Category Archives: Ancient Aliens

Nassim Haramein – The Pyramids & Orion Belt

I just love this guy and I have to post this update to Pyramid saga, because it’s just great.

Explore Orion’s Belt and the pyramids with physicist Nassim Haramein!

Nassim Haramein was born in Geneva, Switzerland in 1962. As early as 9 years old, Nassim was already developing the basis for a unified hyperdimensional theory of matter and energy, which he eventually called the ‘Holofractographic Universe.’

Haramein has spent most of his life researching the fundamental geometry of hyperspace, studying a variety of fields from theoretical physics, cosmology, quantum mechanics, biology and chemistry to anthropology and ancient civilizations. Combining this knowledge with a keen observation of the behavior of nature, he discovered a specific geometric array that he found to be fundamental to creation and from which the foundation for his Unified Field Theory emerged.

 

 

There you have again something to think about…

“I never saw any good that came of telling truth.”
JOHN DRYDEN, Amphitryon

The Mystery of the Missing Pyramidion of Khufu

I have many times wondered, that when you watch the Great Pyramid you notice that there is something missing on the top, the cap stone. Where is it and what was the purpose of it. Here’s a little article about that stone:

The Mystery of the Missing Pyramidion of Khufu

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One of the mysteries of Giza is the missing pyramidion or capstone of the Great Pyramid of Khufu. Since modern recorded history, the Great Pyramid has been topless, with several meters of its apex missing. Egyptologists have assumed that the pyramid was originally capped by a small pyramid called a pyramidion. If that is true, then what happened to it, and what could it have looked like?

It is possible, indeed highly probable, that the great Egyptian architect and royal vizier, Imhotep, was still alive when Khufu planned his pyramid. Imhotep was the High Priest of Heliopolis, where the sacred Benben Stone was kept, and on its shape and symbolism was modeled the gilded capstones of pyramid called ‘Benben-t’. Could Imhotep have advised Khufu to conceal the Benben in his pyramid? But where?

This article below is culled from a discussion in Appendix 1 of my latest book, co-written with Thomas Brophy, Ph.D., Imhotep The African: Architect of the Cosmos (Disinformation Books).

In October 1900 the guards of the Egyptian Antiquities Organisation (EAO) in the area of Dashur, a site on the western desert that is some 20 kilometers south of modern Cairo, were attacked by a group of armed brigands. A few days later, Gaston Maspero, the head of the EAO went to inspect the site. It was then that he was taken to see an amazing and rather unique artifacts that had been found embedded in the sand near a pyramid of the 12th Dynasty belonging to the pharaoh Amenemhet III. There, sticking partially out of the sand, was a magnificent pyramidion made of black granite. Maspero could hardly believe his eyes at the amazing preservation of this 4000 years old artifacts which, in his excitement, he described as “polished like a mirror”.  The pyramid, which measured 1.85 meters at the base and had a height of 1.40 meters, was decorated with wonderful inscriptions. On one face was a winged solar-disk flanked by two ureus (sacred cobras), and under the solar-disk were two large eyes. Under the eyes were three lutes with a large sun disk underneath. On each side of the sun-disk were the royal cartouches bearing the names of Amennemhet III, and  at the base of the triangular face were two lines of hieroglyphs. In an article published in the Annales Du Services Des Antiquités in 1902, Maspero gave this translation:

“May the face of the king be opened so that he may see the Lord of the Horizon when he crosses the sky; may he cause the king to rise as a god, lord of eternity and indestructible… Horakhti has said I have given to the king of Upper and Lower Egypt the beautiful horizon who takes the inheritance of the two lands…so that you may unit with the horizon…the horizon has said that you rest upon it, which pleases me.”

In view of the mention of Horakhti (Horus of the Horizon) who was regarded as the symbol of the rising sun in the east, Maspero concluded that this face with the winged sun-disk was the East face of the pyramidion. Maspero did not give a full translation of the other threes faces which also bore two lines of inscriptions each, but nonetheless adds that “the invocation is similarly addressed on the South face to Anubis; on the West face to Ptah-Sokar-Osiris; on the North face to Sah-Orion.”

The same view was later expressed by the American Egyptologist James Henry Breasted in 1912. Breasted wrote:

“On the side which undoubtedly faced the east appears a winged sun-disk, surmounted by a pair of eyes, beneath which are the words ‘Beauty of the Sun’, the eyes of course indicate the idea of beholding which is to be understood with the words, ‘beauty of the sun’. Below is an inscription of two lines beginning: ‘The face of king Amenemhet III is opened, that he may behold the Lord of the Horizon when he sails across the sky’…”

In 1964 the American Egyptologist Alexander Piankoff, renowed for his translation of the Pyramid Texts, gave the translation of part of the East face which mentioned the constellation of Orion:

The sou) of Amenemhet is higher than the heights of  Orion, and it unites itself with the Duat…”

Piankoff interpreted the above by writing that “here, as in the Pyramid Texts, Orion is the visible manifestation of Osiris who, like this constellation, descends to the Netherworld (Duat) and then appears again in the sky.”

In 1946 the British Egyptologist Sir I.E.S. Edwards, an authority on the pyramids of Egypt, gave his own translation of the East face:

“May the face of the king be opened so that he may see the Lord of the Horizon [i.e., Harakhte] when he crosses the sky; may he cause the king to shine as a god, lord of eternity and indestructible, (Harakhte replies that he has) given the beautiful horizon to the king”

Today Egyptologists agree that the pyramids of ancient Egypt represented the dead kings. Indeed, the pyramidwas regarded as an actually personification of the dead king.  Indeed the name given to the pyramids show clearly that these monuments were considered to be the afterlife form of the king himself. According to A. Piankoff, for example,

“The embalmed body of the king lay in or under the pyramid, which together with its entire compound, was considered his body.”

Yet Egyptologists also agree that in the Pyramid Texts, the afterlife form of the king is said to be a ‘star’ in the sky.

This, then, may explain why in the case of at least three pyramids, the monuments were given stellar names while also personifying the dead king, such as “Djedefre is a Star in the Sky”, “Nebka is a Star” and the pyramid of Djoser being called “Horus is the Star at the head of the Sky”.  All this leads us to conclude that the pyramidion on top of the king’s pyramid was regarded as the stellar-transfigured king or his star-soul. It is only when we view it as such that the inscriptions on the East side of the pyramidion of Amenemhet III makes any sense: “May the face of the king be opened so that he may see the Lord of the Horizon…”

But two questions now must be also considered. For if indeed the pyramidion represented the form of the king as a star, then what could possibly have given the ancient Egyptians the idea that a star had the physical shape of a ‘pyramid” and, furthermore, that it was composed of very hard “black stone” such as black granite?

Most Egyptologists agree that the shape of pyramids was inspired by the Benben Stone that was venerated in the ‘Mansion Of The Phoenix’ at the city of Heliopolis. Many scholars claim that the Benben was symbolic of the sun. In 1912 the eminent American Egyptologist James H. Breasted noted the similarity of the word ‘Benben’ with the word ‘Benbenet’ –the pyramid-shaped apex of an obelisk– and concluded that “an obelisk is simply a pyramid upon a lofty base which has become a shaft… the obelisk, as is commonly known, is a symbol sacred to the Sun-god…[it followed that] the king was buried under the very symbol of the Sun-god which stood in the holy of holies in the Sun-temple at Heliopolis” This conclusion by an authority of the caliber of Breasted was quickly embraced by other authorities such as Sir I.E.S. Edwards who also proposed that the occasional sight of an immaterial triangle formed by the sun’s rays striking downwards through low clouds at sunset could have been the inspiration for the Benben’s shape “and its architectural derivative, the true Pyramid”.  Edwards quoted several passages from the Pyramid Texts that seem to support this idea:

“I have laid down for myself this sunshine of yours as a stairway under my feet…”

“May the sky make the sunlight strong for you, may you rise up to the sky…”

According to Edwards “the temptation to regard the true Pyramid as a material representation of the sun’s rays and consequently as a means whereby the dead king could ascend to heaven seems irresistible.” Yet it is also true that the Pyramid Texts give many other means for the dead pharaoh to ascend to the sky: on a ladder ( “The king climbs to the sky on a ladder”); on the wind (“the king is bound for the sky on the wind” (pyr. 309); on a storm-cloud/thunderbolt (“The king is a flame before the wind…there is brought to him a way of ascent to the sky”); on a hailstorm (“the hailstorms of the sky have taken me”); on a reed-floa: (“the reed-floats of the sky are set in place for me…I am ferried over to the eastern sky”); by climbing a rope (“set the rope aright, cross the Milky Way…”); on the thighs of Isis: (I ascend [to the sky] upon the thighs of Isis” ).  So the Pyramid Texts are full of such metaphors, and thus the idea of the dead king climbing on the sun’s rays is only another to describe poetically the celestial ascent, and cannot be taken as evidence for the shape of the Benben or the pyramid. There is, however, in the Pyramid Texts a passage which directly equate the actual pyramid to the king and Osiris: “This king is Osiris, this pyramid of the king is Osiris, this construction of his is Osiris, betake yourself to it, do not be far from it in its name of pyramid…”.

In the rebirth rituals of the Pyramid Texts the dead king’s name is compounded with the name of Osiris, showing that after his death the king became “an Osiris”. Now Osiris in the Pyramid Texts was a star-god whose soul was identified to the constellation of Orion:

“Behold Osiris has come as Orion”

“O king, you are this Great Star, the companion of Orion”

Could, therefore, the Benben Stone, and its derivatives the pyramid and the pyramidion, be regarded as ‘star’ symbols?  It is true that the ‘Mansion Of The Phoenix’ in which was kept the Benben Stone was in the City of Iunu, later called Heliopolis (City of the Sun) by the Greeks, an association of the Benben with the sun does not necessarily follow. Why, one must wonder, was a pyramid or conical shaped stone would be regarded as a manifestation of the sun when in all ancient Egyptian art the sun is represented as a disk or circle? Egyptologists have argued that the reason for this was because the Benben Stone may also have been a symbol of the so-called “Primeval Mound” in the Pyramid Texts on which it is said that the first sunrise took place, implying that the shape of the pyramid was inspired by the idea of a sacred mound. Edwards rejects this idea by pointing out that the Primeval Mound was linked to the much older Mastaba tomb structure of the first three Dynasties, which was not pyramid-shaped but rather in the form of a rectangular slab. Clearly, another more plausible explanation for the pyramidal or conical shape of the Benben Stone must be sought.

It is known that a sacred pillar was worshipped at Heliopolis before the Benben. The phallic symbolism of a pillar needs no emphasis; and its association to the “phallus” of Atum is implied in the Pyramid Texts

“Atum is he who once came into being, who masturbated in Heliopolis. He took his phallus in his grasp that he might create orgasm by means of it…”

“O Atum, the rising sun (-khoprer, the sacred beetle), you became high on the heights, , you rose as the Benben Stone in the Mansion Of The Phoenix in On…”

The Egyptologist Henry Frankfort made the plausible suggestion that the Benben was placed atop the sacred pillar, giving rise to the idea of the obelisk with a Benbenet/pyramidion at its top, and that the pyramidion may thus represent the “semen” or “seed” being ejaculated from a cosmic phallus associated to Atum. There are several well-known depiction of the Earth-God Geb (the son of Atum) laying down with an exaggeratedly long phallus pointing to the Sky-Goddess Nut, the “mother of Osiris”:

“…make the womb of Nut pregnant with the seed of the spirit which is in her”

“Pressure is in your womb, O Nut, through the seed of the god which is in you; it is I [the Osiris-king] who am the seed of the god which is in you…”

“…the king is an imperishable star, son of the sky-goddess Nut…”

“The king was fashioned by his father Atum…”

“O Atum, this king comes to you, an imperishable spirit (star)…your son comes to you, this king comes to you”

In my opinion, then, the idea of a pillar surging skywards and on top of which was the Benben Stone, is highly symbolic of a giant phallus offering its “star-seed” to the sky-goddess in order to gestate it in her womb and cause the departed king to be “reborn”. Bearing this in mind, it comes as no surprise to discover that the word “Benben” is often given the meaning to “copulate” or “seed a womb” confirmed by the hieroglyphic sign of an erect phallus shown ejaculating semen. Indeed, there are several words in the ancient Egyptian language that use the root word ‘Ben’ to describe sexual acts. Also in the famous Turin Papyrus which depicts sexual scenes, one image shows a beautiful naked woman inserting the tip of a pyramidion into her vagina, making clear that such objects were regarded phallis or capable of seeding a womb. The stellar aspect of these “seeding” rituals are depicted in the following passages of the Pyramid texts, where the departed king is somehow put into the womb of the sky-goddess (the ‘sarcophagus’) and is gestated there to eventually be reborn as star:

“The king is your seed”

“…the king comes to you, O mother of the king, he has come to Nut, that you may bring the sky to the king and hang the stars for him…”

“the sky-Goddess Nut conceives you with Orion…”

“Recitation by Nut, the greatly beneficent: the king is my eldest son who splits open my womb…”

“…O King, you are this Great Star, the companion of Orion…the sky has borne you with Orion…” (pyr.882-3).

“The King is a star brilliant…the King appears as a star…”

“You [Nut] have set this King as an imperishable Star who is in you…”

“The King is a star”

“I [the king] am a soul …a star of gold…”

“I [the king] am a star which illumines the sky…”

As we have said earlier in this article, the names of several monumental pyramids were given stellar names such as ‘Djedefre is a sehed  star’; ‘Nebka is a star’. Also the ‘ba’ i.e. soul, of the dead king is clearly to be regarded as a s ‘star’ in the Pyramid Texts, which indirectly also gives a stellar name to many other pyramids such as ‘The soul (ba) of Sahure gleams’ and ‘Neferirkare has become a soul (ba)’. The compounding of the pharaoh’s name with his pyramid implies, if not proves, that the monument (or perhaps mostly the pyramidion at the top) is to be regarded as the transfigured form of the king into a star-soul.

Still, why did the ancient Egyptians imagine that the star were shaped like a pyramid or a cone?

In antiquity the sight of “shooting stars” or  “falling stars” is, of course, a meteorite. Meteorites are debris from outer space, mostly from broken up asteroids, which enter the gravitational pull of the Earth and fall down to the ground –as opposed to meteors which completely burn up during atmospheric transit. Meteorites are either iron-meteorites (about 90% iron and 10-12% nickel) or stone meteorites. The largest that survive impact are the iron-meteorites for obvious reasons. Most meteorites are very small, but occasionally a large meteorite enters our atmosphere. If it is very large  it will retain most of its cosmic velocity, thus compressing the air in front of it as it approaches the ground, causing it to explode with dramatic effect. But if the meteorite is of medium size, somewhere between 10 and 60 tons, its cosmic velocity is slowed down by the earth’s atmosphere, causing the meteorite to eventually free fall and hit the ground almost intact. Some of these medium size meteorites retain their orientation as they speed through the earth’s atmosphere, which causes only the front part to melt and flow toward the rear. The result is a iron object having the shape of a rough pyramid or cone.

Bearing this in mind, I also discovered that the ancient Egyptians believed that iron actually came from heaven, which is clearly an allusion to the meteoritic origin of iron before the Iron Age. In other ancient cultures there were many sacred stones such as the Benben which were believed to have ‘fallen from heaven’. The Ephesians (see Acts xix-35 of the Bible) worshipped such a stone in the temple of Diana “that symbol of her which fell from heaven”. In Delphi a stone shaped like a cone was believed to have come from the sky. A conical iron-meteorite was also worshiped by the Phrygian in the 7th century BC. There was also the famous conical “black stone” called Elagalabus that was worshipped in Emessa. A modern example of such “stone from heaven” is the  black stone of the the Ka’aba in Mecca in Saudi Arabia which is a meteorite that was recovered in antiquity. The British Egyptologist Gerald Wainwright has shown how iron in early Egypt was obtained from iron-meteorites. The ancient Egyptian word for iron was ‘bja’ which was called “material of which heaven was made”. Significantly, in the Pyramid Texts we are told that,

“The king’s bones are iron and the king’s members are the imperishable stars…”

“I [the king] am pure, I take to myself my iron bones…my imperishable limbs are in the womb of Nut”

“…my bones are iron and my limbs are the imperishable stars”.

It is not very hard to see that chunks of meteoritic iron, which generally have a luster black appearance, were classified by the ancient Egyptians along with other hard black or dark stones such as diorite, basalt and granite. To a people unfamiliar with iron and its chemical properties, the resemblance of basalt to a rough iron meteorite can be uncanny. Not surprising then, black basalt was called ‘black iron’ (bja kam), suggesting that basalt, and possibly black granite, were associated to meteoritic iron, and consequently to the ‘bones’ of star-gods. Most pyramidions that were once placed on the top of pyramids were made of dark granite, such as the fine example of Amenemhet III. Also the hieroglyphic sign for ‘pyramid’ was a pyramid often with a yellow pyramidion, suggesting that the latter may have been covered with gold leaf. An inscription on the pyramid of queen Udjebten (6th Dynasty) speaks of the golden capstone on her pyramid. In the Pyramid Texts we read,

“O King, raise yourself upon your iron bones and golden members, for this body of yours belongs to a god… may your flesh be born to life and may your life be more than the life of the stars in their season of life…”

“I [the king] row Ra when traversing the sky, even I a star of gold…”

“…be a soul like a living star”.

Could the idea of the pyramidal shape of a “living star” made from golden flesh and black iron bones and shining high up in the sky, have been the reason for the pyramidion made of black granite covered in gold leaf and raised high up the pyramid? Was this how the lost pyramidion of Khufu looked like? And what could have happened to it? Could it have been removed by the priests of Heliopolis, under the orders of Imhotep, from its original sanctuary and hidden somewhere? Where?

In a ‘secret chamber’ inside the Great Pyramid?

Only time will tell…

The return of the Annunaki King Marduk?

I have been quite busy on other projects so here’s just something to think about:

Occasionally a good rumor is entertaining as well as distracting from the often negative barrage of daily world news which is usually slanted to indicate the demise of populism which is far from true.

This article involves a story which I certainly hope turns out to be just a funny rumor. The problem is that the source for this story has very deep Intel connections and usually is right on the money.

And there are certain background details which create many more questions than they answer.

And it is these questions which seem quite remarkable in scope and themselves generate many more questions and raise new issues.

A very strange trip to Africa during the last week of June 2013 for the last three American Presidents.

In the June 18, 2013 issue of the Africa Review (Kenya, Africa), a very interesting story detailed expected intersecting visits of both former President Clinton and current President Obama to Senegal, Africa (1).

This alone has not received any suitable explanation other than the flimsy reason that they were there to commemorate the “Al Cia Duh” bombing at the US Embassy in Tanzania.

And believe it or not former President George W. Bush is alleged to also have arrived in Africa during this time period.

 

Former US President Bill Clinton is expected in Senegal hours before the arrival of the incumbent President Barack Obama, sources said. The leading Le Populair daily on Tuesday quoted American embassy sources hinting that the two statesmen could likely meet during their stay in Dakar.

The sources further said that President Obama was expected to extend his visit initially billed for 48 hours to 72 hours, beginning June 26.

Several sitting world leaders, including, former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan and the late Pope Jean Paul II, have visited Senegal over the last decade and toured the famous slave dungeon on Goree Island.

 

This visit of three American Presidents to the continent of Africa during the same time period is unprecedented in history and would appear to require an extraordinary explanation which has not been forthcoming.  

As if this story wasn’t already strange enough it gets even stranger, a story in CNN Politics on June 22, 2013 stated that President Obama and former President George Bush were to be on the African continent at the same time.

Obama flies Wednesday across the Atlantic for a trip that takes him to Senegal, South Africa and Tanzania, marking his second visit to sub-Saharan Africa as president (He went to Ghana during his first term).

Meanwhile Bush, who’s made multiple visits to Africa since leaving office, leaves next week for Zambia, where he’s working with his global health initiative to renovate a clinic that will serve as a cervical cancer screening and treatment center, according to the George W. Bush Presidential Center.

While the 44th and 43rd president are not scheduled to meet up, first lady Michelle Obama will attend an event hosted in part by former first lady Laura Bush. The two will attend the African First Ladies Summit, put on by the George W. Bush Institute, in Tanzania on July 2, the final day of the Obamas’ trip.

Aid to Africa was a big part of the Bush administration’s foreign policy. The former president started the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, otherwise known as PEPFAR, during his tenure at the White House. Started in 2003, the program grew into a $50 billion program to combat AIDS around the globe through testing, counseling and medical treatment.(2)

 

President Obama changed his African trip schedule.

It was announced that President Obama changed his initial schedule to extend his stay from 48 to 72 hours in Senegal (3).  No reason was given for this change.

The Washington Post noted another change with President Obama’s trip. It reported that his plans to participate in a Tanzanian safari were cancelled and changed to a visit to Robben Island, the place where Nelson Mandela was held for 18 of his 27 years as a political prisoner (4)(5).

As the story goes was reported that it was suggested that objections voiced over the use of special sniper rifles for use by President Obama to hunt large African animals with (and also for use by his special security detail).  Was there a concern arising that this special protection team could not be trusted and perhaps be turned?

Former high ranking CIA analyst Ray McGovern reported that it was rumored that President Obama had remarked to a friend that he had backed off on campaign promises because he was afraid of ending up like JFK (6).

Or perhaps this was just a cover story for a last minute change which was “suggested” by President Obama’s handlers, opening up his schedule for ”required” or at least highly desired meeting with a very powerful dignitary?

Here is President Obama’s official travel schedule (7). It scheduled him to be in Senegal the same time as former President Clinton. President Obama joined George W. Bush at a special Tanzania memorial to end his African trip (8).

It was reported that Bush and Obama just happened to find time to meet together by coincidence in Tanzania on July 2, 2013, to lay a wreath at the site of a 1998 “Al Cia Duh” bombing of the US embassy (10).

Did former President Clinton Meet up with Obama and former President George W. Bush?

But could former President Clinton have been there too at the same time and could there have been a special meeting between the three Presidents in Tanzania, or could there have been such a special meeting earlier in Senegal?

Or could each president have visited Senegal earlier and individually met with a very special world dignitary who is covertly assuming power, first in Africa and then the world to pay homage to him and agree to support his NWO final takeover which necessitates throwing Kingpins and Cutouts under the bus?

Is this “mystery entity” a powerful dignitary that is the actual ruler of the Third Force that has descended to Earth to assert control over the nations?

Certainly the visitation of a current sitting American president at the same time as two prior American Presidents to the African continent is unprecedented. This alone suggests that something very strange is up.

Of course with the apparent impending death of Nelson Mandela, control over the South American regime is now perhaps up for grabs. As many know the revolution in South America was an installation of a new socialist Bankster’s regime, actually a large scale social experiment. Doubt this then consider the triangular CIA center built in Johannesburg to represent the interests of the City of London Banksters.

In President Obama’s speech at Tanzania, he said that America was going to get more involved in Africa not just for charitable reasons but for self-interest too, that is, for new business opportunities for American corporations. This was a surprisingly blunt and honest acknowledgement since traditionally any involvement in South American or African matters have been to set up situations where the large international Banks covertly set hugely profitable “business opportunities” with the major international offshore corporations to sack the natural wealth of Africa, just as they used to do in South America, using USG trained death squads to clear the way, murder opposition and suppress the rights of the inhabitants.

Perhaps the prominent reason for the simultaneous African visits of three American Presidents, one current and two former may be to pay homage to a new world ruler who is now being revealed only to the very top insiders.  At least this is the rumor circulating at a deep level inside the Secret Shadow Government (SSG) and MJ12 support staff.

And who might this important and powerful NWO dignitary be, one so important three American Presidents would pay homage to him even over and above their own country and its sovereignty?

As the rumor goes, it is Marduk who has descended to planet Earth to Africa from an alien spacecraft. According to legend, Marduk is supposedly an Annunaki (aka Anakem or Nephilim), a luciferian demon being that allegedly represents the inter-dimensional black planet “Nibiru” which is invisible to astronomers. Allegedly the Annunaki were killed and/or driven away from earth during the flood and have begun a comeback during the 20th century by once again interbreeding with certain chosen bloodlines which have maintained the “ancient luciferian heritage” dating back to Babylon.

As the storyline goes, the have been rules established by God Almighty which limits their exercise of power over mankind. If they are to make a full scale return as they were before the flood and their previous destruction on Planet Earth, they must obey God Almighty’s rules and gain a foothold by deceiving the masses through temptation to violate God Almighty’s laws.

This involves creating and anointing various selective hybrid bloodlines which are the merger between luciferian fallen angel blood and earth woman’s blood and using them to tempt and corrupt mankind to break God’s laws which require loving God Almighty (the real one) and loving one’s neighbor as one self (aka “the golden rule”).

And as this narrative goes, lucifer anoints his hybrids and followers with special powers of deception to gain a foothold and corrupt the people of the Earth, allowing construction of a common base of corruption and perversion by dirtying up and compromising the people of the earth.

Thus these select “lucifer illuminated” (aka Illuminati) families are allegedly anointed with luciferian power to take over the world step by step through a long process of step-by-step Fabian incremental socialism.

This process involves and necessitates destroying normal male/female sex roles and the family system, “dirtying up” the population with drugs and pornography, hijacking and consolidating organized crime systems, creating an unlimited supply of money to buy and bribe governmental officials, creating massive intel systems to blackmail and compromise officials, setting up perpetual war systems and crime to create 24/7 perpetual bloodletting and death sacrifices, and making people dependent on mass media entertainment and mindkontrol systems to keep them from knowing and processing the truth.

And of course one must not overlook the power of money to buy and corrupt, so it is easy to understand why the creation of a centralized privatized world banking system which specializes in creating millions of debt-slaves in place of the serfs of the middle ages is so vital to the creation of the corrupted base which can allow the NWO Globalist “alien leader” dent by lucifer to gain a Strong foothold and take over control of all the nations of the world.

The return of the Annunaki King Marduk?

The upward facing triangle is Annunaki fallen angel blood of the Nephilim, the “great men of old” and the downward facing triangle is the blood of the earth woman.  Merged together they form the six pointed star, called the hex or the Babylonian “luciferian hex”, a symbol of Annunaki/human hybrid bloodlines anointed by lucifer.

It is interesting that it has been alleged by several top researchers of UFOs and alien visitations, that the triangle symbolizes the Annunaki which have been alleged to have been deeply involved in human and animal abductions and dissections. Some have alleged that the Annunaki have eaten a large number of human abductees.

Some historians say this was used by King Solomon when he returned to “foreign gods” and became “hexed” or under the con and curse of the six pointed Babylonian Annunaki star. The six pointed star was never used by most Hebrews to describe their various tribes or nations.  It was adopted in approximately 700 AD by Judaics from a small secret sect some have referred to as the “synagogue of Satan” going all the way back to Babylon and also later adopted by the upper echelons of Freemasonry. Most non-zionist Judaics have no idea what the hex star really represent and would be horrified if they understood. The nation of Israel flies the hex flag and this symbolizes that it is a pure free-masonic nation run by the luciferians or “synagogue of satan” unbeknownst to most of its citizens or even most Judaics in the world.

So, has Marduk landed, has he made his final return to take back planet earth and establish a complete luciferian globalist NWO system?  And if so does he represent the Third Force that has secretly been pulling the strings covertly in the background? And as some astute researchers have stated, the Third Force is remarkably deceptive and crafty and uses Kingpins and Cutouts to do its dirty work, typically disposing of them by throwing them under the bus after their missions are completed.

The Third Force (10).

The Third Force has never been regarded as being able to treat any Kingpins or Cutouts (11) it selects and uses with loyalty. Once their mission is completed, they are thrown under the bus. The best evidence so far is that the Third Force is an ancient evil entity which has exerted worldwide luciferian control from behind the scenes.  It does not like humans, nor does it experience any human emotions.  It is a beast, a blood thirsty demonic fallen angel that is allegedly an energy vampire which feeds off the constant bloodletting, pedophilia and sacrifice of human victims, and thus massive perpetual 24/7 wars are its forte.

It’s apparent goal to destroy the human race through war, destruction, high tech eugenics, and various sophisticated soft-kill methods, while creating its own substitute, a trans-human genetically spliced triple helix superman that is uni-sexual, and a beast with no conscience.  Some researchers believe that the luciferian NWO plan involves complete replacement of humans with genetically spliced trans-human borgs which are inhabited by evil fallen angels (aka demons).

And of course the giant 140 interconnected major international corporations which form a power block that runs the world central banking systems is now well entrenched in the continent of Africa and has deployed major covert eugenic programs to radically depopulate it so that its numerous natural resources and assets can be cheaply acquired and stripped.

Hi, we’re from the US Government and we are here to help you” (The biggest lie ever told?).

Thus when Presidents set up 40 Billion dollar plans to help prevent and treat aids in Africa one must be very suspect.  It is always like the old saying goes, the time to start worrying is when the suits show up and say, “hi, we’re from the government and we’re here to help you.” And that includes all the other supposed do gooder programs like Gates vaccination help and other sophisticated means which can allegedly be turned as used as sterilization or “thin the herd” depopulation means.

Thus we find many of these large corporations there and this includes many Chinese business ventures too, as the various NWO power structures compete to grab up as much as they can.

So when three American Presidents show up in Africa, all at the same time, one wonders how such a remarkable occurrence could be explained. And then when a highly placed respected source shares a rumor that an “alien ruler” from the past has returned as the inter-dimensional planet Nibiru is approaching in its 3600 year orbit, one wonders, could this be the reason?

Edward Snowden is alleged to have just made a major new disclosure which if true, could be a game changer and could perhaps make this rumor of Marduk landing in Africa more credible.

And now a new claim has entered the situation.  A recent article (12) from an unvetted source now claims not only has Venezuela granted Edward Snowden asylum, but that Snowden has revealed that the USG and specifically NSA has massive proof UFOs and Aliens exist and “doesn’t know what to do with this information”. Sometimes misinformation sites are used to break real news so that it will be ignored and discredited.  Kind of like using “blown cover” as “cover” in the Intel business.

Stay tuned because in the weeks and months to follow this whole storyline may get even stranger. Veterans Today will likely be the first to break such any such stories which clarify any of these claim one way or the other.

The Third Force cannot gain ground when folks are unwilling to harm others and do what is wrong.

The Third Force is only able to gain ground and power as long as humans behave in unnatural ways and violate God Almighty’s laws. Doing what is wrong which essentially is violating the golden rule, harming others, oneself or one’s family or nation is what gives the Third Force a means to invade.

If individuals truly follow the “golden rule” of “treating others as you would like them to treat you”, refuse to be mindkontrolled by the Controlled major Mass media (CMMM), television, video games, maintain their personal character, a commitment to truth and honesty, and maintain their basic human right to self-defense and the defense of their family and nation from outside invaders and any enemy within, this evil onslaught of the Third Force can be stopped.

Source

Mystery Of The Rosetta Stone

 

"A large dark grey-coloured slab of stone with text that uses Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, demotic and Greek script in three separate horizontal registers"
 

One of the fascinating archeological finding is an artifact called The Rosetta Stone. This piece of history made possible to translate some mysteries of the ancient Pyramids, because it bears three inscriptions: the top register in Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, the second in the Egyptian demotic script, and the third in Ancient Greek. Here is the description about the artifact:

The Rosetta Stone is an ancient Egyptiangranodioritestele inscribed with a decree issued at Memphis in 196 BC on behalf of King Ptolemy V. The decree appears in three scripts: the upper text is Ancient Egyptianhieroglyphs, the middle portion Demotic script, and the lowest Ancient Greek. Because it presents essentially the same text in all three scripts (with some minor differences between them), it provided the key to the modern understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphs.

Originally displayed within a temple, the stone was probably moved during the early Christian or medieval period and eventually used as building material in the construction of Fort Julien near the town of Rashid (Rosetta) in the Nile Delta. It was rediscovered there in 1799 by a soldier, Pierre-François Bouchard, of the French expedition to Egypt. As the first Ancient Egyptian bilingual text recovered in modern times, the Rosetta Stone aroused widespread public interest with its potential to decipher this hitherto untranslated ancient language. Lithographic copies and plaster casts began circulating among European museums and scholars. Meanwhile, British troops defeated the French in Egypt in 1801, and the original stone came into British possession under the Capitulation of Alexandria. Transported to London, it has been on public display at the British Museum since 1802. It is the most-visited object in the British Museum.

Study of the decree was already under way as the first full translation of the Greek text appeared in 1803. It was 20 years, however, before the transliteration of the Egyptian scripts was announced by Jean-François Champollion in Paris in 1822; it took longer still before scholars were able to read Ancient Egyptian inscriptions and literature confidently. Major advances in the decoding were: recognition that the stone offered three versions of the same text (1799); that the demotic text used phonetic characters to spell foreign names (1802); that the hieroglyphic text did so as well, and had pervasive similarities to the demotic (Thomas Young, 1814); and that, in addition to being used for foreign names, phonetic characters were also used to spell native Egyptian words (Champollion, 1822–1824).

Ever since its rediscovery, the stone has been the focus of nationalist rivalries, including its transfer from French to British possession during the Napoleonic Wars, a long-running dispute over the relative value of Young’s and Champollion’s contributions to the decipherment, and since 2003, demands for the stone’s return to Egypt.

Two other fragmentary copies of the same decree were discovered later, and several similar Egyptian bilingual or trilingual inscriptions are now known, including two slightly earlier Ptolemaic decrees (the Decree of Canopus in 238 BC, and the Memphis decree of Ptolemy IV, ca. 218 BC). The Rosetta Stone is therefore no longer unique, but it was the essential key to modern understanding of Ancient Egyptian literature and civilization. The term Rosetta Stone is now used in other contexts as the name for the essential clue to a new field of knowledge.

Description

The Rosetta Stone is listed as “a stone of black granite, bearing three inscriptions … found at Rosetta”, in a contemporary catalogue of the artifacts discovered by the French expedition and surrendered to British troops in 1801.[1] At some period after its arrival in London, the inscriptions on the stone were coloured in white chalk to make them more legible, and the remaining surface was covered with a layer of carnauba wax designed to protect the Rosetta Stone from visitors’ fingers.[2] This gave a dark colour to the stone that led to its mistaken identification as black basalt.[3] These additions were removed when the stone was cleaned in 1999, revealing the original dark grey tint of the rock, the sparkle of its crystalline structure, and a pink vein running across the top left corner.[4] Comparisons with the Klemm collection of Egyptian rock samples showed a close resemblance to rock from a small granodiorite quarry at Gebel Tingar on the west bank of the Nile, west of Elephantine in the region of Aswan; the pink vein is typical of granodiorite from this region.[5]

The Rosetta Stone is currently 114.4 centimetres (45 in) high at its highest point, 72.3 cm (28.5 in) wide, and 27.9 cm (11 in) thick. It weighs approximately 760 kilograms (1,700 lb).[6] It bears three inscriptions: the top register in Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, the second in the Egyptian demotic script, and the third in Ancient Greek.[7] The front surface is polished and the inscriptions lightly incised on it; the sides of the stone are smoothed, but the back is only roughly worked, presumably because this would have not been visible when it was erected.

Original stele

The Rosetta Stone is a fragment of a larger stele. No additional fragments were found in later searches of the Rosetta site.[9] Owing to its damaged state, none of the three texts is absolutely complete. The top register composed of Egyptian hieroglyphs suffered the most damage. Only the last 14 lines of the hieroglyphic text can be seen; all of them are broken on the right side, and 12 of them on the left. The following register of demotic text has survived best: it has 32 lines, of which the first 14 are slightly damaged on the right side. The final register of Greek text contains 54 lines, of which the first 27 survive in full; the rest are increasingly fragmentary due to a diagonal break at the bottom right of the stone.[10]

The full length of the hieroglyphic text and the total size of the original stele, of which the Rosetta Stone is a fragment, can be estimated based on comparable stelae that have survived, including other copies of the same order. The slightly earlier decree of Canopus, erected in 238 BC during the reign of Ptolemy III, is 219 centimetres (86 in) high and 82 centimetres (32 in) wide, and contains 36 lines of hieroglyphic text, 73 of demotic text, and 74 of Greek. The texts are of similar length.[11] From such comparisons it can be estimated that an additional 14 or 15 lines of hieroglyphic inscription are missing from the top register of the Rosetta Stone, amounting to another 30 centimetres (12 in).[12] In addition to the inscriptions, there would probably have been a scene depicting the king being presented to the gods, topped with a winged disk, as on the Canopus Stele. These parallels, and a hieroglyphic sign for “stela” on the stone itself (Gardiner’s SignO26)

O26

suggest that it originally had a rounded top.[7][13] The height of the original stele is estimated to have been about 149 centimetres (59 in).

Memphis decree and its context

The stele was erected after the coronation of King Ptolemy V, and was inscribed with a decree that established the divine cult of the new ruler.[14] The decree was issued by a congress of priests who gathered at Memphis. The date is given as “4 Xandicus” in the Macedonian calendar and “18 Meshir” in the Egyptian calendar, which corresponds to March 27, 196 BC. The year is stated as the ninth year of Ptolemy V’s reign (equated with 197/196 BC), and it is confirmed by naming four priests who officiated in that same year: Aëtus son of Aëtus was priest of the divine cults of Alexander the Great and the five Ptolemies down to Ptolemy V himself; his three colleagues, named in turn in the inscription, led the worship of Berenice Euergetis (wife of Ptolemy III), Arsinoe Philadelpha (wife and sister of Ptolemy II) and Arsinoe Philopator, mother of Ptolemy V.[15] However, a second date is also given in the Greek and hieroglyphic texts, corresponding to 27 November 197 BC, the official anniversary of Ptolemy’s coronation.[16] The inscription in demotic conflicts with this, listing consecutive days in March for the decree and the anniversary;[16] although it is uncertain why such discrepancies exist, it is clear that the decree was issued in 196 BC and that it was designed to re-establish the rule of the Ptolemaic kings over Egypt.[17]

The decree was issued during a turbulent period in Egyptian history. Ptolemy V Epiphanes (reigned 204–181 BC), son of Ptolemy IV Philopator and his wife and sister Arsinoe, had become ruler at the age of five after the sudden death of both of his parents, murdered, according to contemporary sources, in a conspiracy that involved Ptolemy IV’s mistress Agathoclea. The conspirators effectively ruled Egypt as Ptolemy V’s guardians,[18][19] until, two years later, a revolt broke out under the general Tlepolemus and Agathoclea and her family were lynched by a mob in Alexandria. Tlepolemus, in turn, was replaced as guardian in 201 BC by Aristomenes of Alyzia, who was chief minister at the time of the Memphis decree.[20]

Political forces beyond the borders of Egypt exacerbated the internal problems of the Ptolemaic kingdom. Antiochus III the Great and Philip V of Macedon had made a pact to divide Egypt’s overseas possessions. Philip had seized several islands and cities in Caria and Thrace, while the Battle of Panium (198 BC) had resulted in the transfer of Coele-Syria, including Judea, from the Ptolemies to the Seleucids. Meanwhile, in the south of Egypt, there was a long-standing revolt that had begun during the reign of Ptolemy IV,[16] led by Horwennefer and by his successor Ankhwennefer.[21] Both the war and the internal revolt were still ongoing when the young Ptolemy V was officially crowned at Memphis at the age of 12 (seven years after the start of his reign), and the Memphis decree issued.

The stele is a late example of a class of donation stelae, which depicts the reigning monarch granting a tax exemption to the resident priesthood.[22] Pharaohs had erected these stelae over the previous 2,000 years, the earliest examples dating from the Egyptian Old Kingdom. In earlier periods all such decrees were issued by the king himself, but the Memphis decree was issued by the priests, as the maintainers of traditional Egyptian culture.[23] The decree records that Ptolemy V gave a gift of silver and grain to the temples.[24] It also records that in the eighth year of his reign during a particularly high Nile flood, he had the excess waters dammed for the benefit of the farmers.[24] In return for these concessions, the priesthood pledged that the king’s birthday and coronation days would be celebrated annually, and that all the priests of Egypt would serve him alongside the other gods. The decree concludes with the instruction that a copy was to be placed in every temple, inscribed in the “language of the gods” (hieroglyphs), the “language of documents” (demotic), and the “language of the Greeks” as used by the Ptolemaic government.[25][26]

Securing the favour of the priesthood was essential for the Ptolemaic kings to retain effective rule over the populace. The High Priests of Memphis—where the king was crowned—were particularly important, as they were the highest religious authority of the time and had influence throughout the kingdom.[27] Given that the decree was issued at Memphis, the ancient capital of Egypt, rather than Alexandria, the centre of government of the ruling Ptolemies, it is evident that the young king was anxious to gain their active support.[28] Hence, although the government of Egypt had been Greek-speaking ever since the conquests of Alexander the Great, the Memphis decree, like the two preceding decrees in the series, included texts in Egyptian to display its relevance to the general populace by way of the literate Egyptian priesthood.[29]

There exists no one definitive English translation of the decree because of the minor differences between the three original texts and because modern understanding of the ancient languages continues to develop. An up-to-date translation by R. S. Simpson, based on the demotic text, appears on the British Museum website.[30] It can be compared with Edwyn R. Bevan‘s full translation in The House of Ptolemy (1927),[31] based on the Greek text with footnote comments on variations between this and the two Egyptian texts.

The stele almost certainly did not originate in the town of Rashid (Rosetta) where it was found, but more likely came from a temple site farther inland, possibly the royal town of Sais.[32] The temple it originally came from was probably closed around AD 392 when Eastern Roman emperor Theodosius I ordered the closing of all non-Christian temples of worship.[33] At some point the original stele broke, its largest piece becoming what we now know as the Rosetta Stone.[34] Ancient Egyptian temples were later used as quarries for new construction, and the Rosetta Stone probably was re-used in this manner. Later it was incorporated in the foundations of a fortress constructed by the MamelukeSultanQaitbay (ca. 1416/18–1496) to defend the Bolbitine branch of the Nile at Rashid.[34] There it would lie for at least another three centuries until its rediscovery.[34]

Two other inscriptions of the Memphis decrees have been found since the discovery of the Rosetta Stone: the Nubayrah Stele and an inscription found at the Temple of Philae. Unlike the Rosetta Stone, their hieroglyphic inscriptions were relatively intact, and though the inscriptions on the Rosetta Stone had been deciphered long before the discovery of the other copies of the decree, subsequent Egyptologists including Wallis Budge used these other inscriptions to further refine the actual hieroglyphs that must have been used in the lost portions of the hieroglyphic register on the Rosetta Stone.[35]

Rediscovery

On Napoleon‘s 1798 campaign in Egypt, the expeditionary army was accompanied by the Commission des Sciences et des Arts, a corps of 167 technical experts (savants). On July 15, 1799, as French soldiers under the command of Colonel d’Hautpoul were strengthening the defences of Fort Julien, a couple of miles north-east of the Egyptian port city of Rosetta (Modern day Rashid), Lieutenant Pierre-François Bouchard spotted a slab with inscriptions on one side that the soldiers had uncovered.[36] He and d’Hautpoul saw at once that it might be important and informed general Jacques-François Menou, who happened to be at Rosetta.[A] The find was announced to Napoleon’s newly founded scientific association in Cairo, the Institut d’Égypte, in a report by Commission member Michel Ange Lancret noting that it contained three inscriptions, the first in hieroglyphs and the third in Greek, and rightly suggesting that the three inscriptions would be versions of the same text. Lancret’s report, dated July 19, 1799, was read to a meeting of the Institute soon after July 25. Bouchard, meanwhile, transported the stone to Cairo for examination by scholars. Napoleon himself inspected what had already begun to be called la Pierre de Rosette, the Rosetta Stone, shortly before his return to France in August 1799.[9]

The discovery was reported in Courrier de l’Égypte, the official newspaper of the French expedition, in September: the anonymous reporter expressed a hope that the stone might one day be the key to deciphering hieroglyphs.[A][9] In 1800, three of the Commission’s technical experts devised ways to make copies of the texts on the stone. One of these, the printer and gifted linguist Jean-Joseph Marcel, is credited as the first to recognise that the middle text, originally guessed to be Syriac, was, in fact, written in the Egyptian demotic script, rarely used for stone inscriptions and, therefore, seldom seen by scholars at that time.[9] It was the artist and inventor Nicolas-Jacques Conté who found a way to use the stone itself as a printing block;[37] a slightly different method for reproducing the inscriptions was adopted by Antoine Galland. The prints that resulted were taken to Paris by General Charles Dugua. Scholars in Europe were now able to see the inscriptions and attempt to read them.[38]

After Napoleon’s departure, French troops held off British and Ottoman attacks for a further 18 months. In March 1801, the British landed at Aboukir Bay. General Jacques-François Menou, who had been one of the first to see the stone in 1799, was now in command of the French expedition. His troops, including the Commission, marched north towards the Mediterranean coast to meet the enemy, transporting the stone along with other antiquities of all kinds. Defeated in battle, Menou and the remnant of his army retreated to Alexandria where they were surrounded and besieged, the stone now inside the city. He admitted defeat and surrendered on August 30.[39][40]

From French to British possession

After the surrender, a dispute arose over the fate of French archaeological and scientific discoveries in Egypt, including a group of artifacts, biological specimens, notes, plans and drawings collected by the members of the commission. Menou refused to hand them over, claiming that they belonged to the Institute. British General John Hely-Hutchinson refused to relieve the city until Menou gave in. Scholars Edward Daniel Clarke and William Richard Hamilton, newly arrived from England, agreed to examine the collections in Alexandria and claimed to have found many artefacts that the French had not revealed. In a letter home, Clarke said that “we found much more in their possession than was represented or imagined”.[41]

When Hutchinson claimed all materials were property of the British Crown, a French scholar, Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, said to Clarke and Hamilton that they would rather burn all their discoveries—referring ominously to the destruction of the Library of Alexandria—than turn them over. Clarke and Hamilton pleaded the French scholars’ case and Hutchinson finally agreed that items such as natural history specimens would be the scholars’ private property.[40][42] Menou quickly claimed the stone, too, as his private property;[43] had this been accepted, he would have been able to take it to France.[40] Equally aware of the stone’s unique value, General Hutchinson rejected Menou’s claim. Eventually an agreement was reached, and the transfer of the objects was incorporated into the Capitulation of Alexandria signed by representatives of the British, French and Ottoman forces.

How exactly the stone was transferred into British hands is not clear, as contemporary accounts differ. Colonel Tomkyns Hilgrove Turner, who was to escort it to England, claimed later that he had personally seized it from Menou and carried it away on a gun-carriage. In a much more detailed account, Edward Daniel Clarke stated that a French “officer and member of the Institute” had taken him, his student John Cripps, and Hamilton secretly into the back streets behind Menou’s residence and revealed the stone hidden under protective carpets among Menou’s baggage. According to Clarke, their informant feared that the stone might be stolen if French soldiers saw it. Hutchinson was informed at once and the stone was taken away—possibly by Turner and his gun-carriage.[44]

Turner brought the stone to England aboard the captured French frigate HMS Egyptienne, landing in Portsmouth in February 1802.[45] His orders were to present it and the other antiquities to King George III. The King, represented by the War SecretaryLord Hobart, directed that it should be placed in the British Museum. According to Turner’s narrative, he urged—and Hobart agreed—that before its final deposit in the museum, the stone should be presented to scholars at the Society of Antiquaries of London, of which Turner was a member. It was first seen and discussed there at a meeting on March 11, 1802.[B][H]

During the course of 1802, the Society created four plaster casts of the inscriptions, which were given to the universities of Oxford, Cambridge and Edinburgh and to Trinity College Dublin. Soon afterwards, prints of the inscriptions were made and circulated to European scholars.[E] Before the end of 1802, the stone was transferred to the British Museum, where it is located today.[45] New inscriptions painted in white on the left and right edges of the slab stated that it was “Captured in Egypt by the British Army in 1801″ and “Presented by King George III”.[2]

The stone has been exhibited almost continuously in the British Museum since June 1802.[6] During the middle of the 19th century, it was given the inventory number “EA 24”, “EA” standing for “Egyptian Antiquities”. It was part of a collection of ancient Egyptian monuments captured from the French expedition, including a sarcophagus of Nectanebo II (EA 10), the statue of a high priest of Amun (EA 81) and a large granite fist (EA 9).[46] The objects were soon discovered to be too heavy for the floors of Montagu House (the original building of The British Museum), and they were transferred to a new extension that was built onto the mansion. The Rosetta Stone was transferred to the sculpture gallery in 1834 shortly after Montagu House was demolished and replaced by the building that now houses the British Museum.[47] According to the museum’s records, the Rosetta Stone is its most-visited single object[48] and a simple image of it has been the museum’s best selling postcard for several decades.[49]

The Rosetta Stone was originally displayed at a slight angle from the horizontal, and rested within a metal cradle that was made for it, which involved shaving off very small portions of its sides to ensure that the cradle fitted securely.[47] It originally had no protective covering, and despite the efforts of attendants to ensure that it was not touched by visitors, by 1847 it was found necessary to place it in a protective frame.[50] Since 2004, the conserved stone has been on display in a specially built case in the centre of the Egyptian Sculpture Gallery. A replica of the Rosetta Stone as it would have appeared to early 19th-century visitors—without a case and free to touch—is now available in the King’s Library of the British Museum.[51]

Toward the end of the First World War, in 1917, the museum was concerned about heavy bombing in London and moved the Rosetta Stone to safety along with other portable objects of value. The stone spent the next two years 15.24 metres (50 ft) below ground level in a station of the Postal Tube Railway at Mount Pleasant near Holborn.[6] Other than during wartime, the Rosetta Stone has left the British Museum only once: for one month in October 1972, to be displayed alongside Champollion’s Lettre at the Louvre in Paris on the 150th anniversary of its publication.[49] Even when the Rosetta Stone was undergoing conservation measures in 1999, the work was done in the gallery so that it could remain visible to the public.[52]

Reading the Rosetta Stone

Prior to the discovery of the Rosetta Stone and its eventual decipherment, there had been no understanding of the Ancient Egyptian language and script since shortly before the fall of the Roman Empire. The usage of the hieroglyphic script had become increasingly specialised even in the later Pharaonic period; by the 4th century AD, few Egyptians were capable of reading hieroglyphs. Monumental use of hieroglyphs ceased after the closing of all non-Christian temples in the year 391 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius I; the last known inscription, found at Philae and known as The Graffito of Esmet-Akhom, is dated to 24 August 396 AD.[53]

Hieroglyphs retained their pictorial appearance and classical authors emphasised this aspect, in sharp contrast to the Greek and Roman alphabets. For example, in the 5th century the priest Horapollo wrote Hieroglyphica, an explanation of almost 200 glyphs. Believed to be authoritative yet in many ways misleading, this and other works were a lasting impediment to the understanding of Egyptian writing.[54] Later attempts at deciphering hieroglyphs were made by Arab historians in medieval Egypt during the 9th and 10th centuries. Dhul-Nun al-Misri and Ibn Wahshiyya were the first historians to study this ancient script, by relating them to the contemporary Coptic language used by Coptic priests in their time.[55][56] The study of hieroglyphs continued with fruitless attempts at decipherment by European scholars, notably Johannes Goropius Becanus in the 16th century, Athanasius Kircher in the 17th and Georg Zoëga in the 18th.[57] The discovery of the Rosetta Stone in 1799 provided critical missing information, gradually revealed by a succession of scholars, that eventually allowed Jean-François Champollion to determine the nature of this mysterious script.

Greek text

The Greek text on the Rosetta Stone provided the starting point. Ancient Greek was widely known to scholars, but the details of its use in the Hellenistic period as a government language in Ptolemaic Egypt were not familiar: large scale discoveries of Greek papyri were a long way in the future. Thus the earliest translations of the Greek text of the stone show the translators still struggling with the historical context and with administrative and religious jargon. Stephen Weston verbally presented an English translation of the Greek text at a Society of Antiquaries meeting in April 1802.[35][58] Meanwhile, two of the lithographic copies made in Egypt had reached the Institut de France in Paris, in 1801. There, the librarian and antiquarian Gabriel de La Porte du Theil set to work on a translation of the Greek. Almost immediately dispatched elsewhere on Napoleon’s orders, he left his unfinished work in the hands of a colleague, Hubert-Pascal Ameilhon, who in 1803 produced the first published translations of the Greek text, in both Latin and French to ensure that they would circulate widely.[F] At Cambridge, Richard Porson worked on the missing lower right corner of the Greek text. He produced a skillful suggested reconstruction, which was soon being circulated by the Society of Antiquaries alongside its prints of the inscription. At Göttingen at almost the same moment, the Classical historian Christian Gottlob Heyne, working from one of these prints, made a new Latin translation of the Greek text that was more reliable than Ameilhon’s. First published in 1803,[G] it was reprinted by the Society of Antiquaries, alongside Weston’s previously unpublished English translation, Colonel Turner’s narrative, and other documents, in a special issue of its journal Archaeologia in 1811.[H][59][60]

Demotic text

At the time of the stone’s discovery, the Swedishdiplomat and scholar Johan David Åkerblad was working on a little-known script of which some examples had recently been found in Egypt, which came to be known as Demotic. He called it “cursive Coptic” because, although it had few similarities with the later Coptic script, he was convinced that it was used to record some form of the Coptic language (the direct descendant of Ancient Egyptian). The French Orientalist Antoine-Isaac Silvestre de Sacy, who had been discussing this work with Åkerblad, received in 1801 from Jean-Antoine Chaptal, French minister of the interior, one of the early lithographic prints of the Rosetta Stone, and realised that the middle text was in this same script. He and Åkerblad set to work, both focusing on the middle text and assuming that the script was alphabetic. They attempted, by comparison with the Greek, to identify within this unknown text the points where Greek names ought to occur. In 1802, Silvestre de Sacy reported to Chaptal that he had successfully identified five names (“Alexandros“, “Alexandreia“, “Ptolemaios“, “Arsinoe” and Ptolemy’s title “Epiphanes“),[C] while Åkerblad published an alphabet of 29 letters (more than half of which were correct) that he had identified from the Greek names in the demotic text.[D][35] They could not, however, identify the remaining characters in the Demotic text, which, as is now known, included ideographic and other symbols alongside the phonetic ones.[61]

Hieroglyphic text

Silvestre de Sacy eventually gave up work on the stone, but he was to make another contribution. In 1811, prompted by discussions with a Chinese student about Chinese script, Silvestre de Sacy considered a suggestion made by Georg Zoëga in 1797 that the foreign names in Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions might be written phonetically; he also recalled that as long ago as 1761, Jean-Jacques Barthélemy had suggested that the characters enclosed in cartouches in hieroglyphic inscriptions were proper names. Thus, when Thomas Young, foreign secretary of the Royal Society of London, wrote to him about the stone in 1814, Silvestre de Sacy suggested in reply that in attempting to read the hieroglyphic text, Young might look for cartouches that ought to contain Greek names and try to identify phonetic characters in them.[62]

Young did so, with two results that together paved the way for the final decipherment. He discovered in the hieroglyphic text the phonetic characters “p t o l m e s” (in today’s transliteration “p t w l m y s“), that were used to write the Greek name “Ptolemaios“. He also noticed that these characters resembled the equivalent ones in the Demotic script, and went on to note as many as 80 similarities between the hieroglyphic and demotic texts on the stone, an important discovery because the two scripts were previously thought to be entirely different from one another. This led him to deduce correctly that the demotic script was only partly phonetic, also consisting of ideographic characters imitated from hieroglyphs.[I] Young’s new insights were prominent in the long article “Egypt” that he contributed to the Encyclopædia Britannica in 1819.[J] He could, however, get no further.[63]

In 1814, Young first exchanged correspondence about the stone with Jean-François Champollion, a teacher at Grenoble who had produced a scholarly work on ancient Egypt. Champollion, in 1822, saw copies of the brief hieroglyphic and Greek inscriptions of the Philae obelisk, on which William John Bankes had tentatively noted the names “Ptolemaios” and “Kleopatra” in both languages.[64] From this, Champollion identified the phonetic characters k l e o p a t r a (in today’s transliteration q l i҆ w p ꜣ d r ꜣ.t).[65] On the basis of this and the foreign names on the Rosetta Stone, he quickly constructed an alphabet of phonetic hieroglyphic characters, which appears, printed from his hand-drawn chart, in his “Lettre à M. Dacier“, addressed at the end of 1822 to Bon-Joseph Dacier, secretary of the Paris Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres and immediately published by the Académie.[K] This “Letter” marks the real breakthrough to reading Egyptian hieroglyphs, for not only the alphabet chart and the main text, but also the postscript in which Champollion notes that similar phonetic characters seemed to occur in not only Greek names but also native Egyptian names. During 1823, he confirmed this, identifying the names of pharaohs Ramesses and Thutmose written in cartouches in far older hieroglyphic inscriptions that had been copied by Bankes at Abu Simbel and sent on to Champollion by Jean-Nicolas Huyot.[M] From this point, the stories of the Rosetta Stone and the decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphs diverge, as Champollion drew on many other texts to develop a first Ancient Egyptian grammar and a hieroglyphic dictionary, both of which were to be published after his death.[66]

Later work

Work on the stone now focused on fuller understanding of the texts and their contexts by comparing the three versions with one another. In 1824, the Classical scholar Antoine-Jean Letronne promised to prepare a new literal translation of the Greek text for Champollion’s use; Champollion promised in return an analysis of all the points at which the three texts seemed to differ. Following Champollion’s sudden death in 1832, his draft of this analysis could not be found, and Letronne’s work stalled. At the death in 1838 of François Salvolini, Champollion’s former student and assistant, this and other missing drafts were found among his papers (incidentally demonstrating that Salvolini’s own publication on the stone, in 1837, was plagiarism).[O] Letronne was at last able to complete his commentary on the Greek text and his new French translation of it, which appeared in 1841.[P] During the early 1850s, two German Egyptologists, Heinrich Brugsch and Max Uhlemann, produced revised Latin translations based on the demotic and hieroglyphic texts;[Q][R] the first English translation, the work of three members of the Philomathean Society at the University of Pennsylvania, followed in 1858.[S]

The question of whether one of the three texts was the standard version from which the other two were originally translated has remained controversial. Letronne, in 1841, attempted to show that the Greek version (that of the Egyptian government under its Ptolemaic dynasty) was the original.[P] Among recent authors, John Ray has stated that “the hieroglyphs were the most important of the scripts on the stone: they were there for the gods to read, and the more learned of their priesthood”.[7] Philippe Derchain and Heinz Josef Thissen have argued that all three versions were composed simultaneously, while Stephen Quirke sees in the decree “an intricate coalescence of three vital textual traditions”.[67]Richard Parkinson points out that the hieroglyphic version, straying from archaic formalism, occasionally lapses into language closer to that of the demotic register that the priests more commonly used in everyday life.[23] The fact that the three versions cannot be matched word for word helps to explain why its decipherment has been more difficult than originally expected, especially for those original scholars who were expecting an exact bilingual key to Egyptian hieroglyphs.[68]

Rivalries

Even before the Salvolini affair, disputes over precedence and plagiarism punctuated the decipherment story. Thomas Young’s work is acknowledged in Champollion’s 1822 Lettre à M. Dacier, but incompletely, according to British critics: for example, James Browne, a sub-editor on the Encyclopædia Britannica (which had published Young’s 1819 article), contributed anonymously a series of review articles to the Edinburgh Review in 1823, praising Young’s work highly and alleging that the “unscrupulous” Champollion plagiarised it.[69][70] These articles were translated into French by Julius Klaproth and published in book form in 1827.[N] Young’s own 1823 publication reasserted the contribution that he had made.[L] The early deaths of Young and Champollion, in 1829 and 1832, did not put an end to these disputes; the authoritative work on the stone by the British Museum curator E. A. Wallis Budge, published in 1904, gives special emphasis to Young’s contribution by contrast with Champollion’s.[71] In the early 1970s, French visitors complained that the portrait of Champollion was smaller than one of Young on an adjacent information panel; English visitors complained that the opposite was true. Both portraits were in fact the same size.[49]

Requests for repatriation to Egypt

In July 2003, on the occasion of the British Museum’s 250th anniversary, Egypt first requested the return of the Rosetta Stone. Zahi Hawass, the former chief of Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities, asked that the stele be repatriated to Egypt, urging in comments to reporters: “If the British want to be remembered, if they want to restore their reputation, they should volunteer to return the Rosetta Stone because it is the icon of our Egyptian identity”.[72] Two years later in Paris he repeated the proposal, listing the stone as one of several key items belonging to Egypt’s cultural heritage, a list which also included the iconic bust of Nefertiti in the Egyptian Museum of Berlin; a statue of the Great Pyramid architect Hemiunu in the Roemer-und-Pelizaeus-Museum in Hildesheim, Germany; the Dendara Temple Zodiac in the Louvre in Paris; and the bust of Ankhhaf from the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.[73] During 2005, the British Museum presented to Egypt a full-size replica of the stele. This was initially displayed in the renovated Rashid National Museum, close to the site where the stone was found.[74] By November 2005, Hawass was suggesting a three-month loan of the Rosetta Stone, while reiterating the eventual goal of a permanent return;[75] in December 2009, he proposed to drop his claim for the permanent return of the Rosetta Stone if the British Museum loaned the stone to Egypt for three months, for the opening of the Grand Egyptian Museum at Giza in 2013.[76]

As John Ray has observed, “the day may come when the stone has spent longer in the British Museum than it ever did in Rosetta.”[77] There is strong opposition among national museums to the repatriation of objects of international cultural significance such as the Rosetta Stone. In response to repeated Greek requests for return of the Elgin Marbles and similar requests to other museums around the world, in 2002, over 30 of the world’s leading museums — including the British Museum, the Louvre, the Pergamon Museum in Berlin and the Metropolitan Museum in New York City — issued a joint statement declaring that “objects acquired in earlier times must be viewed in the light of different sensitivities and values reflective of that earlier era” and that “museums serve not just the citizens of one nation but the people of every nation”.[78]

Idiomatic use

The term Rosetta stone has been used idiomatically to represent a crucial key to the process of decryption of encoded information, especially when a small but representative sample is recognized as the clue to understanding a larger whole.[79] According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first figurative use of the term appeared in the 1902 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica relating to an entry on the chemical analysis of glucose.[79] An almost literal use of the phrase appears in popular fiction within H. G. Wells‘ 1933 novel The Shape of Things to Come, where the protagonist finds a manuscript written in shorthand that provides a key to understanding additional scattered material that is sketched out in both longhand and on typewriter.[79] Perhaps its most important and prominent usage in scientific literature was Nobel laureateTheodor W. Hänsch‘s reference in a 1979 Scientific American article on spectroscopy where he says that “the spectrum of the hydrogen atoms has proved to be the Rosetta stone of modern physics: once this pattern of lines had been deciphered much else could also be understood”.[79]

Since then the term has been widely used in other contexts. For example, fully understanding the key set of genes to the human leucocyte antigen has been described as being “the Rosetta Stone of immunology”.[80] The flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana has been called the “Rosetta Stone of flowering time”.[81] A Gamma ray burst (GRB) found in conjunction with a supernova has been called a Rosetta Stone for understanding the origin of GRBs.[82] The technique of Doppler echocardiography has been called a Rosetta Stone for clinicians trying to understand the complex process by which the left ventricle of the human heart can be filled during various forms of diastolic dysfunction.[83]

The name has also become used in various forms of translation software. Rosetta Stone is a brand of language-learning software published by Rosetta Stone Ltd., headquartered in Arlington County, Virginia, US. “Rosetta” is the name of a “lightweight dynamic translator” that enables applications compiled for PowerPC processor to run on Apple systems using an x86 processor. “Rosetta” is an online language translation tool to help localisation of software, developed and maintained by Canonical as part of the Launchpad project. Similarly, Rosetta@home is a distributed computing project for predicting (or translating) protein structures. The Rosetta Project brings language specialists and native speakers together to develop a meaningful survey and near permanent archive of 1,500 languages, intended to last from AD 2000 to 12,000. The Rosetta spacecraft is on a ten-year mission to study the comet67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, in the hopes that determining its composition will reveal the origins of the Solar System.

Source

So there you have a nice information pack and then we have a nice document about the stone and the story how French and British fought about these archeological findings. I find it fascinating that we the “people” can’t make cooperation with these findings. We are always fighting about anything, sad really:

 

And here is the Rosetta Stone’s text in translated in English:

The Rosetta Stone is an ancient Egyptian granodiorite stele inscribed with a decree issued at Memphis in 196 BC on behalf of King Ptolemy V. The decree appears in three scripts: the upper text is Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, the middle portion Demotic script, and the lowest Ancient Greek. Because it presents essentially the same text in all three scripts (with some minor differences between them), it provided the key to the modern understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphs.

 

 

Nice piece of history and very interesting artifact. This was the key to understand the ancient hieroglyphs in the Egypt and in the Pyramids. It’s like an ancient dictionary if you like.  More ancient and secret sites coming, so stay tuned and keep on searching!