-known paintings on the theme of Arcadia, Et in Arcadia Ego by Guercino, depicts a fairly straightforward and seemingly insignificant scene of a man gazing upon an apparently trepanned skull. When I looked at it, there seemed to be no hidden symbolism discernable. Until, that is, I noticed what appeared to be an odd disparity in proportion.

The skull, for as close as it was relative to the onlooker, seemed far larger than it should have been.

Et in Arcadia Ego, Guercino Et in Arcadia Ego, Poussin
Shepherd’s Monument

Since the painter’s execution of this painting seemed masterly in every other respect, I concluded that perhaps his intent was to portray an oversized skull.

Perhaps it represented the skeletal head of one of the primordial patriarchs of the Grail bloodline. If, as has been said, the grave of an ancient sacred king were somehow at Rennes-le-Chateau, perhaps those discovering it would open the tomb of a giant, a descendant of the Nephilim.

As time passed, and our research progressed, this initially abstract idea seemed increasingly possible. After reading ancient apocryphal texts which indicated that a number of biblical patriarchs were giants, it seemed altogether probable. Ultimately, reading about Abraham’s burial in the Cave of Treasures, I came to suspect that something far more profound might lie in wait at Rennes-le-Chateau.

Abraham was an astrologer and magician who was said to have “traced his ancestry back to the Giants.” Upon his death, his body was carried to the Cave of Treasures, an underground necropolis where the bodies of all previous patriarchs were also interred, down to and including Adam and Eve.

In addition, the Cave included treasures, relics, and a sacred archive of his progenitors. While treasures and relics are of interest to archeologists and museum-going looky-loos, and sacred archives can be dismissed by academics as mere superstitious hyperbole, such items found in the context of a necropolis of gigantic skeletons might well constitute the basis for a rethinking of world history. These people constituted a living remnant of the antediluvian world, the mythological “First Time.”

And since myth and history record that their final resting place was together, in a single location, I can only assume that they are still there.


Endnotes:

(1) Editor’s note: The latter quote is in fact what can be found in the King James version of the Bible.

(2) Editor’s note: According to Plato, the race descended from these two figures were the kings of Atlantis, but he does not connect them to the Tritons.

Source

 

Enoch & the Nephilim – The Evidence Mounts

When I research I always find references to Nephilim and the Watchers. So here’s what Enoch has to say about them:

Giovanni_Lanfranco_Norandino_and_Lucina_Discovered_by_the_Ogre1-570x398

Image Source

The Evidence Mounts

“More and more we are finding that mythology in general though greatly contorted very often has some historic base. And the interesting thing is that one myth which occurs over and over again in many parts of the world is that somewhere a long time ago supernatural beings had sexual intercourse with natural women and produced a special breed of people.”

Francis A. Schaeffer

Evidence for the existence of the Nephilim goes beyond the biblical record. The story of Lamech, found in the Genesis Apocryphon, relates how Lamech had been away from home on a long journey. When he finally came back, he discovered to his chagrin, that his wife, Bat-Enosh (sometimes spelled as “Bit- Enosh,” i.e. the daughter of Enosh) had given birth to a baby boy in his absence. He was sure that the child had not been sired by him, and what is more, the child bore no resemblance to him or to anyone else in the family. Adding to the mystery was the fact that the boy was extremely beautiful, and when he opened his eyes he lighted up the whole house.

“I have begotten a strange son,” said Lamech, “…his nature is different and he is not like us, and his eyes are as the rays of the sun, and his countenance is glorious. And it seems to be that he is not sprung from me but from the Angels…” (1)

Lamech did what most husbands would have done: he reproached his wife for infidelity. Bat-Enosh, however, swore by all that was sacred that Lamech himself must have fathered the child. She had not known any other man, not a stranger and note this–not a Watcher or Heavenly Being.

How enlightening for our study! Who were these Watchers or Heavenly Beings? According to the Book of Daniel they were fallen angels (Daniel 4:13,17, 23).

Here is the statement made by Bat-Enosh as it reads in the Lamech Scroll:

“My lord and kinsman, remember my delicate feelings. How (ever), the occasion is indeed alarming, and my soul (is writhing) in it’s sheath. I will tell you everything truly.”

Then she saw how perturbed her husband was, and decided to repress her passion and indignation a little:

“My lord and kinsman, (I will ignore) delicate feelings and swear to you by the Holy (and) Great One, the Sovereign of heaven (and earth) that this seed came from you, conception was by you, and this fruit was planted by you and not by some stranger or any of the Watchers or heavenly beings. (Have done with) this troubled and marred expression and this gloomy mood. I am telling you the truth.” (2)

Lamech by this time must have begun to realize that the child born could have been conceived by one of these Watchers or Heavenly Beings. If so, his child belonged to the Nephilim.

MYSTERY OF NOAH’S BIRTH

Not completely sure as to what to believe, Lamech sought the advice of his father on the matter. Methuselah listened attentively as Lamech revealed this strange story, then promised his son that he would seek the advice of his father, the wise and godly Enoch. Since the family’s reputation was at stake, something had to be done.

Enoch, whose name meant “the intelligent” or “the learned,” sensed the meaning of what had happened. He sent Methuselah home with the disturbing news that the Earth would soon be visited by a terrible catastrophe and judgment. It was clear that corruption had taken place, and that the human race had become tainted. God would soon be moving in judgment, and human flesh would perish. And as for this little boy, whose birth remained a mystery, he should be raised by Lamech, and should be called Noah. What is more, little Noah had been specially chosen by God to survive this coming judgment, and would be the progenitor of the new inhabitants of planet Earth.

Despite the mystery surrounding his birth, Noah could not be one of the Nephilim, as we shall see in a later chapter. There is no doubt, however, that the unusual circumstances of his birth convinced Enoch, Methuselah, Lamech and Bat-Enosh that strange things were happening on the Earth.

The Genesis Apocryphon is not the only extrabiblical documentation. Numerous other documents indicate the existence of the Nephilim. I do not place these documents on par with Scripture, nevertheless they seem to corroborate Scripture. My sole purpose for introducing them is simply to state that they exist and that they share common features with the Scriptures.

 

My task is similar to that of Montaigne:

“Gentlemen, all I have done is make a bouquet from flowers already picked, adding nothing but the string to tie them together.” (3)

One such document is the Book of Enoch. This is a composite volume, and, although not know in Europe until the 18th Century, it was a veritable best-seller in the days of Christ. In the centuries immediately preceding and following the coming of Christ, this book was widely read and discussed, and its impact was tremendous. Without question it is the most notable apocalyptical work outside the canonical Scriptures. R. H. Charles, an outstanding authority in this field tells us that,

“the influence of 1 Enoch on the New Testament has been greater than that of all the other apocryphal and pseudoepigraphical books put together.”

For one thing, the book of Enoch gave to the world the concept of a pre-existent Messiah, and by so doing prepared the way for Christian doctrine. It was from this same book that the Manual of Discipline (found at Qumran) received its solar calendar. What is more, this book became so influential that it became an exemplar and a catalyst for the burgeoning apocalyptic literature of the time. Indeed, it can be claimed, that the Book of Enoch was one of the most important apocalyptic books ever written.

Tertullian and some of the other Church Fathers considered it of such import that they included it as part of the sacred canon of Scripture. Jude 14 is a direct quote from Enoch 1:9, 5:4, and 27:2. There is also in the Book of Enoch a doctrine that one finds nowhere else. Other authors tell us that each nation has its sar or parton, and that of Israel was Michael, or sometimes God Himself. However, in the Book of Enoch we are told that,

“God was Israel’s shepherd till the last years of the Kingdom of Judah; then in disgust He turned them over, not to their own guardian, but to the sarim of the Gentiles.” (4)

An amazing book! Such a doctrine prefigures and predicts the “times of the Gentiles” mentioned in the Bible. Yet, of all mysteries, this book remained neglected for more than 1,800 years, and continues to remain neglected, and even shunned, in the 20th Century.

ENOCH

Who was this Enoch, whose name is attached to the book? Enoch is mentioned in the Scriptures, but we are told little about him. Just four verses in all–two in the Old Testament, and two in the New. That little, however, is sufficient to distinguish him as one of the outstanding men of all times. He is listed as the seventh of the ten patriarchs between Adam and Noah. He was the father of Methuselah, the man holding the world’s record for longevity. Interestingly, Enoch became a believer and started “walking with God” after his son was born. Soon he became known for his exceptional piety and godliness. The most remarkable fact of all is that he did not die.

“Enoch walked with God; and he was not, for God took him.”

He is one of the only two men mentioned in the Bible who were translated to Heaven without tasting death.

In the Book of Enoch other significant facts are given about this patriarch. It claims that Enoch will return to Earth at the end of time, and that he will be one of the two martyrs (or witnesses) slain on the streets of Jerusalem.

The Book of Yasher adds still more detail. It tells how Enoch would periodically withdraw himself from earthly company, and visit the ten heavens. He would then return to Earth with a divine luster on his face, just as Moses emerged from the presence of God on Mt. Sinai, and knew not that his face shone. Such was the regard in which Enoch was held by some of the Jewish mystics that they referred to him as “the lesser Yahweh”– a title bordering on the blasphemous.

In the Book of Jude (verses 14-15), we are told of a prophecy Enoch made concerning the coming of the Lord. This may well be the oldest literary statement in existence. In it, Enoch predicts:

“Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his saints, to execute judgment upon all, and to convince all that are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds which they have ungodly committed, and of all their hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against him.”

It is obvious that Jude had access to the Book of Enoch, and he did not hesitate to quote from it.

Most scholars claim that the Book of Enoch could not have been written by the Enoch of the Bible. Because of this, the book is labeled a pseudoepigrapha. What happened, they suggest, is that a much later author compiled the work–probably around the 2nd Century B.C.–and used a number of different sources. The author then added the name of the biblical Enoch. In this way, he was assured of the book’s acceptance! Whether or not this was so, is not our present concern. But even if it were true, it is obvious that the compiler of the book must have used ancient sources that were at his disposal. He was not so much the author as the compiler or redactor of the book. What could be more honest, more modest, than for a compiler to attach to his book not his own name but that of his oldest source. And who older than Enoch?

AN ANCIENT ASTRONAUT

Enoch obviously had access to knowledge and information completely beyond the reach of mortal man at that stage in man’s development. Some of this knowledge Enoch couches in terminology that is allegorical and symbolical, and its meaning frequently escapes us. However, beneath the abstruse verbal descriptions there is some amazing data. The fact that it is conveyed in imaginative and allegorical terminology should not be allowed to detract from its basic accuracy.

The important question in considering the Book of Enoch is whether it contains any reference to the strange and bizarre event recorded in Genesis 6? Does it have anything to say about the “sons of God” and the “daughters of men” coming together in sexual union? Yes it does, many times. It contributes a number of details not found in the Genesis record. But none of these facts contradict in any way what is told us in Genesis. Instead, they elaborate on the facts already given. What, then, is this additional information?

One item of interest is Enoch’s account of a visit to the “fifth heaven,” where he saw giants with their “faces withered, and the silence of their mouth perpetual.” Enoch calls them the “Grogori” or “fallen angels,” who broke their vows, married the daughters of men, and “befouled the earth with their deeds.” He also mentions that “giants were born and marvelous big men and great enmity.”

THE WATCHERS

Significantly, the Book of Enoch (like the Genesis Apocryphon) refers to these “sons of God” as Watchers. A term, as already noted, found in the Book of Daniel. (5) Why this particular word should be used, we are not told; possibly because part of their function was to keep vigil. R.H.C. Charles, who translates the word “watchers” as “the angels, the children of heaven,” obviously believed they referred to one and the same beings.

The Book of Enoch alleges that two hundred of these Watchers descended to Earth in the days of Jared (Genesis 5:18), and some of them are given names. The worst one of all is called Azazel. The name occurs in other Jewish documents, like the Apocalypse of Abraham. Azazel is accused of having “scattered over the earth the secrets of heaven and hath rebelled against the Mighty One.” His name is also found in ancient Jewish ritual concerning the Day of Atonement. On that day, the iniquities of the people of Israel were laid on the scapegoat, and then the scapegoat was driven away “to Azazel, to the wilderness” (Leviticus 16). Azazel was a demon who inhabited a region in the Judean wilderness.

There is an interesting aside on Azazel in a brilliant essay by Dr. Jacob Z. Lauterbach explaining certain “stray references to the activity of Satan on Yom Kippur.” The ritual of that day, said Lauterbach, sought to negate Satan’s efforts in three ways: The Azazel sacrifice to appease him; the smoke of the incense to drive him away; and the white robes of the High Priest, so different from his usual vestments, a disguise to mislead him. (6)

In the Book of Jubilees a different reason is given as to why the Watchers came to Earth. It was in order “to instruct the children of men and to bring about justice and equity on the Earth.” However, the story ends in the same way: instead of instigating justice and equity, they lusted after the women of Earth, and merited the full judgment of God.

SECRETS OF THE COSMETIC TRADE

According to the Book of Enoch, these Watchers instructed the people of Earth in many studies, including the use of charms and enchantments, the arts of magic, and the secrets of the cosmetic trade. And the Book of Jubilees adds to the list, “a medical herbal” which Noah wrote down at the dictation of the angels.

It is interesting how the early Church Fathers used some of these details for preaching purposes and moralistic instruction. Foremost among these was Tertullian, and certainly one of the most original. He asks with astringent irony why should the angels have to instruct the women of Earth in the cosmetic arts? Surely, if they had succeeded in charming angels without any cosmetic aids, it were an easy matter to charm men!

ASTROLOGY, WEAPONS, ET AL

Another study in which the Watchers instructed earthlings was astrology, with all its concomitant evils. And last but not least, they instructed men how to fashion weapons of destruction, particularly swords, knives and shields. Comyns Beumont deduces that they also made ammunition, and even explosives. (7)

The Book of Enoch confirms the Book of Genesis to the letter when it states:

“There arose much godlessness, and they committed fornication, and they were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways.” (8)

Things got so bad on planet Earth, according to the Book of Enoch, that the archangels of heaven–Michael, Uriel and Gabriel— reported the matter to the Most High God:

The whole earth has been filled with blood and unrighteousness. And now, behold, the souls of those who have died are crying and making their suit to the gates of heaven, and their lamentations have ascended; and cannot cease because of the lawless deeds which are wrought upon the earth.

CLASSIFIED MATERIAL

God was moved to anger at these Watchers, because of the horrible practices that they had introduced upon the Earth. And there was something else: God was angry at the fact that they had disclosed certain secrets, and were teaching them to their sons, the Nephilim. We are not told exactly what these secrets were, except that they were “eternal secrets” which men of Earth were striving to learn, and which God did not intend for fallen man to discover.

Things deteriorated rapidly, and soon the Nephilim were practicing the most repulsive and revolting behavior. They began to “devour one another’s flesh, and drink the blood.” This cannibalism shocked even the depraved citizens of Earth, to the extent that they brought accusation against the Watchers.

Enoch is instructed by the Most High to deliver this warning to the Watchers:

“Enoch, thou scribe of righteousness, go, declare to the watchers of heaven, who have left the high heaven, the holy eternal place, and have defiled themselves with women, and have done as the children of earth do, and have taken unto themselves wives: ‘Ye have wrought great destruction on the earth: And ye shall have no peace nor forgiveness of sin.'”

These same Watchers in turn approached Enoch to mediate on their behalf, and to write out a petition in their favor. God, however, rejects the petition and Enoch is summoned to speak to the Watchers again:

“Go, say to the Watchers of heaven, who have sent thee to intercede for them: ‘Ye should intercede for men, and not men for you. Wherefore have ye left high, holy and eternal heaven, and lain with women and defiled yourselves with the daughters of men, and taken wives unto yourselves and done like the child of earth and begotten giants as sons. And although ye were holy, spiritual living and eternal life, you have defiled yourselves with the blood of women, and have begotten children with the blood of flesh, have lusted after flesh and blood as those who do die and perish.'”

And as for the giants or Nephilim produced by them:

“The giants, who are produced from the spirits and flesh, shall be called evil spirits upon the earth…Evil spirits have proceeded from their bodies; because they are born from men and from the holy Watchers is their beginning and primal origin… And the spirits of the giants afflict, oppress, attack, do battle, and work destruction on the earth…And these spirits shall rise up against the children of men and against the women, because they have proceeded from them…thus shall they destroy until the day of the consummation, the great judgment in which the age shall be consummated over the Watchers and the godless, yea, shall be wholly consummated. And now as to the Watchers… say to them therefore: ‘Ye have no peace.'”

Such was the message given to Enoch, who transmitted it to the Watchers and their progeny on Earth.

The next question is: How was this information preserved for us? How did the succeeding generation learn these facts? The Book of Enoch supplies the answer:

“And now, my son Methuselah, I tell thee everything and write it down for thee: I have revealed everything to thee, and handed thee the books which have to do with all these things. My son Methuselah, preserve the books that come from thy father’s hand and hand them on to the coming generations of the world.”

Enoch was also given a message to deliver to Noah, telling him that the whole Earth was to be destroyed. He was also to instruct Noah in the way of escape, so that his seed be preserved for all generations.

Unquestionably, the Book of Enoch confirms the biblical record that the Earth was defiled and polluted by the incursion of extraterrestrial beings, and particularly by their shameful behavior with the “daughters of men.” And as in the Book of Genesis, so in the Book of Enoch, God is incensed with this sexual coupling between celestial and terrestrial beings, and begins to move in an act of terrible judgment.

“And the Lord said, I will destroy man whom I have created from the face of the earth” (Genesis 6:7).

 

THE SONS OF JARED

Other books, like The Book of Jubilee add a few more details to this awesome story. It reveals the date when these heavenly Watchers descended to Earth–461 Annus Mundi, a date which Bishop Usher would interpret as 3543 B.C. It also notes that these Watchers were specifically associated with Jared, the fifth in line from Adam.

Interestingly, there is an American organization called “ The Sons of Jared.” Their publication is called, “The Jaredite Advocate.” The aim of this group, as far as one is able to understand is to declare war on all the descendants of the Watchers–including notorious kings and dictators, who have tyrannized mankind. A sort of celestial Mafia!

Regarding this association with Jared, the Book of Jubilees tells us:

“And in the second week of the tenth jubilee of Mahalelel took unto him a wife Dinah, the daughter of Barakel, the daughter of his brother’s brother and she bore him a son in the sixth year and he called his name Jared for in his days the angels of the Lord descended on the earth, those so named the Watchers.” (9)

OTHER ANCIENT DOCUMENTS

Another minor source of data is the Zadokite Document. This was discovered about a half century ago in the attic of an old synagogue in Cairo and is thought to be related to the Dead Sea Scrolls. This document also refers to the descent of the Watchers, and to their giant offspring:

Because they walked in the stubbornness of their hearts, the Watchers of heaven fell, yea, they were caught thereby because they kept not the commandments of God. So too their sons whose bodies were as mountains. They also fell.” (10)

The Apocalypse of Baruch is another ancient document which confirms the story of the fallen angels. Written in Syriac, it adds this new concept to the story of the fallen angels: that the source of the corruption was the sinfulness of mankind. It was human sin that caused the angels to fall.

A series of booklets called The Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs, purporting to come from the twelve sons of Jacob, (11) also refer to the fallen angels. They contain nothing like the detail of the Book of Enoch, but they do make an interesting statement: the women of Earth were the prime movers in alluring and enticing the angels. In this they agree with the Apocalypse of Baruch. They also introduce a brand new element, suggesting that the act in which the angels and the women participated was more psychological than physical:

“Thus they allured the Watchmen before the flood, for as these continually beheld them, they lusted after them and conceived the act in their mind; for they changed themselves into the shape of men and appeared to them when they were with their husbands; and the women, lusting in their minds after their forms, gave birth to giants.” (12)

It appears from this Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs that the “lusting” and the “conceiving” were in the mind. Nonetheless, the results were physical enough–they gave birth to giants!

Jewish documents are not the only ones which refer to fallen angels. The Koran contains brief reference to two angels, Harut and Maru who came to Earth. Their fall takes place when a beautiful woman appears before them. The angels had been warned in advance that there were three things they were not to do: admit existence of other gods; murder; drink intoxicants. It was precisely these three things that the charming woman demanded, if the angels were to enjoy her favors. Finally the angels agreed to drink wine–as the least of the three sins–and their paramour granted their desires.

FOLKLORE AND FABLES

Another source of information is the abundance of myths, legends, folklore and fables that speak of “giants” upon the Earth in ancient times, and how there was sexual union between demi-gods from Heaven and women from Earth. Many scholars believe that myths emerged from a kernel of historical fact. According to Andrew Tomas, mythology and folklore are “thought- fossils depicting the story of vanished cultures in symbols and allegories.” If this is so, do we find anything in myths and legends resembling the bizarre event of Genesis 6? There are indeed numerous such traditions among many nations.

Most people are acquainted with the mythologies of ancient Greece and Rome. The gods or semi-gods in these traditions go under different names, but their behavior has a common denominator. Whether these gods are called Zeus or Jupiter, Poseidon or Neptune, Aphrodite or Venus, Eros or Cupid…their sex orgies, promiscuities, cruelties and violence are all of the same cloth. And so are their offspring.

The Genesis story, according to Tom Horner, corresponds precisely to the Age of the Heroes in ancient Greece. These heroes were also “spawned by divine fathers and human mothers. One of them was Hercules.” (14)

The story of Zeus also is well known. Promotheus was aware of the secret that Zeus had no control over his lusts, and aware also of the names of the women whom he would seduce. Because of this and other reasons, Zeus planned for Promotheus to be chained in the Caucasius, where an eagle would feed on his liver each day. But each night his liver would be renewed. In this way, the torture of Promotheus was endless. Eventually however, he and Zeus were reconciled. But cruelty was not the only distinctive of Zeus. There seemed to be no boundaries or limits to his lust, and numerous women were seduced by him, including Thetis, Europa, Leda, Metis and Dione.

 

Emile Gaverluk says:

“Zeus’ amorous victories illustrate the. actions of uncontrolled spirit-beings lusting after human flesh. The whole story of Greek mythology is an expanded version of that astonishing verse in the Bible: ‘The sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair, and took them wives of all they chose.’ (Genesis 6.-2)…The mythology of the past is a startling revelation of the uncontrolled behavior of both spirit-beings and rebellious man.” (15)

But the mythologies of Greece and Rome are not the only ones that relate such strange events. Erich Von Daniken has supplied us with a wealth of samples from around the world. (16) We admit that his speculative outbursts frequently outmatch his theological soundness, nevertheless we are indebted to him for bringing to our attention many incontrovertible facts which others had left buried and undisturbed.

  • Ancient Sumerian records tell of gods descending from the stars and fertilizing their ancestors. This interbreeding of gods from heaven and women from earth is supposed to have produced the first men upon earth.
  • The native inhabitants of Malekula, in the New Hebrides believe that the first race of men were direct descendants of the sons of heaven.
  • The Incas held that they were the descendants of the “sons of the Sun.”
  • The Teutons claimed that their ancestors came with the flying Wanen.
  • Some of the South Sea islanders trace their ancestry to one of the gods of heaven, who visited them in an enormous gleaming egg.
  • The Koreans believed that a heavenly king, “Hwanin,” sent his son, “Hwanung,” to earth, married an earth woman who gave birth to Tangun Wanggom. It was he who was supposed to have welded all the primitive tribes together into one kingdom.
  • The ancient tradition Tango-Fudoki in Japan tells the story of the Island Child. The only difference here is that it was a man from earth and a maiden from heaven that came together in marriage, and spent their time together in heaven and not on earth.
  • From India comes the Mahabharata and other ancient Sanskrit texts, which tell of “gods” begetting children with women of earth, and how these children inherited the “supernatural” skills and learning of their fathers.
  • A similar mythology is found in the Epic of Gilgamesh, where we read of “watchers” from outer space coming to planet Earth, and producing giants.
  • An early Persian myth tells that before the coming of Zoroaster, demons had corrupted the Earth, and allied themselves with women.

When these and many other accounts, are all tied together, they amaze us by their common core. Each one refers, with slight variations, to the traffic between “the sons of God” and “the daughters of men”; to the sexual activities in which they engaged; and to the unusual and abnormal offspring they produced. A further convincing element in this string of samples, is that these myths and legends belong to people so far removed from each other by time, space and language that collaboration or conspiracy is out of the question. How then does one explain this phenomenon?

FABLE OR FACT

Could it be, that at some distant point in time these bizarre events actually did take place? Rather than being the fertile product of the imagination of primitive man, they were simply man’s crude description of what actually happened? Beings from Heaven and beings from Earth did actually come together, did generate children, and did produce the Nephilim.

Later, of course, many of these myths and legends developed an overgrowth of fictional imagery and imaginative fantasy, which clung to them like moss to the mill. There can be little doubt, however, that beneath this dense overgrowth lies the plant of truth. What began history, ended up as legend.

Above all else, we are convinced that the Bible speaks of these things. The basic message of the apocryphal documents and the various mythologies find corroboration in God’s Word. Spirit beings from outer space did arrive on Earth, and did produce these unnatural offspring. By this cross-breeding, man became more and more absorbed with evil and violence; the human race became tainted and corrupted; and soon the Earth was unsalvagable. These extraterrestrial being by means of genetic manipulation had succeeded in contaminating God’s special creation; so much so, that their destruction, as well as that of man became a moral necessity.

Notes:

1.   R. H. C. Charles, Fragments of the Book of Noah (London: Oxford University Press).
2.   Theodor H. Gaster, The Dead Sea Scriptures (Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Co., Inc., 1956), p. 257.
3.   Michel Eyquem de Montaign (1533-92).
4.   Bernard J. Bamberger, Fallen Angels (Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1952), p. 25.
5.   Daniel 4:13, 17, 23.
6.   Jacob Z. Lauterbach, Hebrew Union College Annual, IV, 173ff.
7.   Comyns Beaumont, The Riddle of Prehistoric Britain (London: Rider & Co., Ltd.).
8.   Trans. by R.H.C. Charles, (London).
9.   Dr. R.H.C. Charles, The Book of Jubilees (London: A & C Black, 1902).
10. Theodore H. Gaster, The Scriptures of the Dead Sea Sect (London: Secker & Wartburg, 1957).
11. Bernard J. Bamberger, Fallen Angels (Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1952), p. 27.
12. Ibid., p. 31.
13. Andrew Tomas, We Are Not The First (New York: Bantam Books, Inc., 1973).
14. Tom Hoover, Sex in the Bible (Rutland, Vermont: Charles E. Tuttle Co., 1974), p. 145.
15. Emil Gaverluk, Did Genesis Man Conquer Space? (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, Inc., 1974), p. 89.
16. Erich Von Daniken, Gods from Outer Space (New York: Bantam Books, Inc., 1972) pp. 161-162.

Source

Weather control – Air Force 2025

If you are interested about chemtrails and what could be the agenda behind them. Here’s again some information, but as always you decide:

haarp1
Image Source

Weather Control

A Research Paper Presented To…
Air Force 2025

Weather as a Force Multiplier

Owning the Weather in 2025
by Col. Tamzy J. House
Lt. Col. James B. Near, Jr.
LTC. William B. Shields (USA)
Maj Ronald J. Celentano
Maj David M. Husband
Maj Ann E. Mercer
Maj James E. Pugh

Source: Air Force 2025
August 1996

Table 1 – Operational Capabilities Matrix

DEGRADE ENEMY FORCES ENHANCE FRIENDLY FORCES
Precipitation Enhancement Precipitation Avoidance
– Flood Lines of Communication – Maintain/Improve LOC
– Reduce PGM/Recce Effectiveness – Maintain Visibility
– Decrease Comfort Level/Morale – Maintain Comfort Level/Morale
Storm Enhancement Storm Modification
– Deny Operations – Choose Battlespace Environment
Precipitation Denial Space Weather
– Deny Fresh Water – Improve Communication Reliability
— Induce Drought – Intercept Enemy Transmissions
Space Weather – Revitalize Space Assets
– Disrupt Communications/Radar Fog and Cloud Generation
– Disable/Destroy Space Assets – Increase Concealment
Fog and Cloud Removal Fog and Cloud Removal
– Deny Concealment – Maintain Airfield Operations
– Increase Vulnerability to PGM/Recce – Enhance PGM Effectiveness
Detect Hostile Weather Activities Defend against Enemy Capabilities

 

Current technologies that will mature over the next 30 years will offer anyone who has the necessary resources the ability to modify weather patterns and their corresponding effects, at least on the local scale.

Current demographic, economic, and environmental trends will create global stresses that provide the impetus necessary for many countries or groups to turn this weather-modification ability into a capability.

In the United States, weather-modification will likely become a part of national security policy with both domestic and international applications. Our government will pursue such a policy, depending on its interests, at various levels. These levels could include unilateral actions, participation in a security framework such as NATO, membership in an international organization such as the UN, or participation in a coalition.

Assuming that in 2025 our national security strategy includes weather-modification, its use in our national military strategy will naturally follow. Besides the significant benefits an operational capability would provide, another motivation to pursue weather-modification is to deter and counter potential adversaries.

In this paper we show that appropriate application of weather-modification can provide battlespace dominance to a degree never before imagined. In the future, such operations will enhance air and space superiority and provide new options for battlespace shaping and battlespace awareness.1

“The technology is there, waiting for us to pull it all together;”2 in 2025 we can “Own the Weather.”

Chapter 1

Introduction

Scenario: Imagine that in 2025 the US is fighting a rich, but now consolidated, politically powerful drug cartel in South America. The cartel has purchased hundreds of Russian-and Chinese-built fighters that have successfully thwarted our attempts to attack their production facilities. With their local numerical superiority and interior lines, the cartel is launching more than 10 aircraft for every one of ours. In addition, the cartel is using the French system probatoire d’ observation de la terre (SPOT) positioning and tracking imagery systems, which in 2025 are capable of transmitting near-real-time, multispectral imagery with 1 meter resolution. The US wishes to engage the enemy on an uneven playing field in order to exploit the full potential of our aircraft and munitions.

Meteorological analysis reveals that equatorial South America typically has afternoon thunderstorms on a daily basis throughout the year. Our intelligence has confirmed that cartel pilots are reluctant to fly in or near thunderstorms. Therefore, our weather force support element (WFSE), which is a part of the commander in chief’s (CINC) air operations center (AOC), is tasked to forecast storm paths and trigger or intensify thunderstorm cells over critical target areas that the enemy must defend with their aircraft. Since our aircraft in 2025 have all-weather capability, the thunderstorm threat is minimal to our forces, and we can effectively and decisively control the sky over the target.

The WFSE has the necessary sensor and communication capabilities to observe, detect, and act on weather-modification requirements to support US military objectives. These capabilities are part of an advanced battle area system that supports the war-fighting CINC. In our scenario, the CINC tasks the WFSE to conduct storm intensification and concealment operations. The WFSE models the atmospheric conditions to forecast, with 90 percent confidence, the likelihood of successful modification using airborne cloud generation and seeding.

In 2025, uninhabited aerospace vehicles (UAV) are routinely used for weather-modification operations. By cross-referencing desired attack times with wind and thunderstorm forecasts and the SPOT satellite’s projected orbit, the WFSE generates mission profiles for each UAV. The WFSE guides each UAV using near-real-time information from a networked sensor array.

Prior to the attack, which is coordinated with forecasted weather conditions, the UAVs begin cloud generation and seeding operations. UAVs disperse a cirrus shield to deny enemy visual and infrared (IR) surveillance. Simultaneously, microwave heaters create localized scintillation to disrupt active sensing via synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems such as the commercially available Canadian search and rescue satellite-aided tracking (SARSAT) that will be widely available in 2025. Other cloud seeding operations cause a developing thunderstorm to intensify over the target, severely limiting the enemy’s capability to defend. The WFSE monitors the entire operation in real-time and notes the successful completion of another very important but routine weather-modification mission.

This scenario may seem far-fetched, but by 2025 it is within the realm of possibility. The next chapter explores the reasons for weather-modification, defines the scope, and examines trends that will make it possible in the next 30 years.

Chapter 2

Required Capability

Why Would We Want to Mess with the Weather?

According to Gen Gordon Sullivan, former Army chief of staff, “As we leap technology into the 21st century, we will be able to see the enemy day or night, in any weather- and go after him relentlessly.”3 A global, precise, real-time, robust, systematic weather-modification capability would provide war-fighting CINCs with a powerful force multiplier to achieve military objectives. Since weather will be common to all possible futures, a weather-modification capability would be universally applicable and have utility across the entire spectrum of conflict. The capability of influencing the weather even on a small scale could change it from a force degrader to a force multiplier.

People have always wanted to be able to do something about the weather. In the US, as early as 1839, newspaper archives tell of people with serious and creative ideas on how to make rain.4 In 1957, the president’s advisory committee on weather control explicitly recognized the military potential of weather-modification, warning in their report that it could become a more important weapon than the atom bomb.5

However, controversy since 1947 concerning the possible legal consequences arising from the deliberate alteration of large storm systems meant that little future experimentation could be conducted on storms which had the potential to reach land.6 In 1977, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution prohibiting the hostile use of environmental modification techniques. The resulting “Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Technique (ENMOD)” committed the signatories to refrain from any military or other hostile use of weather-modification which could result in widespread, long-lasting, or severe effects.7 While these two events have not halted the pursuit of weather-modification research, they have significantly inhibited its pace and the development of associated technologies, while producing a primary focus on suppressive versus intensification activities.

The influence of the weather on military operations has long been recognized. During World War II, Eisenhower said,

[i]n Europe bad weather is the worst enemy of the air [operations]. Some soldier once said, “The weather is always neutral.” Nothing could be more untrue. Bad weather is obviously the enemy of the side that seeks to launch projects requiring good weather, or of the side possessing great assets, such as strong air forces, which depend upon good weather for effective operations. If really bad weather should endure permanently, the Nazi would need nothing else to defend the Normandy coast!8

The impact of weather has also been important in more recent military operations. A significant number of the air sorties into Tuzla during the initial deployment supporting the Bosnian peace operation aborted due to weather. During Operation Desert Storm, Gen Buster C. Glosson asked his weather officer to tell him which targets would be clear in 48 hours for inclusion in the air tasking order (ATO).9 But current forecasting capability is only 85 percent accurate for no more than 24 hours, which doesn’t adequately meet the needs of the ATO planning cycle. Over 50 percent of the F-117 sorties weather aborted over their targets and A-10s only flew 75 of 200 scheduled close air support (CAS) missions due to low cloud cover during the first two days of the campaign.10 The application of weather-modification technology to clear a hole over the targets long enough for F-117s to attack and place bombs on target or clear the fog from the runway at Tuzla would have been a very effective force multiplier. Weather-modification clearly has potential for military use at the operational level to reduce the elements of fog and friction for friendly operations and to significantly increase them for the enemy.

What Do We Mean by “Weather-modification”?

Today, weather-modification is the alteration of weather phenomena over a limited area for a limited period of time.11 Within the next three decades, the concept of weather-modification could expand to include the ability to shape weather patterns by influencing their determining factors.12 Achieving such a highly accurate and reasonably precise weather-modification capability in the next 30 years will require overcoming some challenging but not insurmountable technological and legal hurdles.

Technologically, we must have a solid understanding of the variables that affect weather. We must be able to model the dynamics of their relationships, map the possible results of their interactions, measure their actual real-time values, and influence their values to achieve a desired outcome. Society will have to provide the resources and legal basis for a mature capability to develop. How could all of this happen? The following notional scenario postulates how weather-modification might become both technically feasible and socially desirable by 2025.

Between now and 2005, technological advances in meteorology and the demand for more precise weather information by global businesses will lead to the successful identification and parameterization of the major variables that affect weather. By 2015, advances in computational capability, modeling techniques, and atmospheric information tracking will produce a highly accurate and reliable weather prediction capability, validated against real-world weather. In the following decade, population densities put pressure on the worldwide availability and cost of food and usable water. Massive life and property losses associated with natural weather disasters become increasingly unacceptable. These pressures prompt governments and/or other organizations who are able to capitalize on the technological advances of the previous 20 years to pursue a highly accurate and reasonably precise weather-modification capability. The increasing urgency to realize the benefits of this capability stimulates laws and treaties, and some unilateral actions, making the risks required to validate and refine it acceptable. By 2025, the world, or parts of it, are able to shape local weather patterns by influencing the factors that affect climate, precipitation, storms and their effects, fog, and near space. These highly accurate and reasonably precise civil applications of weather-modification technology have obvious military implications. This is particularly true for aerospace forces, for while weather may affect all mediums of operation, it operates in ours.

The term weather-modification may have negative connotations for many people, civilians and military members alike. It is thus important to define the scope to be considered in this paper so that potential critics or proponents of further research have a common basis for discussion.

In the broadest sense, weather-modification can be divided into two major categories: suppression and intensification of weather patterns. In extreme cases, it might involve the creation of completely new weather patterns, attenuation or control of severe storms, or even alteration of global climate on a far-reaching and/or long-lasting scale. In the mildest and least controversial cases it may consist of inducing or suppressing precipitation, clouds, or fog for short times over a small-scale region. Other low-intensity applications might include the alteration and/or use of near space as a medium to enhance communications, disrupt active or passive sensing, or other purposes. In conducting the research for this study, the broadest possible interpretation of weather-modification was initially embraced, so that the widest range of opportunities available for our military in 2025 were thoughtfully considered. However, for several reasons described below, this paper focuses primarily on localized and short-term forms of weather-modification and how these could be incorporated into war-fighting capability. The primary areas discussed include generation and dissipation of precipitation, clouds, and fog; modification of localized storm systems; and the use of the ionosphere and near space for space control and communications dominance. These applications are consistent with CJCSI 3810.01, “Meteorological and Oceanographic Operations.”13

Extreme and controversial examples of weather modification-creation of made-to-order weather, large-scale climate modification, creation and/or control (or “steering”) of severe storms, etc.-were researched as part of this study but receive only brief mention here because, in the authors’ judgment, the technical obstacles preventing their application appear insurmountable within 30 years.14 If this were not the case, such applications would have been included in this report as potential military options, despite their controversial and potentially malevolent nature and their inconsistency with standing UN agreements to which the US is a signatory.

On the other hand, the weather-modification applications proposed in this report range from technically proven to potentially feasible. They are similar, however, in that none are currently employed or envisioned for employment by our operational forces. They are also similar in their potential value for the war fighter of the future, as we hope to convey in the following chapters. A notional integrated system that incorporates weather-modification tools will be described in the next chapter; how those tools might be applied are then discussed within the framework of the Concept of Operations in chapter 4.

Chapter 3

System Description

Our vision is that by 2025 the military could influence the weather on a mesoscale (<200 km2) or microscale (immediate local area) to achieve operational capabilities such as those listed in Table 1. The capability would be the synergistic result of a system consisting of

(1) highly trained weather force specialists (WFS) who are members of the CINC’s weather force support element (WFSE);

(2) access ports to the global weather network (GWN), where worldwide weather observations and forecasts are obtained near-real-time from civilian and military sources;

(3) a dense, highly accurate local area weather sensing and communication system;

(4) an advanced computer local area weather-modification modeling and prediction capability within the area of responsibility (AOR);

(5) proven weather-modification intervention technologies; and

(6) a feedback capability.

The Global Weather Network

The GWN is envisioned to be an evolutionary expansion of the current military and civilian worldwide weather data network. By 2025, it will be a super high-speed, expanded bandwidth, communication network filled with near-real-time weather observations taken from a denser and more accurate worldwide observation network resulting from highly improved ground, air, maritime, and space sensors. The network will also provide access to forecast centers around the world where sophisticated, tailored forecast and data products, generated from weather prediction models (global, regional, local, specialized, etc.) based on the latest nonlinear mathematical techniques are made available to GWN customers for near-real-time use.

By 2025, we envision that weather prediction models, in general, and mesoscale weather-modification models, in particular, will be able to emulate all-weather producing variables, along with their interrelated dynamics, and prove to be highly accurate in stringent measurement trials against empirical data. The brains of these models will be advanced software and hardware capabilities which can rapidly ingest trillions of environmental data points, merge them into usable data bases, process the data through the weather prediction models, and disseminate the weather information over the GWN in near-real-time.15 This network is depicted schematically in figure 3-1.

Evidence of the evolving future weather modeling and prediction capability as well as the GWN can be seen in the national oceanic and atmospheric administration’s (NOAA) 1995-2005 strategic plan. It includes program elements to “advance short-term warning and forecast services, implement seasonal to inter-annual climate forecasts, and predict and assess decadal to centennial change;”16 it does not, however, include plans for weather-modification modeling or modification technology development. NOAA’s plans include extensive data gathering programs such as Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Doppler weather surveillance systems deployed throughout the US. Data from these sensing systems feed into over 100 forecast centers for processing by the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS), which will provide data communication, processing, and display capabilities for extensive forecasting. In addition, NOAA has leased a Cray C90 supercomputer capable of performing over 1.5×1010 operations per second that has already been used to run a Hurricane Prediction System.17

Applying Weather-modification to Military Operations

How will the military, in general, and the USAF, in particular, manage and employ a weather-modification capability? We envision this will be done by the weather force support element (WFSE), whose primary mission would be to support the war-fighting CINCs with weather-modification options, in addition to current forecasting support. Although the WFSE could operate anywhere as long as it has access to the GWN and the system components already discussed, it will more than likely be a component within the AOC or its 2025-equivalent. With the CINC’s intent as guidance, the WFSE formulates weather-modification options using information provided by the GWN, local weather data network, and weather-modification forecast model. The options include range of effect, probability of success, resources to be expended, the enemy’s vulnerability, and risks involved. The CINC chooses an effect based on these inputs, and the WFSE then implements the chosen course, selecting the right modification tools and employing them to achieve the desired effect. Sensors detect the change and feed data on the new weather pattern to the modeling system which updates its forecast accordingly. The WFSE checks the effectiveness of its efforts by pulling down the updated current conditions and new forecast(s) from the GWN and local weather data network, and plans follow-on missions as needed. This concept is illustrated in figure 3-2.

WFSE personnel will need to be experts in information systems and well schooled in the arts of both offensive and defensive information warfare. They would also have an in-depth understanding of the GWN and an appreciation for how weather-modification could be employed to meet a CINC’s needs.

Because of the nodal web nature of the GWN, this concept would be very flexible. For instance, a WFSE could be assigned to each theater to provide direct support to the CINC. The system would also be survivable, with multiple nodes connected to the GWN.

A product of the information age, this system would be most vulnerable to information warfare. Each WFSE would need the most current defensive and offensive information capabilities available. Defensive abilities would be necessary for survival. Offensive abilities could provide spoofing options to create virtual weather in the enemy’s sensory and information systems, making it more likely for them to make decisions producing results of our choosing rather than theirs. It would also allow for the capability to mask or disguise our weather-modification activities.

Two key technologies are necessary to meld an integrated, comprehensive, responsive, precise, and effective weather-modification system. Advances in the science of chaos are critical to this endeavor. Also key to the feasibility of such a system is the ability to model the extremely complex nonlinear system of global weather in ways that can accurately predict the outcome of changes in the influencing variables. Researchers have already successfully controlled single variable nonlinear systems in the lab and hypothesize that current mathematical techniques and computer capacity could handle systems with up to five variables. Advances in these two areas would make it feasible to affect regional weather patterns by making small, continuous nudges to one or more influencing factors. Conceivably, with enough lead time and the right conditions, you could get “made-to-order” weather.18

Developing a true weather-modification capability will require various intervention tools to adjust the appropriate meteorological parameters in predictable ways. It is this area that must be developed by the military based on specific required capabilities such as those listed in table 1, table 1 is located in the Executive Summary. Such a system would contain a sensor array and localized battle area data net to provide the fine level of resolution required to detect intervention effects and provide feedback. This net would include ground, air, maritime, and space sensors as well as human observations in order to ensure the reliability and responsiveness of the system, even in the event of enemy countermeasures. It would also include specific intervention tools and technologies, some of which already exist and others which must be developed. Some of these proposed tools are described in the following chapter titled Concept of Operations. The total weather-modification process would be a real-time loop of continuous, appropriate, measured interventions, and feedback capable of producing desired weather behavior.

Chapter 4

Concept of Operations

The essential ingredient of the weather-modification system is the set of intervention techniques used to modify the weather. The number of specific intervention methodologies is limited only by the imagination, but with few exceptions they involve infusing either energy or chemicals into the meteorological process in the right way, at the right place and time. The intervention could be designed to modify the weather in a number of ways, such as influencing clouds and precipitation, storm intensity, climate, space, or fog.

Precipitation

For centuries man has desired the ability to influence precipitation at the time and place of his choosing. Until recently, success in achieving this goal has been minimal; however, a new window of opportunity may exist resulting from development of new technologies and an increasing world interest in relieving water shortages through precipitation enhancement. Consequently, we advocate that the DOD explore the many opportunities (and also the ramifications) resulting from development of a capability to influence precipitation or conducting “selective precipitation modification.” Although the capability to influence precipitation over the long term (i.e., for more than several days) is still not fully understood. By 2025 we will certainly be capable of increasing or decreasing precipitation over the short term in a localized area.

Before discussing research in this area, it is important to describe the benefits of such a capability. While many military operations may be influenced by precipitation, ground mobility is most affected. Influencing precipitation could prove useful in two ways. First, enhancing precipitation could decrease the enemy’s trafficability by muddying terrain, while also affecting their morale. Second, suppressing precipitation could increase friendly trafficability by drying out an otherwise muddied area.

What is the possibility of developing this capability and applying it to tactical operations by 2025? Closer than one might think. Research has been conducted in precipitation modification for many years, and an aspect of the resulting technology was applied to operations during the Vietnam War.19 These initial attempts provide a foundation for further development of a true capability for selective precipitation modification.

Interestingly enough, the US government made a conscious decision to stop building upon this foundation. As mentioned earlier, international agreements have prevented the US from investigating weather-modification operations that could have widespread, long-lasting, or severe effects. However, possibilities do exist (within the boundaries of established treaties) for using localized precipitation modification over the short term, with limited and potentially positive results.

These possibilities date back to our own previous experimentation with precipitation modification. As stated in an article appearing in the Journal of Applied Meteorology, early all the weather-modification efforts over the last quarter century have been aimed at producing changes on the cloud scale through exploitation of the saturated vapor pressure difference between ice and water. This is not to be criticized but it is time we also consider the feasibility of weather-modification on other time-space scales and with other physical hypotheses.20

This study by William M. Gray, et al., investigated the hypothesis that “significant beneficial influences can be derived through judicious exploitation of the solar absorption potential of carbon black dust.”21 The study ultimately found that this technology could be used to enhance rainfall on the mesoscale, generate cirrus clouds, and enhance cumulonimbus (thunderstorm) clouds in otherwise dry areas.

The technology can be described as follows. Just as a black tar roof easily absorbs solar energy and subsequently radiates heat during a sunny day, carbon black also readily absorbs solar energy. When dispersed in microscopic or “dust” form in the air over a large body of water, the carbon becomes hot and heats the surrounding air, thereby increasing the amount of evaporation from the body of water below. As the surrounding air heats up, parcels of air will rise and the water vapor contained in the rising air parcel will eventually condense to form clouds. Over time the cloud droplets increase in size as more and more water vapor condenses, and eventually they become too large and heavy to stay suspended and will fall as rain or other forms of precipitation.22 The study points out that this precipitation enhancement technology would work best “upwind from coastlines with onshore flow.” Lake-effect snow along the southern edge of the Great Lakes is a naturally occurring phenomenon based on similar dynamics.

Can this type of precipitation enhancement technology have military applications? Yes, if the right conditions exist. For example, if we are fortunate enough to have a fairly large body of water available upwind from the targeted battlefield, carbon dust could be placed in the atmosphere over that water. Assuming the dynamics are supportive in the atmosphere, the rising saturated air will eventually form clouds and rainshowers downwind over the land.23 While the likelihood of having a body of water located upwind of the battlefield is unpredictable, the technology could prove enormously useful under the right conditions. Only further experimentation will determine to what degree precipitation enhancement can be controlled.

If precipitation enhancement techniques are successfully developed and the right natural conditions also exist, we must also be able to disperse carbon dust into the desired location. Transporting it in a completely controlled, safe, cost-effective, and reliable manner requires innovation. Numerous dispersal techniques have already been studied, but the most convenient, safe, and cost-effective method discussed is the use of afterburner-type jet engines to generate carbon particles while flying through the targeted air. This method is based on injection of liquid hydrocarbon fuel into the afterburner’s combustion gases. This direct generation method was found to be more desirable than another plausible method (i.e., the transport of large quantities of previously produced and properly sized carbon dust to the desired altitude).

The carbon dust study demonstrated that small-scale precipitation enhancement is possible and has been successfully verified under certain atmospheric conditions. Since the study was conducted, no known military applications of this technology have been realized. However, we can postulate how this technology might be used in the future by examining some of the delivery platforms conceivably available for effective dispersal of carbon dust or other effective modification agents in the year 2025.

One method we propose would further maximize the technology’s safety and reliability, by virtually eliminating the human element. To date, much work has been done on UAVs which can closely (if not completely) match the capabilities of piloted aircraft. If this UAV technology were combined with stealth and carbon dust technologies, the result could be a UAV aircraft invisible to radar while en route to the targeted area, which could spontaneously create carbon dust in any location. However, minimizing the number of UAVs required to complete the mission would depend upon the development of a new and more efficient system to produce carbon dust by a follow-on technology to the afterburner-type jet engines previously mentioned. In order to effectively use stealth technology, this system must also have the ability to disperse carbon dust while minimizing (or eliminating) the UAV’s infrared heat source.

In addition to using stealth UAV and carbon dust absorption technology for precipitation enhancement, this delivery method could also be used for precipitation suppression. Although the previously mentioned study did not significantly explore the possibility of cloud seeding for precipitation suppression, this possibility does exist. If clouds were seeded (using chemical nuclei similar to those used today or perhaps a more effective agent discovered through continued research) before their downwind arrival to a desired location, the result could be a suppression of precipitation. In other words, precipitation could be “forced” to fall before its arrival in the desired territory, thereby making the desired territory “dry.” The strategic and operational benefits of doing this have previously been discussed.

Fog

In general, successful fog dissipation requires some type of heating or seeding process. Which technique works best depends on the type of fog encountered. In simplest terms, there are two basic types of fog-cold and warm. Cold fog occurs at temperatures below 32oF. The best-known dissipation technique for cold fog is to seed it from the air with agents that promote the growth of ice crystals.24

Warm fog occurs at temperatures above 32 degrees F and accounts for 90 percent of the fog-related problems encountered by flight operations.25 The best-known dissipation technique is heating because a small temperature increase is usually sufficient to evaporate the fog. Since heating usually isn’t practical, the next most effective technique is hygroscopic seeding.26 Hygroscopic seeding uses agents that absorb water vapor. This technique is most effective when accomplished from the air but can also be accomplished from the ground.27 Optimal results require advance information on fog depth, liquid water content, and wind.28

Decades of research show that fog dissipation is an effective application of weather-modification technology with demonstrated savings of huge proportions for both military and civil aviation.29 Local municipalities have also shown an interest in applying these techniques to improve the safety of high-speed highways transiting areas of frequently occurring dense fog.30

There are some emerging technologies which may have important applications for fog dispersal. As discussed earlier, heating is the most effective dispersal method for the most commonly occurring type of fog. Unfortunately, it has proved impractical for most situations and would be difficult at best for contingency operations. However, the development of directed radiant energy technologies, such as microwaves and lasers, could provide new possibilities.

Lab experiments have shown microwaves to be effective for the heat dissipation of fog. However, results also indicate that the energy levels required exceed the US large power density exposure limit of 100 watt/m2 and would be very expensive.31 Field experiments with lasers have demonstrated the capability to dissipate warm fog at an airfield with zero visibility. Generating 1 watt/cm2, which is approximately the US large power density exposure limit, the system raised visibility to one quarter of a mile in 20 seconds.32 Laser systems described in the Space Operations portion of this AF 2025 study could certainly provide this capability as one of their many possible uses.

With regard to seeding techniques, improvements in the materials and delivery methods are not only plausible but likely. Smart materials based on nanotechnology are currently being developed with gigaops computer capability at their core. They could adjust their size to optimal dimensions for a given fog seeding situation and even make adjustments throughout the process. They might also enhance their dispersal qualities by adjusting their buoyancy, by communicating with each other, and by steering themselves within the fog. They will be able to provide immediate and continuous effectiveness feedback by integrating with a larger sensor network and can also change their temperature and polarity to improve their seeding effects.33 As mentioned above, UAVs could be used to deliver and distribute these smart materials.

Recent army research lab experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of generating fog. They used commercial equipment to generate thick fog in an area 100 meters long. Further study has shown fogs to be effective at blocking much of the UV/IR/visible spectrum, effectively masking emitters of such radiation from IR weapons.34 This technology would enable a small military unit to avoid detection in the IR spectrum. Fog could be generated to quickly, conceal the movement of tanks or infantry, or it could conceal military operations, facilities, or equipment. Such systems may also be useful in inhibiting observations of sensitive rear-area operations by electro-optical reconnaissance platforms.35

Storms

The desirability to modify storms to support military objectives is the most aggressive and controversial type of weather-modification. The damage caused by storms is indeed horrendous. For instance, a tropical storm has an energy equal to 10,000 one-megaton hydrogen bombs,36 and in 1992 Hurricane Andrew totally destroyed Homestead AFB, Florida, caused the evacuation of most military aircraft in the southeastern US, and resulted in $15.5 billion of damage.37 However, as one would expect based on a storm’s energy level, current scientific literature indicates that there are definite physical limits on mankind’s ability to modify storm systems. By taking this into account along with political, environmental, economic, legal, and moral considerations, we will confine our analysis of storms to localized thunderstorms and thus do not consider major storm systems such as hurricanes or intense low-pressure systems.

At any instant there are approximately 2,000 thunderstorms taking place. In fact 45,000 thunderstorms, which contain heavy rain, hail, microbursts, wind shear, and lightning form daily.38 Anyone who has flown frequently on commercial aircraft has probably noticed the extremes that pilots will go to avoid thunderstorms. The danger of thunderstorms was clearly shown in August 1985 when a jumbo jet crashed killing 137 people after encountering microburst wind shears during a rain squall.39 These forces of nature impact all aircraft and even the most advanced fighters of 1996 make every attempt to avoid a thunderstorm.

Will bad weather remain an aviation hazard in 2025? The answer, unfortunately, is “yes,” but projected advances in technology over the next 30 years will diminish the hazard potential. Computer-controlled flight systems will be able to “autopilot” aircraft through rapidly changing winds. Aircraft will also have highly accurate, onboard sensing systems that can instantaneously “map” and automatically guide the aircraft through the safest portion of a storm cell. Aircraft are envisioned to have hardened electronics that can withstand the effects of lightning strikes and may also have the capability to generate a surrounding electropotential field that will neutralize or repel lightning strikes.

Assuming that the US achieves some or all of the above outlined aircraft technical advances and maintains the technological “weather edge” over its potential adversaries, we can next look at how we could modify the battlespace weather to make the best use of our technical advantage.

Weather-modification technologies might involve techniques that would increase latent heat release in the atmosphere, provide additional water vapor for cloud cell development, and provide additional surface and lower atmospheric heating to increase atmospheric instability. Critical to the success of any attempt to trigger a storm cell is the pre-existing atmospheric conditions locally and regionally. The atmosphere must already be conditionally unstable and the large-scale dynamics must be supportive of vertical cloud development. The focus of the weather-modification effort would be to provide additional “conditions” that would make the atmosphere unstable enough to generate cloud and eventually storm cell development. The path of storm cells once developed or enhanced is dependent not only on the mesoscale dynamics of the storm but the regional and synoptic (global) scale atmospheric wind flow patterns in the area which are currently not subject to human control.

As indicated, the technical hurdles for storm development in support of military operations are obviously greater than enhancing precipitation or dispersing fog as described earlier. One area of storm research that would significantly benefit military operations is lightning modification. Most research efforts are being conducted to develop techniques to lessen the occurrence or hazards associated with lightning. This is important research for military operations and resource protection, but some offensive military benefit could be obtained by doing research on increasing the potential and intensity of lightning. Concepts to explore include increasing the basic efficiency of the thunderstorm, stimulating the triggering mechanism that initiates the bolt, and triggering lightning such as that which struck Apollo 12 in 1968.40 Possible mechanisms to investigate would be ways to modify the electropotential characteristics over certain targets to induce lightning strikes on the desired targets as the storm passes over their location.

In summary, the ability to modify battlespace weather through storm cell triggering or enhancement would allow us to exploit the technological “weather” advances of our 2025 aircraft; this area has tremendous potential and should be addressed by future research and concept development programs.

Exploitation of “NearSpace” for Space Control

This section discusses opportunities for control and modification of the ionosphere and near-space environment for force enhancement; specifically to enhance our own communications, sensing, and navigation capabilities and/or impair those of our enemy. A brief technical description of the ionosphere and its importance in current communications systems is provided in appendix A.

By 2025, it may be possible to modify the ionosphere and near space, creating a variety of potential applications, as discussed below. However, before ionospheric modification becomes possible, a number of evolutionary advances in space weather forecasting and observation are needed. Many of these needs were described in a Spacecast 2020 study, Space Weather Support for Communications.41 Some of the suggestions from this study are included in appendix B; it is important to note that our ability to exploit near space via active modification is dependent on successfully achieving reliable observation and prediction capabilities.

Opportunities Afforded by Space Weather-modification

Modification of the near-space environment is crucial to battlespace dominance. General Charles Horner, former commander in chief, United States space command, described his worst nightmare as “seeing an entire Marine battalion wiped out on some foreign landing zone because he was unable to deny the enemy intelligence and imagery generated from space.”42 Active modification could provide a “technological fix” to jam the enemy’s active and passive surveillance and reconnaissance systems. In short, an operational capability to modify the near-space environment would ensure space superiority in 2025; this capability would allow us to shape and control the battlespace via enhanced communication, sensing, navigation, and precision engagement systems.

While we recognize that technological advances may negate the importance of certain electromagnetic frequencies for US aerospace forces in 2025 (such as radio frequency (RF), high-frequency (HF) and very high-frequency (VHF) bands), the capabilities described below are nevertheless relevant. Our nonpeer adversaries will most likely still depend on such frequencies for communications, sensing, and navigation and would thus be extremely vulnerable to disruption via space weather-modification.

Communications Dominance via Ionospheric Modification

Modification of the ionosphere to enhance or disrupt communications has recently become the subject of active research. According to Lewis M. Duncan, and Robert L. Showen, the Former Soviet Union (FSU) conducted theoretical and experimental research in this area at a level considerably greater than comparable programs in the West.43 There is a strong motivation for this research, because induced ionospheric modifications may influence, or even disrupt, the operation of radio systems relying on propagation through the modified region. The controlled generation or accelerated dissipation of ionospheric disturbances may be used to produce new propagation paths, otherwise unavailable, appropriate for selected RF missions.44

A number of methods have been explored or proposed to modify the ionosphere, including injection of chemical vapors and heating or charging via electromagnetic radiation or particle beams (such as ions, neutral particles, x-rays, MeV particles, and energetic electrons).45 It is important to note that many techniques to modify the upper atmosphere have been successfully demonstrated experimentally. Ground-based modification techniques employed by the FSU include vertical HF heating, oblique HF heating, microwave heating, and magnetospheric modification.46 Significant military applications of such operations include low frequency (LF) communication production, HF ducted communications, and creation of an artificial ionosphere (discussed in detail below). Moreover, developing countries also recognize the benefit of ionospheric modification: “in the early 1980’s, Brazil conducted an experiment to modify the ionosphere by chemical injection.”47

Several high-payoff capabilities that could result from the modification of the ionosphere or near space are described briefly below. It should be emphasized that this list is not comprehensive; modification of the ionosphere is an area rich with potential applications and there are also likely spin-off applications that have yet to be envisioned.

Ionospheric mirrors for pinpoint communication or over-the-horizon (OTH) radar transmission. The properties and limitations of the ionosphere as a reflecting medium for high-frequency radiation are described in appendix A. The major disadvantage in depending on the ionosphere to reflect radio waves is its variability, which is due to normal space weather and events such as solar flares and geomagnetic storms. The ionosphere has been described as a crinkled sheet of wax paper whose relative position rises and sinks depending on weather conditions. The surface topography of the crinkled paper also constantly changes, leading to variability in its reflective, refractive, and transmissive properties.

Creation of an artificial uniform ionosphere was first proposed by Soviet researcher A. V. Gurevich in the mid-1970s. An artificial ionospheric mirror (AIM) would serve as a precise mirror for electromagnetic radiation of a selected frequency or a range of frequencies. It would thereby be useful for both pinpoint control of friendly communications and interception of enemy transmissions.

This concept has been described in detail by Paul A. Kossey, et al. in a paper entitled “Artificial Ionospheric Mirrors (AIM).”48 The authors describe how one could precisely control the location and height of the region of artificially produced ionization using crossed microwave (MW) beams, which produce atmospheric breakdown (ionization) of neutral species. The implications of such control are enormous: one would no longer be subject to the vagaries of the natural ionosphere but would instead have direct control of the propagation environment. Ideally, the AIM could be rapidly created and then would be maintained only for a brief operational period. A schematic depicting the crossed-beam approach for generation of an AIM is shown in figure 4-1.49

An AIM could theoretically reflect radio waves with frequencies up to 2 GHz, which is nearly two orders of magnitude higher than those waves reflected by the natural ionosphere. The MW radiator power requirements for such a system are roughly an order of magnitude greater than 1992 state-of-the-art systems; however, by 2025 such a power capability is expected to be easily achievable.

Besides providing pinpoint communication control and potential interception capability, this technology would also provide communication capability at specified frequencies, as desired. Figure 4-2 shows how a ground-based radiator might generate a series of AIMs, each of which would be tailored to reflect a selected transmission frequency. Such an arrangement would greatly expand the available bandwidth for communications and also eliminate the problem of interference and crosstalk (by allowing one to use the requisite power level).

Kossey et al. also describe how AIMs could be used to improve the capability of OTH radar:

AIM based radar could be operated at a frequency chosen to optimize target detection, rather than be limited by prevailing ionospheric conditions. This, combined with the possibility of controlling the radar’s wave polarization to mitigate clutter effects, could result in reliable detection of cruise missiles and other low observable targets.50

A schematic depicting this concept is shown in figure 4-3. Potential advantages over conventional OTH radars include frequency control, mitigation of auroral effects, short range operation, and detection of a smaller cross-section target.

Disruption of communications and radar via ionospheric control. A variation of the capability proposed above is ionospheric modification to disrupt an enemy’s communication or radar transmissions. Because HF communications are controlled directly by the ionosphere’s properties, an artificially created ionization region could conceivably disrupt an enemy’s electromagnetic transmissions. Even in the absence of an artificial ionization patch, high-frequency modification produces large-scale ionospheric variations which alter HF propagation characteristics. The payoff of research aimed at understanding how to control these variations could be high as both HF communication enhancement and degradation are possible. Offensive interference of this kind would likely be indistinguishable from naturally occurring space weather. This capability could also be employed to precisely locate the source of enemy electromagnetic transmissions.

VHF, UHF, and super-high frequency (SHF) satellite communications could be disrupted by creating artificial ionospheric scintillation. This phenomenon causes fluctuations in the phase and amplitude of radio waves over a very wide band (30 MHz to 30 GHz). HF modification produces electron density irregularities that cause scintillation over a wide-range of frequencies. The size of the irregularities determines which frequency band will be affected. Understanding how to control the spectrum of the artificial irregularities generated in the HF modification process should be a primary goal of research in this area. Additionally, it may be possible to suppress the growth of natural irregularities resulting in reduced levels of natural scintillation. Creating artificial scintillation would allow us to disrupt satellite transmissions over selected regions. Like the HF disruption described above, such actions would likely be indistinguishable from naturally occurring environmental events. Figure 4-4 shows how artificially ionized regions might be used to disrupt HF communications via attenuation, scatter, or absorption (fig. 4.4a) or degrade satellite communications via scintillation or energy loss (fig. 4-4b) (from Ref. 25).

Exploding/disabling space assets traversing near-space. The ionosphere could potentially be artificially charged or injected with radiation at a certain point so that it becomes inhospitable to satellites or other space structures. The result could range from temporarily disabling the target to its complete destruction via an induced explosion. Of course, effectively employing such a capability depends on the ability to apply it selectively to chosen regions in space.

Charging space assets by near-space energy transfer. In contrast to the injurious capability described above, regions of the ionosphere could potentially be modified or used as-is to revitalize space assets, for instance by charging their power systems. The natural charge of the ionosphere may serve to provide most or all of the energy input to the satellite. There have been a number of papers in the last decade on electrical charging of space vehicles; however, according to one author, “in spite of the significant effort made in the field both theoretically and experimentally, the vehicle charging problem is far from being completely understood.”51

While the technical challenge is considerable, the potential to harness electrostatic energy to fuel the satellite’s power cells would have a high payoff, enabling service life extension of space assets at a relatively low cost. Additionally, exploiting the capability of powerful HF radio waves to accelerate electrons to relatively high energies may also facilitate the degradation of enemy space assets through directed bombardment with the HF-induced electron beams. As with artificial HF communication disruptions and induced scintillation, the degradation of enemy spacecraft with such techniques would be effectively indistinguishable from natural environment effects. The investigation and optimization of HF acceleration mechanisms for both friendly and hostile purposes is an important area for future research efforts.

Artificial Weather

While most weather-modification efforts rely on the existence of certain preexisting conditions, it may be possible to produce some weather effects artificially, regardless of preexisting conditions. For instance, virtual weather could be created by influencing the weather information received by an end user. Their perception of parameter values or images from global or local meteorological information systems would differ from reality. This difference in perception would lead the end user to make degraded operational decisions.

Nanotechnology also offers possibilities for creating simulated weather. A cloud, or several clouds, of microscopic computer particles, all communicating with each other and with a larger control system could provide tremendous capability. Interconnected, atmospherically buoyant, and having navigation capability in three dimensions, such clouds could be designed to have a wide-range of properties. They might exclusively block optical sensors or could adjust to become impermeable to other surveillance methods. They could also provide an atmospheric electrical potential difference, which otherwise might not exist, to achieve precisely aimed and timed lightning strikes. Even if power levels achieved were insufficient to be an effective strike weapon, the potential for psychological operations in many situations could be fantastic.

One major advantage of using simulated weather to achieve a desired effect is that unlike other approaches, it makes what are otherwise the results of deliberate actions appear to be the consequences of natural weather phenomena. In addition, it is potentially relatively inexpensive to do. According to J. Storrs Hall, a scientist at Rutgers University conducting research on nanotechnology, production costs of these nanoparticles could be about the same price per pound as potatoes.52 This of course discounts research and development costs, which will be primarily borne by the private sector and be considered a sunk cost by 2025 and probably earlier.

Concept of Operations Summary

Weather affects everything we do, and weather-modification can enhance our ability to dominate the aerospace environment. It gives the commander tools to shape the battlespace. It gives the logistician tools to optimize the process. It gives the warriors in the cockpit an operating environment literally crafted to their needs. Some of the potential capabilities a weather-modification system could provide to a war-fighting CINC are summarized in table 1, of the executive summary).

Chapter 5

Investigation Recommendations

How Do We Get There From Here?

To fully appreciate the development of the specific operational capabilities weather-modification could deliver to the war fighter, we must examine and understand their relationship to associated core competencies and the development of their requisite technologies. Figure 5-1 combines the specific operational capabilities of Table 1 into six core capabilities and depicts their relative importance over time. For example, fog and cloud modification are currently important and will remain so for some time to come to conceal our assets from surveillance or improve landing visibility at airfields. However, as surveillance assets become less optically dependent and aircraft achieve a truly global all-weather landing capability, fog and cloud modification applications become less important.

In contrast, artificial weather technologies do not currently exist. But as they are developed, the importance of their potential applications rises rapidly. For example, the anticipated proliferation of surveillance technologies in the future will make the ability to deny surveillance increasingly valuable. In such an environment, clouds made of smart particles such as described in chapter 4 could provide a premium capability.

Even today’s most technologically advanced militaries would usually prefer to fight in clear weather and blue skies. But as war-fighting technologies proliferate, the side with the technological advantage will prefer to fight in weather that gives them an edge. The US Army has already alluded to this approach in their concept of “owning the weather.”53 Accordingly, storm modification will become more valuable over time. The importance of precipitation modification is also likely to increase as usable water sources become more scarce in volatile parts of the world.

As more countries pursue, develop, and exploit increasing types and degrees of weather-modification technologies, we must be able to detect their efforts and counter their activities when necessary. As depicted, the technologies and capabilities associated with such a counter weather role will become increasingly important.

The importance of space weather-modification will grow with time. Its rise will be more rapid at first as the technologies it can best support or negate proliferate at their fastest rates. Later, as those technologies mature or become obsolete, the importance of space weather-modification will continue to rise but not as rapidly.

To achieve the core capabilities depicted in figure 5-1, the necessary technologies and systems might be developed according to the process depicted in figure 5-2. This figure illustrates the systems development timing and sequence necessary to realize a weather-modification capability for the battlespace by 2025. The horizontal axis represents time. The vertical axis indicates the degree to which a given technology will be applied toward weather-modification. As the primary users, the military will be the main developer for the technologies designated with an asterisk. The civil sector will be the main source for the remaining technologies.

Conclusions

The world’s finite resources and continued needs will drive the desire to protect people and property and more efficiently use our crop lands, forests, and range lands. The ability to modify the weather may be desirable both for economic and defense reasons. The global weather system has been described as a series of spheres or bubbles. Pushing down on one causes another to pop up.54 We need to know when another power “pushes” on a sphere in their region, and how that will affect either our own territory or areas of economic and political interest to the US.

Efforts are already under way to create more comprehensive weather models primarily to improve forecasts, but researchers are also trying to influence the results of these models by adding small amounts of energy at just the right time and space. These programs are extremely limited at the moment and are not yet validated, but there is great potential to improve them in the next 30 years.55

The lessons of history indicate a real weather-modification capability will eventually exist despite the risk. The drive exists. People have always wanted to control the weather and their desire will compel them to collectively and continuously pursue their goal. The motivation exists. The potential benefits and power are extremely lucrative and alluring for those who have the resources to develop it. This combination of drive, motivation, and resources will eventually produce the technology. History also teaches that we cannot afford to be without a weather-modification capability once the technology is developed and used by others. Even if we have no intention of using it, others will. To call upon the atomic weapon analogy again, we need to be able to deter or counter their capability with our own. Therefore, the weather and intelligence communities must keep abreast of the actions of others.

As the preceding chapters have shown, weather-modification is a force multiplier with tremendous power that could be exploited across the full spectrum of war-fighting environments. From enhancing friendly operations or disrupting those of the enemy via small-scale tailoring of natural weather patterns to complete dominance of global communications and counter-space control, weather-modification offers the war fighter a wide-range of possible options to defeat or coerce an adversary. But, while offensive weather-modification efforts would certainly be undertaken by US forces with great caution and trepidation, it is clear that we cannot afford to allow an adversary to obtain an exclusive weather-modification capability.

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