“We are already here, among you. Some of us have always been here, with you, yet apart from, watching, and occasionally guiding you whenever the opportunity arose. Now, however, our numbers have been increased in preparation for a further step in the development of your planet: a step of which you are not yet aware… We have been confused with the gods of many world-religions, although we are not gods, but your fellow creatures, as you will learn directly before many more years have passed. You will find records of our presence in the mysterious symbols of ancient Egypt, where we made ourselves known in order to accomplish certain ends. Our principal symbol appears in the religious art of your present civilization and occupies a position of importance upon the great seal of your country. (The United States of America) It has been preserved in certain secret societies founded originally to keep alive the knowledge of our existence and our intentions toward mankind.”
“We have left you certain landmarks, placed carefully in different parts of the globe, but most prominently in Egypt where we established our headquarters upon the occasion of our last overt, or, as you would say, public appearance. At that time the foundations of your present civilization were ‘laid in the earth’ and the most ancient of your known landmarks established by means that would appear as miraculous to you now as they did to the pre-Egyptians, so many thousands of years ago. Since that time the whole art of building, in stone, has become symbolic, to many of you, of the work in hand—the building of the human race towards its perfection.”
“Your ancestors knew us in those days as preceptors and as friends. Now, through your own efforts, you have almost reached, in your majority, a new step on the long ladder of your liberation. You have been constantly aided by our watchful ‘inspiration’, and hindered only by the difficulties natural to your processes of physical and moral development…”
“You have lately achieved the means of destroying yourselves. Do not be hasty in your self-congratulation. Yours is not the first civilization to have achieved—and used—such means. Yours will not be the first civilization to be offered the means of preventing that destruction and proceeding, in the full glory of its accumulated knowledge, to establish an era of enlightenment upon the earth.”
“However, if you do accept the means offered you, and if you establish such a ‘millennium’ upon the basis of your present accomplishments, yours will be the first civilization to do so.
ALWAYS BEFORE, THE KNOWLEDGE, THE TECHNIQUES, THE INSTRUCTIONS, HAVE BECOME THE POSSESSIONS OF A CHOSEN FEW: A FEW CHOSE THEMSELVES BY THEIR OWN OPEN-MINDED AND CLEAR-SIGHTED REALIZATION OF ‘THE SHAPE OF THINGS TO COME’. THEY ENDEAVORED TO PASS ON THEIR KNOWLEDGE IN THE BEST POSSIBLE FORM, AND BY THE MOST ENDURING MEANS AT THEIR COMMAND.
In a sense they succeeded, but in another sense their failure equaled their success. Human acceptance is, to a very large extent, measurable by human experience. Succeeding generations, who never knew our actual presence, translated the teachings of their elders in the terms of their own experience. For instance, a cross-sectional drawing, much simplified and stylized by many copyings, of one of our traveling machines became the ‘Eye of Horus”, and then other eyes of other gods. Finally, the ancient symbol that was once an accurate representation of an important mechanical device has been given surprising connotations by the modern priesthood of psychology.”
“The important fact is, however, that we are here, among you, and that you, as a world-race, will know it before very much longer! The time is almost ripe but, as with all ripening things, the process may not be hurried artificially without danger of damaging the fruit. There is a right time for every action, and the right time for our revelation of ourselves to your era is approaching.”
“Some of you have seen our ‘advanced guard’ already. You have met us often in the streets of your cities, and you have not noticed us. But when we flash through your skies in the ANCIENT TRADITIONAL VEHICLES [Vimanas, see Exhibit 14, this paper—GJ] you are amazed, and those of you who open your mouths and tell of what you have seen are accounted dupes and fools. Actually you are prophets, seers in the true sense of the word. You in Kansas and Oklahoma, you in Oregon and in California, and Idaho, you know what you have seen: do not be dismayed by meteorologists. Their business is the weather. One of you says, ‘I saw a torpedo-shaped object’. Others report, ‘disc-like objects’, some of you say ‘spherical objects’, or ‘platter-like objects’. You are all reporting correctly and accurately what you saw, and in most cases you are describing the same sort of vehicle.”
“… Now that the art of manufacturing plastic materials has reached a certain perfection among you, perhaps you can imagine a material, almost transparent to the rays of ordinary visible light, yet strong enough to endure the stresses of extremely rapid flight. Look again at the great nebulae, and think of the construction of your own galaxy, and behold the universal examples of what we have found to be the perfect shape for an object which is to travel through what you still fondly refer to as ‘empty’ space.”
In the center of the discus, gyroscopically controlled within a central sphere of the same transparent material, our control rooms revolve freely, accommodating themselves and us to flat or edgewise flight. Both methods are suited to your atmosphere, and when we convert abruptly from one to the other, as we are sometimes obliged to do, and you are watching, OUR MACHINES seem suddenly to appear—or to disappear. At our possible speeds your eyes, untrained and unprepared for the maneuver, do make mistakes—but not the mistakes your scientists so often accuse them of making.”
“We pass over your hilltops in horizontal flight. You see and report a torpedo-shaped object. We pass over, in formation, flying vertically ‘edge-on’… Or we go over at night, jet-slits glowing, and you see an orange disc. In any event you see us, and in any event we do not care. if we chose to remain invisible, we could do so, easily, and, in fact, we have done so almost without exception for hundreds of years. But you must become accustomed to our shapes in your skies, for one day they will be familiar, friendly, and reassuring sights.”
“This time, it is to be hoped that the memory of them, passed on to your children and their children, will be clear and precise. That you will not cause them to forget, as your ancestors forgot, the meaning of the diagrams and the instructions we will leave with you. If you do fail, AS OTHER CIVILIZATIONS HAVE FAILED, we will see your descendants wearing wiring-diagrams for simple machines as amulets, expecting the diagrams to do what their forefathers were taught the completed article would accomplish.
Then their children, forgetting even that much—or little—would preserve the amulet as a general protective device—or as an intellectual curiosity—or perhaps as a religious symbol. Such is the cycle of forgetfulness!”
I tried to find the original source to this article to no avail. However, I did find this…:
According to Trench, the editor/author and publisher of the Nov-Dec 1958 issue, the original article was found in the November 1947 issue of ‘Fantastic Stories’ (USA), written by a pseudonym, Alexander Blade. Remarkably enough, after 54 years, the ‘Flying Saucer Review Magazine’ is still being published (or was at least in 2010), but I have not been able to find it online. Also, 1947 triggers memories in the mass consciousness from the UFO crash in Roswell, New Mexico. So, the Sirians have (and they apparently admitted to this in 1947) been around since ancient time, and just like I’ve said, never left. Interesting in this article is that they at that time gave us hints of what is to come. They are talking about our ‘liberation’, and that they will be a part of that.
According to Brinsley Le Poer Trench, editor of Flying Saucer Review Magazine, an unknown person using the pseudonym ‘Alexander Blade’ wrote the above article that originally appeared in the November 1947 issue of Fantastic Stories (USA).
One has to ask the question: who was Alexander Blade?
A representative or liaison to inner-earth – Agharti? According to this article, the instructions and techniques used for building these “ancient traditional vehicles” are within the possession of a chosen few, and based on my research, this is indeed the case.
I must admit, the ‘Alexander Blade’ article speaks volumes! And it seems the Germans wanted to be part of the “chosen few” club as well. From what I’ve uncovered they received vital information that eventually gave them a ‘shot in the arm’ necessary to jump-start their esoteric technology campaign – the ‘flying-disc’ program.
I argue Germany’s pre-war secret societies, such as Vril and Thule, were actually communicating with inner-earth emissaries for the purposes of acquiring this ancient technology.
According to Gregg Braden’s research, we are only utilizing 22 of the 64 codons in our DNA, thus suggesting that our DNA was genetically manipulated, most likely by the Anunnaki. If this premise is true, then imagine being able to fully access all 64 codons in your DNA?
Conversely, is this the reason why the Anunnaki created us to become slaves in order to mine gold for them? It certainly explains why there is such a high demand for gold and who the “All seeing Eye” is at the top of the pyramid.
To me, any benevolent message from the Anunnaki would most likely have a hidden agenda to keep us subservient to them. The last thing they want is to see our DNA codons fully open.
According to the research of Robert Morning Sky, our DNA is actually superior to the Anunnaki because we also have the DNA of the AKU, which gave us consciousness. This is known as the “Gift of the Feather” and is why we feel something magical when we see a random feather in our every day lives.
From the Sumerian texts, we also know that the Anunnaki co-mingled with us, thus giving us their DNA as well.
As our masters, the last thing they want you to know is that YOU are more powerful than they are once you figure out how to activate the remaining codons in your DNA.
I’ve been experimenting with this and will be publishing an article on In5D about what I’m doing to activate mine.
In the meanwhile, always question everything, especially from alleged benevolent sources because most likely, there’s an agenda behind it.
Interesting article about symbols for example ankh, swastika, hammer of Thor and spirals:
It is seen in the sky, on the ground, hidden in language and glaring at us from the pages of our most profound books – the snake. In this Article I want to extend that now a little and for us to journey around the world of symbols. By understanding what many of these symbols mean and just how universal they are we will be guided into this lost world of our past. We will begin with a symbol of life itself from the world’s greatest ancient civilization.
The Ankh is the Crux Ansata. A simple T-Cross, surmounted by an oval – called the RU, which is, simply put, the gateway to enlightenment.
This enigmatic symbol of Egypt represents ‘eternal life’ and was often found in the names of Pharaoh’s such as Tut-ankh-amun. The symbol is often depicted being held by a god to a Pharaoh, giving him life, or held by a Pharaoh to his people, giving them life – this basically set aside the immortals, from the mortals, for anyone wearing or carrying the Ankh had gained or hoped to gain immortality. In truth also, the pharaoh was God on earth and so he held his own symbol of the sun and the serpent to his people – he was the sun, giving us life, just as it does in nature.
It is the loop (the RU or gateway) of the Ankh, which is held by the immortals to the nostrils (as in the Biblical god breathing life into the nostrils of Adam.) If indeed these ‘immortals’ are the sun, moon and stars, then this Ru device is indeed a gateway to the stars – or basically a gateway to what we were believed to return or become following death. The Ankh though outlived Egyptian domination and was widely used by the Christians as their first cross, but in this symbol holds a clue to the secret of the serpent.
Thoth (see Taautus below) was said to have symbolized the four elements with a simple cross, which originated from the oldest Phoenician alphabet as the curling serpent. Indeed Philo adds that the Phoenician alphabet “are those formed by means of serpents… and adored them as the supreme gods, the rulers of the universe.” Thus bringing to mind the god Thoth, who again is related to the worship of serpents and who created the alphabet. The “rulers of the universe” are indeed the planets and stars.
Bunsen in the 19th century thought, “the forms and movements of serpents were employed in the invention of the oldest letters, which represent gods.” This symbol of the four elements was altered slightly and became the Egyptian Taut, the same as the Greek Tau, which is where we get the name Tau Cross from – a simple T.
The T or Tau cross has been a symbol of eternal life in many cultures and gives its name to the Bull in the Astrological sign of Taurus – note here the two elements of the Tau and the RU being brought together. In fact the Druids (or “adders” after the snake) venerated the tree and the snake by scrawling the Tau cross into tree bark.
In the Middle Ages the Tau cross was used in amulets to protect the wearer against disease.
Amongst the modern Freemasons the Tau has many meanings. Some say that it stands for Templus Hierosolyma or the ‘Temple of Jerusalem,’ others that it signifies hidden treasure or means Clavis ad Thesaurum, ‘A key to treasure‘ or Theca ubi res pretiosa, ‘A place where the precious thing is concealed.’
It is especially important in Royal Arch Masonry where it becomes the ‘Companions Jewel’ with a serpent as a circle above the cross bar – forming the Ankh with the Hebrew word for ‘serpent’ engraved on the upright and also including the Triple Tau – a symbol for hidden treasure and significantly made up of 8 right angles.
It was also the symbol for St. Anthony – later to become the symbol for the Knights Templar of St. Anthony of Leith in Scotland. St. Anthony lived in the 4th century AD and is credited with establishing Monasticism in Egypt, and generally the story goes that he sold all his possessions after hearing from the Lord and marched off into the wilderness to become a hermit.
On his travels he learned much from various sages in Egypt and grew for himself a large following. He was sorely tempted by the devil in the form of ‘creeping things’ and serpents (chaos). In one episode he follows a trail of gold to a temple, which is infested with serpents and takes up residence, needing little food for sustenance other than bread and water. He is said to have lived 105 years and due to this longevity he is credited with protective powers.
The Order of the Hospitalers of St. Anthony, who would later take much of the Templar wealth, brought many of Anthony’s relics to France in the 11th century, although they were said to have been secretly deposited somewhere in Egypt just after his death and then later to have found their way to Alexandria.
The Taut or Tau symbolizes the creating four elements of the universe. Next the symbol of the sun / serpent was added, a simple circle or the oval RU. This loop above the T cross-created the Ankh, the symbol of eternity. The snake in a circle eating its own tale is symbolical of the sun and immortality.
The symbol of the moon was added to this, turning it into the sign for Hermes/Mercury and showing the Caduceus/Serpent origin. No wonder that this, the most perfect and simple of symbolical devices became the symbol of the early Christians; no wonder that, even though there were no cross-beam crucifixions, Christ was never the less symbolically crucified on a symbol of eternal life, a symbol of the serpent.
This symbol became the mark or sign, which would set the believer aside for saving. In Ezekiel this is the mark that god will know, the mark on the forehead. As Deane points out the Ezekiel passage (9:4) should read, “set a Tau upon their foreheads.” or “mark with the letter Tau the foreheads.” The early Christians baptized with the term “crucis thaumate notare.” They baptized with the symbol of the sun-snake (sun-ake). And St. Paul himself in Galatians 6: 17 states “let no-one cause me trouble, for I bear on my body the marks of Jesus.”
The idea of this sign or mark is widespread once discovered. In Job 31:35 we read in our modern Bibles “I sign now my defense – let the Almighty answer me” which should properly read, “Behold, here is my Tau, let the Almighty answer me.” He then goes on and says “Surely I would take it upon my shoulder, and bind it as a crown to me.”
This remarkable idea of wearing the Tau cross on the shoulder as a sign would later become part and parcel of the crusader Templars markings, the very same Templars who are instigated in the worship of serpents. Also the Merovingians (said by some to be descended from Jesus and a sea serpent or fish god – the Quinotaur or Quino-Tau-rus) were supposedly born with a red cross between their shoulder blades. The Tau cross is also strangely used by those practicing sacred geometry as a “marker” for buried treasure, whether physical or spiritual.
In shape, the Ankh is very similar to the Egyptian musical instrument, which is shaped like the oval RU – the Sistrum.
An Egyptian musical instrument closely associated with female gods – especially Hathor the serpent/cow goddess and Isis – the consort of Osiris. In form, very much like the Ankh with a loop at the top – also representing the egg – and three serpents striking through the loop with small square pieces of metal, which rattle. It’s possible these three serpents represent the ida, pingala and sushumna nerve channels and which are said to converge and fuse together within the centre of the brain (the thalamus) – which in the individual was also thought to represent the ‘cosmic egg.’
During the ascent of these serpent energies up the spine to the centre of the head, the individual while going through this supposed enlightenment process, will hear sounds similar to the sounds the Sistrum makes – i.e., rattle sounds like tambourine bells and sounds like a bell-tree being stroked. One will also hear sounds like a ‘rattle snake’ and also whistles and flute-like instruments. Underlying these sounds is a very low and strong rumbling sound which fades-in at first and gets louder and louder as the process proceeds culminating in the bright, white light explosion in the centre of the head. The Sistrum then may have been a symbol of this experience.
The Sistrum was used in pictures and carvings to show the various gods and Pharaohs subduing the power of a particular god – and mostly because the god holding the Sistrum had the ‘power’ and ‘energy’ to do so through having had the enlightenment experience – also representing the externalized solar power.
The association between birds or wings and the serpent seems to go back in time many thousands of years and across the world. To quote John BathurstDeane:
“The hierogram of the circle, wings, and serpent, is one of the most curios emblems of Ophiolatreia, and is recognized, with some modifications, in almost every country where serpent worship prevailed . . . It may be alleged that all these cannot be resolved into the single-winged serpent once coiled. Under their present form, certainly not; but it is possible that these may be corruption’s of the original emblem which was only preserved accurately in the neighborhood of the country where the cause of serpent-worship existed; namely, in Persia, which bordered upon Babylonia and Media, the rival loci of the Garden of Eden.”
Deane relates these many thousands of images of the ‘winged serpent’ to the Seraphim of the Bible, the ‘fiery’ and ‘flying serpents.’
These could also be the origins for the flying dragons and why Quetzalcoatl was the ‘feathered’ or ‘plumed serpent’ amongst others. The reason given by Deane for this symbolism is for proof of deity and consecration of a given Temple. If this is the case, then it was certainly believed that the ancient serpent had consecrated Temples across the world. And if the serpent was a true symbol of the sun (external) and the inner light (internal) then it was a perfect fusing of our ancestors belief in one location at one time (temple).
The real reason for the wings is that the serpent enlightenment aspect gave the adherent wings, symbolically making him/her higher in aspect and part of the “heavenly” chorus.
The dove is an important element in symbolism and for some reason was seen in the New Testament as a symbol of the Holy Spirit or feminine aspect of God. It came down upon Jesus as he was baptized, giving him that famous “born again” element.
It descended upon the disciples. But why was the Dove chosen?
The Mesoamerican god Quetzalcoatl is the ‘Feathered Serpent,’ so are there any links between the dove as a feathered bird and the serpent?
Eurynome was probably the most important Goddess of the Pelasgian myths. These Pelasgians were a people who arrived in Greece from Palestine over 5,500 years ago, although it also became a term for “real” Greeks later on.
Eurynome was the creator, the Mother Goddess – the ruler of all things. She was born from chaos; she separated the water from the sky and then danced across the water in-order to create.
Whilst dancing she created wind or breath and taking hold of it between her hands she rubbed and rubbed until she had created a snake. The snake was called Ophion and he was filled with desire for the ‘dancing goddess.’ Wrapping himself around her seven times he impregnated the goddess, who had now taken the form of a Dove, and created an egg.
From the egg came forth all animals and plants and so Eurynome ascended to Mount Olympus and watched as her children developed. The snake Ophion bragged about his creation and so Eurynome kicked out his teeth, from where came all the people, including the first man Pelasgus, (like Adam) and from where the tribe derived its name. Ophion was then kicked out of heaven. The creation of the world and all that is in it was therefore again due to the snake and a goddess. But how does this goddess relate to the bird?
By the Sumerians, one of the most ancient of civilizations, she was simply known as Iahu, the “exalted Dove.” This Eurynome cult had spread across the Mediterranean and became a base for many other myths and religions, including the Hebrew god Yahweh taking on elements of the name Lahu. She was an original Mother Goddess, the feminine aspect and was seen as a dove – and united with the serpent seed, she gave birth to creation.
The Dove of Christianity is the feminine aspect and brings new life; she was known as the breath – the same breath that emerges in the beginning and from the Egyptian Ankh (see Ankh) into the nostrils, bringing new life and immortality. The feminine aspect of Quetzalcoatl is the feathered bird aspect and the male-part the snake.
Celtic Knotwork and Other Symbols
Due to the prevalence of the serpent in the Celtic world and surrounding cultures, it is my understanding that Celtic Knotwork is derived from the images of the snake and the movements of the planets.
We can see influences of this in the spirals and other serpent shapes seen upon many of the world’s ancient monuments. In Scandinavian literature and stone art we can also see how the serpent appears, looking remarkably like Celtic Knotwork. In Roman and Greek wall paintings there are running spirals thought to be symbolic of the protective snake.
A Neolithic vessel, now in the museum of Henan in China, shows a distinct correlation between the idea of the snake and the Knotwork. The idea of the Knotwork coming from the snake was probably discontinued due to Christian influence.
Other symbols that are related to the snake include the Ivy leaf, a symbol of Bacchus/Dionysius and a symbol of immortality. The reasoning behind this symbol is simply that the leaf is similar to the snake’s head and it entwines around pillars and trees as the snake is shown to do in images across the world.
Related to this Ivy leaf image is the shape of the heart and we can see in two Japanese clay statuettes from the Jomon period that they have these snake-heart heads.
Many images of the Buddha also incorporate this Ivy/Heart shape head – a softening and hiding of the earlier images of Naga deities who had snakes heads. These Ivy and Heart shapes were thought to protect the person wearing them or the building adorned with them, and they are therefore no different to the concept of the protecting or guarding snake from folklore and legend. They are just basically symbolic of the original snake – and remaining so until Christianity demonized them. Of course the Ivy, along with that other serpentine symbol, the grapevine, are to be seen across the world’s Christian buildings, as Jesus claimed that we should be grafted onto the vine. Did Jesus really mean that we should be part of the serpent cult? Part of the family, which he was himself a creation of?
Of course the fruit of the vine is wine, and if the vine is an ancient symbol of the snake, then what is the fruit of the snake? Jesus said that we were to drink the wine as a symbol of his blood and therefore it was the blood of the snake.
Drink of the fruit of the vine and you shall have eternal life, a fruit created by God for our pleasure.
“Compositions on the shoulders of cult vases reveal pairs of snakes with opposed heads, making the world roll with the energy of their spiralling bodies.”
Spirals and carvings of this snake energy are seen all over the world, much like the cult of the serpent. And, it is always found to be in association with the serpent worship. According to J.C. Cooper in An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Traditional Symbols, the spiral “typifies the androgyne and is connected with the caduceus symbolism” which is of course the symbol of serpent healing.
In Australia Robert Layton in Australian Rock Art: a new synthesis, points out the serpent origins of these images; images, which are always seen with other serpentine shapes. Figure three in Layton’s book shows these images clearly as “a snake entering a hole,” “a snake leaving a hole.” Remembering that the Ouroborus, the circular image of the snake eating its own tail, is an image of immortality, we should also remember the antiquity of the device. Along side spirals are circles like the Ouroborus, called often cup and ring marks.
There are also zigzags, thought by many to be the fiery aspect of the serpent, and waves, showing the fluidity of the serpent – something also related to the symbolism of Water. It is no surprise that such images of the snake, in all its relative forms should be seen on the most ancient of rock art. In the cup and ring marks there are many images of what appears to be a serpent entering the cup and rings.
Some have put this down to a serpent entering a hole, others that it is eating an egg; nobody is sure. What it does show is a serpent head towards a cup! If, of course, the snake is also the symbol of the macro sun, then these spirals and serpentine patterns may also reveal the pathways of the sun at various times of the year and the greater years – such as those of the precession of the earth.
The spirals have been associated with astronomical alignments. This can especially be seen in the work of N.L. Thomas in Irish Symbols of 3500 BC where the spiral running right to left is seen as the winter sun; the spiral running left to right is the summer sun and the double spiral as the spring and autumn equinox. There is little doubt from the work carried out by Thomas that this is true, but the fact also remains that the ancients were using symbols of the serpent in their astronomical alignments. This is matched by the fact that the serpent was seen in the sky, in various constellations and by the serpent encompassing the heavens. The two elements cannot be split apart – this was a unified theory of life and it was created by, given life by and kept fertile by the snake and the sun.
In Eurasia and Japan there are definite images of snakes as spirals. In earthenware from the middle Jomon period (approx 2000 BC) of Japan these can be seen quite clearly, and are said to be there to protect the contents of the jar from harm; something important was obviously in them. Clay figures from the same period also show wound snakes on the heads. These spirals became part of family crests and transformed over time into the Yin and Yang symbol of duality so popular today.
These family symbols are called Kamon and one class of them particularly is called Janome, which basically means eye of the snake. Characters for snakes in Chinese became part of the alphabet over 3000 years ago. Another interesting point about the snake in China is that the Rainbow is said to be the snake elevated into the sky much like the Australian Rainbow Serpent. Indeed, the Chinese character for Rainbow reflects this position as it has the symbol of the snake within it.
In Peru there is pottery with spirals ending in snakes heads. In Taiwan there is a sculptured door with spirals ending in snakes heads. In many Celtic stone monuments there are similar images – all leading to the now beautiful and ornate Celtic Knot-work
The ancient symbol of the swastika is simply a stylized spiral as can be shown from the many depictions across the world of swastikas made up of spirals and snakes. It also shows up in the spiral fashions of the labyrinths and mazes. The word labyrinth comes directly from the ancient Minoan Snake Goddess culture of Crete, where the swastika was used as a symbol of the labyrinth and is linked etymologically with the “double headed axe” – the Tau Cross. Similar labyrinthine shaped swastikas have been found in the ancient city of Harappa from the 2000 BC.
As the labyrinth is viewed as a womb of the Mother Goddess, and a symbol of the snake, there is little wonder that these two symbols became fused. However, labyrinths were also seen as places of ancient serpent initiation and if viewed in the same manner as Serpent Mounds then it is further evidence for their real use. (See Serpent Mounds) In ancient Egypt the labyrinth was synonymous with what was called the Amenti – the snake like path taken by the dead to journey from death to resurrection.
It was Isis, the serpent queen of heaven who was to guide the souls through the twists of the Amenti. The path towards the centre, leads towards treasure. The snake adorning Athena in ancient Greece is shown with a swastika skirt. The same is true of Astarte and Artemis. There is Samarran pottery dating from 5000-4000 BC from Mesopotamia showing a female swastika, where the hair swirls with Medusa type serpents. The swastika is also shown as two serpents crossing each other.
In Norse myth, the hammer of Thor (note that Labyrinth means double headed axe just like the Hammer of Thor!), Mjollnir, is closely connected with the swastika and is found to be a prominent motif in Scandinavian art from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age. It is found on swords and Anglo-Saxon cremation urns and on numerous Viking items. It was seen as a protector against thieves, reminiscent of the fact that serpents were known to guard treasure.
As Thor’s hammer was also seen as a Tau cross (See Taautus) it is certainly related to the secrets of the serpent. It was used by Thor to lop off the head of the sacred ox, which he used as bait to catch the Midgard Serpent, which circled the globe in the symbol of the Ouroboros, eating its own tail. This was Thor offering a head as sacrifice to the serpent to try and gain immortality in the mead – the drink of the gods. Thor’s aim was to gain a cauldron big enough to take the mead for the immortals and he needed to prove his worth by fishing for the serpent.
He had power of the serpent as the slayer, with the swastika or Tau cross. There is evidence to prove that the myths of these Scandinavians and the Hindus are related, as the story of Thor and the Midgard Serpent closely resemble the battle between Indra and Vritra, showing a common origin. Vritra is the great serpent, which lies at the source of two rivers (the positive and negative or male and female), as the Midgard Serpent lies beneath the sea (of the mind and the other side of the planet where the sun goes each night).
Indra slits open the belly of the serpent to release the waters and therefore fertility back to the land. Both gods, Indra and Thor, are related to the weather, both are warrior gods with a thunderbolt as a weapon and both slay the dragon. The swastika of the serpent is a common motif in both cultures. Eventually the Christians steal both pagan myths and place St. Michael and St. George in their place – both having the red serpent cross to replace the swastika.
The swastika is also the symbol of the movement of the earth fixed on one spot.
Said by Eusebius to be the originator of serpent worship in Phoenicia. Sanchoniathon called him a god and says that he made the first image of Coelus and invented hieroglyphs. This links him with Hermes Trismegistus, also known as Thoth in Egypt. Taautus consecrated the species of dragons and serpents; and the Phoenicians and Egyptians followed him in this superstition.
This Taautus could very well be a memory of the first group who originated the worship of the serpent after the flood or end of last ice age 12000 years ago. The idea of Taautus links precisely with the stories of Thoth, who later became a great sage of Gnostic and Alchemical beliefs. Thoth was deified after his death (a time that nobody knows) and given the title “the god of health” or “healing”. He was the proto-type for Aesculapius and identified with Hermes and Mercury. All healers, all wise, all teachers, all saviors and all associated with the serpent for their powers and all individuals who could map the stars and movements of time. However, it was as the healing god that Thoth was symbolized as the serpent – whereas he is normally represented with the head of an Ibis and Baboon.
The Letter or Symbol ‘Tau’ is the first letter of Taautus, Tammuz and Thoth and is thought to be the ‘Mark of Cain’.
So there we have many symbols and many references to the sun and the snake. There are often confusing elements at play here, which often seem to mislead us and appear ‘hidden’ because we have simply forgotten the real truth. In essence we can reduce all of this down into three simple and distinct parts to help us on our journey.
We must remember before we do so that the very word, snake, is derived from both the animal and the sun – sun-ake. Now we can see clearly that the serpent was often but not solely used as a symbol of the movements of the great god in the sky – the sun. Secondly the snake was a symbol of the internal ‘sun’ – what people know of today as enlightenmentwithin and thirdly the real and literal snake did indeed offer up its body for our use. We created an Elixir of Life from its venom and blood, healed our skin with its skin and brewed wonderful concoctions from other parts.
All in all, the serpent or snake has been a very powerful literal and physical element, let alone a useful symbolic part of our history. We can now use our new knowledge to move forward and through some of the mysteries of mankind.
Have you ever wondered the snake symbolism in everywhere? IN buildings, books, medicine, through all history there are references to snakes and reptilians. Here’s a nice article about the Brotherhood of The Snake, which leads us in to far back in ancient Egypt:
OF ALL THE animals revered in ancient human societies, none were as prominent or as important as the snake. The snake was the logo of a group which had become very influential in early human societies of both Hemispheres. That group was a disciplined Brotherhood dedicated to the dissemination of spiritual knowledge and the attainment of spiritual freedom. This Brotherhood of the Snake (also known as the “Brotherhood of the Serpent,” but which I will often refer to as simply the “Brotherhood”) opposed the enslavement of spiritual beings and, according to Egyptian writings, it sought to liberate the human race from Custodial bondage.*
* Because Brotherhood teachings included physical healing through spiritual means, the snake also came to symbolize physical healing. Today the snake is featured on the logo of the American Medical Association.
The Brotherhood also imparted scientific knowledge and encouraged the high aesthetics that existed in many ancient societies. For these and other reasons, the snake had become a venerated symbol to humans and, according to Egyptian and biblical texts, an object of Custodial hatred. When we look to discover who founded the Brotherhood, Mesopotamian texts point right back to that rebellious “God,” Prince Ea. Ancient Mesopotamian tablets relate that Ea and his father, Anu, possessed profound ethical and spiritual knowledge. This was the same knowledge that was later symbolized as trees in the Biblical Adam and Eve story.
In fact, the Biblical tree symbol came from pre-Biblical Mesopotamian works, such as one showing a snake wrapped around the trunk of a tree, identical to later portrayals of the snake in Eden. From the tree in the Mesopotamian depiction hang two pieces of fruit. To the right of the tree is the half-moon symbol of Ea; to the left is the planet symbol of Anu. The drawing indicates that Ea and Anu were associated with the snake and its teachings. This connection is affirmed by other Mesopotamian texts which describe Anu’s palace in the “heavens” as being guarded by a God of the Tree of Truth and a God of the Tree of Life.
In one instance, Ea reportedly sent a human to be educated in that very knowledge:
Adapa [the name of an early man], thou art going
before Anu, the King;
The road to Heaven thou wilt take.
When to Heaven thou has ascended, and hast
approached the gate of Anu, the “Bearer of Life” and
the “Grower of Truth” at the gate of Anu will be
We therefore find Ea designated as the reputed culprit who tried to teach early man (Adam) the way to spiritual freedom. This suggests that Ea intended his creation, Homo sapiens, to be suited for Earth labor, but at some point he changed his mind about using spiritual enslavement as a means. If Ea was a true historical personality as the Sumerians claimed, then he was the probable leader of the Brotherhood at its founding on Earth. The Brotherhood may have adopted the snake as its logo because Ea’s first home on Earth was said to have been constructed by a serpent-infested swampland which Ea called Snake Marsh. Another possible explanation for the snake logo is offered by Mr. Sitchin who says that the biblical word for “snake” is nahash, which comes from the root word NHSH, meaning “to decipher, to find out.”
Despite all of their reported good intentions, the legendary Ea and early Brotherhood clearly failed to free the human race. Ancient Mesopotamian, Egyptian, and biblical texts relate that the “snake” was quickly defeated by other Custodial factions. The Bible informs us that the serpent in the Garden of Eden was overcome before it was able to complete its mission and give Adam and Eve the “fruit” from the second ”tree.” Ea (who was also symbolized as a snake) was banished to Earth and was extensively villainized by his opponents to ensure that he could never again secure a widespread following among human beings.
Ea’s title was changed from “Prince of Earth” to “Prince of Darkness.” He was labeled other horrible epithets: Satan, the Devil, Evil Incarnate, Monarch of Hell, Lord of Vermin, Prince of Liars, and more. He was portrayed as the mortal enemy of a Supreme Being and as the keeper of Hell. People were taught that his only intentions were to spiritually enslave everyone and that everything bad on Earth was caused by him. Humans were encouraged to detect him in all of his future lives (“incarnations”) and to destroy him and his creations whenever he was discovered.
All beliefs and practices named after his various appellations (“Satanism,” “Devil Worship,” etc.) were to be made so horrific and degrading that no right-thinking person would (or should) have anything to do with them. He and his followers were to be viewed by human beings with nothing but the utmost loathing.
This is not to say that Ea was actually portrayed by ancient Sumerians as a saint. He was not. He was described in Mesopotamian texts with distinct character flaws. If Ea was a real person, then he appears to have been a genius who could get things done, but who was often careless about anticipating the consequences of how he went about accomplishing his goals. By engineering a work race (Homo sapiens), Ea wound up giving his enemies a powerful tool of spiritual repression. Ea then appears to have compounded the blunder by founding and/or empowering the early Snake Brotherhood which, after its reported defeat, continued to remain a powerful force in human affairs, but under the domination of the very Custodial factions that Ea and the original Brotherhood were said to have opposed.
History indicates that the Brotherhood was turned under its new Custodial “Gods” into a chilling weapon of spiritual repression and betrayal, despite the efforts of many sincere humanitarians to bring about true spiritual reform through Brotherhood channels all the way up until today. By reportedly creating a work race and the Brotherhood of the Snake, the “God” Ea had helped build a trap for billions of spiritual beings on Earth.
As we shall now begin to carefully document, the Brotherhood of the Snake has been the world’s most effective tool for preserving mankind’s status as a spiritually ignorant creature of toil throughout all of history. During all of that time, and continuing today, the Brotherhood and its network of organizations have remained intimately tied to the UFO phenomenon. This corruption of the Brotherhood, and the overwhelming effect it would have on human society, was already apparent by the year 2000 B.C. in ancient Egypt— the next stop on our journey.
The Pyramid Builders
PERHAPS THE MOST impressive and controversial relics to come out of ancient times are the pyramids of Egypt. The remains of at least seventy to eighty of those structures are scattered all along the upper Nile region as silent reminders of a once powerful civilization.
The largest and most famous Egyptian pyramid is the Pyramid of Cheops (the “Great Pyramid”). It stands today beside several others on an elevated plateau in Gizeh, Egypt. The dimensions of this pyramid are impressive. It towers nearly five hundred feet high and covers thirteen acres of land at its base. Built of stones weighing an average of 2½ tons each, the entire structure is estimated to weigh 5,273,834 tons.
A remarkable characteristic which makes the Great Pyramid one of the “Seven Wonders of the Ancient World” is the precision of its construction. The stones of the pyramid were cut so perfectly that a sheet of paper cannot be inserted between the blocks in many places. This precision, coupled with the enormous bulk of the structure, helps account for the pyramid’s long life and durability. The pyramid was built to last.
Perhaps the greatest mystery surrounding the Great Pyramid was its purpose. Most pyramids are thought to have been burial tombs. History tells us that the Great Pyramid was employed for other purposes, as well. For example, some of its inner chambers had been used for mystical and religious rites. Yet a third and infinitely more practical use can also be found: The Great Pyramid is an excellent marker for aerial navigation.
The four sides of the Great Pyramid precisely face the four compass points: north, south, east and west. The sides are directed so exactly that the widest deviation is only one twelfth of a degree on the east side. In addition, the Great Pyramid is situated less than five miles south of the northern thirtieth parallel. The Great Pyramid can therefore be used as a reference point for sectioning the entire planet into a three-dimensional grid of 30-, 60-, and 90degree angles with the North Pole, South Pole, Equator and center of the earth as reference points. This feature is especially useful because the Great Pyramid is located at the center of the Earth’s land masses. Knowing only the dimensions of the Earth and having a method of calculating how far one has traveled, one can very effectively navigate, especially by air, from the Great Pyramid to any point on Earth using the 30-60-90 degree grids and the compass directions indicated by the pyramid.
The only deviation comes from the fact that the Earth is not a perfect sphere, but is slightly flattened at the poles and widened at the Equator. However, this deviation is so slight, amounting to only 26.7 miles (.0003367 or the fraction1/298), that it is easily compensated for. Interestingly, when the Great Pyramid was first built, it was even more valuable as an aerial navigation marker than it is today because it had been covered with a casing of fine white limestone.
The limestone blocks were carved so precisely that the pyramid looked from a distance as though it had been hewn from a single white rock. The limestone reflected the sun, making the pyramid visible from a much greater distance.*
The unique characteristics of the pyramids at Gizeh raise interesting questions about those monuments. Since they serve an aerial navigation function so well, were they built at least partially for that purpose? If they were, who could have possibly had use for them in 2000 B.C.? A possible clue to the riddle may lie on the moon.
On November 22, 1966, the Washington Post ran a front-page headline proclaiming:
“Six Mysterious Statuesque Shadows Photographed on the Moon by Orbiter.”
The Post story, which was picked up later by the Los Angeles Times, described a lunar photograph snapped two days earlier by U.S. space probe Orbiter 2 as it passed twenty to thirty miles above the moon’s surface.
The photograph seems to reveal six spires arranged in a purposeful geometrical pattern inside a small portion of the Sea of Tranquility. The pointedness of the lunar objects’ shadows indicates that they are all either cone – or pyramid-shaped. Although the official NASA press release mentioned nothing unusual about the photograph, other people found the picture remarkable.
Dr. William Blair of the Boeing Institute of Biotechnology stated:
“If the cuspids [cone-shaped spires] really were the result of some geophysical event it would be natural to expect to see them distributed at random. As a result, the triangulation would be scalene [three unequal sides] or irregular, whereas those concerning the lunar object lead to a basilary system, with coordinate x, y, z to the right angle, six isosceles triangles and two axes consisting of three points each.”
“Most of the limestone is gone today. Except for a few blocks found at the base of the Great Pyramid, the limestone casing had been excavated away from the pyramids beginning in the first millennium A.D.”
In Argosy magazine, Soviet space engineer Alexander Abromov went a step further by stating:
The distributiori of these lunar objects is similar to the plan of the Egyptian pyramids constructed by Pharaohs Cheops, Chephren, and Menkaura at Gizeh, near Cairo. The centers of the spires of this lunar “abaka” [arrangement of pyramids] are arranged in precisely the same way as the apices [tips] of the three great pyramids.2
Assuming Drs. Blair and Abromov have not grievously miscalculated, it appears that some of the pyramids of Earth may be part of a permanent marking system that extends to more than one planet of our solar system. The system may even extend to Mars. Pyramid like objects have been photographed on the Martian surface. Pictures snapped by the U.S. Viking mission in 1976 show the Martian region of Cydonia to contain possible pyramid like objects and what appears to be a huge sculpted face nearby staring skyward.
It is easy to argue that the Martian pyramids and face are natural formations not unlike some found on Earth; however, one, and possibly two, other “faces” have been discovered elsewhere on Mars with strikingly similar features, such as the “helmet,” cheek notches, and indentation above the right eye.*
*For an interesting scientific evaluation of the Martian objects, I recommend Unusual Martian Surface Features by Vincent DiPietro, Greg Molenaar, and John Brandenburg. It is published by Mars Research. Please see bibliography for address.
Perhaps equally interesting is the fact that one pyramid in Cydonia has a side pointing due north towards the Martian spin axis. Is this alignment chance, or is there a connection to the Great Pyramid at Gizeh which is also aligned according to precise compass directions?
It is, of course, possible that the objects on the moon and Mars will prove to be rock formations after all. Available photographs seem inadequate to establish the formations as artificial. If they are artificial, it is clear from the photo graphs that they have undergone a fair degree of erosion.
Only a closer look during future missions to the moon and Mars will resolve the controversy. The objects are certainly worth closer investigation because the moon has hosted UFO phenomena for centuries, including inside the Sea of Tranquility.3
Even if the Martian or lunar objects prove to be natural formations, that would not change the clearly artificial nature of Earth’s pyramids. This compels us to return our focus to the pyramids of Egypt. For whom did the ancient Egyptians say they were building their magnificent structures?
Like the ancient Mesopotamians, the early ancient Egyptians claimed to be living under the rule of humanlike extraterrestrial “Gods.” The Egyptians wrote that their “Gods” traveled into the heavens in flying “boats.” (These “boats” were later mythologized to explain the movement of the sun.) The “Gods” of Egypt’s early period were said to be literal flesh-and-blood creatures with the same needs for food and shelter as human beings. Actual homes had been built for them. Those homes were furnished with human servants who later became Egypt’s first priests. According to renowned historian James Henry Breasted, the earliest servants of the “Gods” were laymen who performed their duties without ceremony or ritual. Their jobs consisted simply of providing the “Gods” with,
“. . . those things which formed the necessities and luxuries of an Egyptian of wealth and rank at that time: plentiful food and drink, fine clothing, music and dance.” *
Many people identify ancient Egyptian religion with the worship of animals. This type of veneration was unknown during the early period of the Egyptian civilization.
According to Professor Breasted:
An interesting compilation of unusual lunar phenomena is found in NASA Technical Report R-277 entitled “Chronological Catalog of Reported Lunar Events” by Barbara M. Middlehurst. It briefly lists 579 unusual lunar sightings considered to be reliable beginning in the year 1540 and ending in 1967.
… the hawk, for example, was the sacred animal of the sun-God, and as such a living hawk might have a place in the temple, where he was fed and kindly treated, as any such pet might be; but he was not worshipped, nor was he the object of an elaborate ritual as later.4
The records of ancient Egypt have given us many clues as to who might have had use for a permanent marking system to navigate various planets of our solar system: the Custodial society. The first pyramid of Egypt was designed by Imhotep, Prime Minister to Egyptian king Zoser-Neterkhet. Imhotep was said to be the son of Egypt’s most important Custodial “God” during his day: Ptah. Egyptian lore written after Imhotep’s time adds that Imhotep had received the pyramid design in a plan “which descended to him from heaven to the north of Memphis [a city in ancient Egypt].” 5
The Great Pyramid at Gizeh, which was built several generations later during the “Age of the Pyramids,” was constructed according to the methods established by Imhotep. It was during the Age of the Pyramids, which began around 2760 B.C., that worship of the humanlike “Gods” reached its height; more than 2000 Gods then existed. It was for their “Gods” that the Egyptians had ultimately built their most important pyramids. The many pyramids built after those at Gizeh are generally inferior and are viewed as imitations.
Some theorists believe that the “ancient astronauts” of Egypt had used their space age technology to lift stones and to otherwise assist in the construction of the Gizeh pyramids. This hypothesis is neither certain nor necessary to sustain the “ancient astronaut” theory. Egyptian records tend to support the idea that human labor had provided the primary muscle for the pyramids’ construction. This would have been in keeping with the Mesopotamian contention that Homo sapiens had been created to be a labor pool for the Custodial “Gods.”
It is hardly surprising that the pharaohs and priests who acted on behalf of the “Gods” were often immensely unpopular with the Egyptian people. The Old Kingdom (ca. 2685-2180 B.C.) was followed by a period of weakness and unrest. Even the Great Pyramid of Cheops had been broken into by unhappy Egyptians.
According to historian Ahmed Fakhry:
The Egyptians so hated the builders of the pyramids that they threatened to enter these great tombs and destroy the mummies of the kings.6
Such intense loathing is certainly not surprising. In order to get the great pyramids built, Egyptian society was made more repressive in order to make human labor operate with greater machinelike efficiency. Occupations became rigid so that it was difficult to move from one type of job to another. Laymen ceased to serve the “Gods”: an impenetrable priesthood was erected instead. Personal happiness and achievement were sacrificed in the name of labor productivity. Feudalism had arrived in Egypt.
As the pharaohs were busy helping to make slaves out of their fellow humans, the “Gods” were making fools out of the pharaohs. Imhotep, reputed son of the “God” Ptah, instituted the concept of the pharaoh as “God-King.” This elitist title was little appreciated by most Egyptians. As “God-Kings,” the pharaohs were made to think that they were elevated above the toiling human multitudes. The pharaohs were taught that if they cooperated with Custodial plans, they would escape the human predicament by joining the “Gods”in the heavens.
There was just one catch.
The pharaohs would be allowed to escape Earth only after they had died! Pharaohs were taught the silly idea that if they had their dead bodies carefully preserved, the bodies would be brought back to life and they could join the Custodial “Gods” in the heavens. Some pharaohs, like Cheops, also buried large wooden boats near their tombs. According to some scholars, the pharaohs believed that their entombed boats (“solar barks”) would be magically exhumed and endowed with the same power that caused the “boats” of the “Gods” to fly. The pharaohs believed that they would be whisked away after death in their magically-powered wooden boats to the home of the “Gods” in the heavens.
Although Egyptian preservation techniques were quite good, it is clear that the pharaohs’ minds were being filled with nonsense. The wooden “solar barks” never flew. Few, if any, mummified bodies of the great God-Kings reached the heavens. Instead, many mummies have become macabre museum curiosities for the titillation of the human multitudes that the pharaohs so fervently hoped to escape. Other mummies suffered an even more humiliating fate: they were ground up and used as an ingredient in medicines. Pulverized mummies also became paint additives because of the preservatives used in the mummification process.
The puzzle is why the pharaohs believed the cruel joke which had been perpetrated on them. Some historians suggest that mummification was an attempt to imitate the life-cycle of the butterfly. Others believe that the pharaohs wanted to maintain their wealth and position in their next lifetimes and therefore desired to be resurrected in the same bodies. One UFO writer has suggested that they were striving to duplicate body preservation techniques used by Egypt’s technologically-advanced “Gods.” Ancient Egyptian records, however, reveal an even more compelling reason why the pharaohs mummified themselves: spiritual knowledge had been twisted.
Ancient Egyptians believed in a “soul,” or “serf,” as an entity completely separate from the “person” (meaning “body”). Egyptians labeled one such spiritual entity the “ka.” The Egyptians believed that the “ka,” not the body, was one of the spiritual entities that constituted the true person and that the body itself had no personality or intelligence without a spiritual entity. This generally enlightened view was given a false twist, however. The Egyptians were made to believe that the spiritual well of the “ka” after death depended upon the “ka” maintaining contact with a physical body.
According to historian Fakhry:
The Egyptian wanted his Ka to be able to recognize its body after death and to be united with it; for this reason he felt that it was very important to have his body preserved. This is why the Egyptians mummified their bodies and excelled in embalmingthem.7
The pharaohs went even a step further. Mr. Fakhry explains:
The Egyptians also made statues and placed them in tombs and temples to act as substitutes for the body if it should perish.8
These practices had a devastating impact on spiritual understanding. They caused people to wrongly equate spiritual wholeness with spiritual attachment to human bodies (or to body substitutes). Such teachings encouraged humans to accept the Custodial intention to permanently join spiritual beings to Homo sapiens bodies. The powerful human drives for spiritual integrity and immortality were twisted into an obsessive quest to preserve bodies. Philosophies of materialism were thereby hastened.
Materialism, by one of its definitions, is the over preoccupation with things at the material level and neglecting important aspects of ethical and spiritual existence. This often leads to the second definition of materialism: the belief that everything, including thought and emotion, can be explained entirely by movements and changes in physical matter. Although the Egyptians had not embraced the latter definition as a philosophy of life, they had helped move the world a step in that direction.
The derailment of spiritual knowledge in Egypt was caused by the corruption of the Brotherhood of the Snake, to which the pharaohs and priests belonged. As mentioned earlier, after its reported defeat thousands of years ago by its Custodial enemies, the Brotherhood continued to remain dominant in human affairs, but at the cost of becoming a Custodial tool. To understand how the corrupted Brotherhood began to distort spiritual truth and perpetuate theological irrationality, we must first look at the early inner workings of the Brotherhood and its method of teaching.
The original uncorrupted Brotherhood engaged in a pragmatic program of spiritual education. The organization’s approach was scientific, not mystical or ceremonial. The subject of the spirit was considered to be as knowable as any other science. It seems that the Brotherhood possessed a considerable body of accurate spiritual data, but it had not succeeded in developing a complete route to spiritual freedom prior to its defeat.
Brotherhood teachings were arranged as a step-by-step process. A student was required to satisfactorily complete one level of instruction before proceeding to the next one. All pupils took oaths of secrecy in which they swore never to reveal the teachings of a level to any person who had not yet graduated up to that level. This style of instruction was designed to ensure that a student did not prematurely attempt difficult spiritual feats or become overwhelmed by advanced level-information before he was ready for it, in the same way that one does not take a student driver on treacherous mountain roads before the student successfully navigates easier, but increasingly difficult, highways first.
Imparting spiritual knowledge in this fashion will be effective as long as the levels are ultimately open to everyone. When arbitrary or blanket restrictions are placed on who may have access to the teachings, either through overregulation, elitism, or by setting near-impossible conditions for admittance, the system of confidential step-by-step levels changes from an educational tool into an instrument of spiritual repression. The Brotherhood underwent just such a change.
The teachings of the Brotherhood in ancient Egypt were organized into an institution known as the “Mystery Schools.” The Schools furnished the pharaohs and priests with most of their scientific, moral, and spiritual education. According to Dr. H. Spencer Lewis, founder of the Rosicrucian Order headquartered in San Jose, California,* the first temple built for use by the Mystery Schools was erected by Pharaoh Cheops.
* Rosicrucianism is one of the mystical systems which arose out of Brotherhood teachings. Dr. Lewis’s Rosicrucian Order is called The Ancient and Mystical Order Rosae Crucis (“AMORC” for brevity). AMORC was founded in the early 1900’s. It is best known today for the popular Egyptian Museum it owns and operates in San Jose, California.
There is another American Rosicrucian order headquartered in Quaker-town, Pennsylvania. It is called the Fraternity of the Rosy Cross, or The Rosicrucian Fraternity in America. The Rosicrucian Fraternity in Quakertown does not recognize AMORC as a valid Rosicrucian body. In the 1930’s and 1940’s, R. Swinburne Clymer, Supreme Grand Master of the Rosicrucian Fraternity in Quakertown, published a number of writings denouncing AMORC. Dr. Clymer and Dr. Lewis have each claimed that his organization is the true Rosicrucian system.
In this book, I have utilized the extensive historical research of both Dr. Clymer and Dr. Lewis. When I cite either of them by name as a source of historical information, I am not taking sides in their controversy.
Inside those temple walls, spiritual knowledge underwent the deterioration which caused pharaohs to mummify their bodies and bury wooden boats. According to old Egyptian lore, the distorted teachings of the Mystery Schools were created by the “great teacher,” Ra, an important Custodial “God.”
The Mystery Schools not only twisted spiritual knowledge, they greatly restricted public access to any theological truths still surviving. Only the pharaohs, priests, and a few others deemed worthy were accepted into the Schools. Initiates were required to take solemn vows never to reveal to any outsiders the “secret wisdom” they were taught; students were threatened with dire consequences if they broke the vow. These restrictions were reportedly established to prevent misuse of high-level knowledge by those who might degrade that knowledge or use it harmfully.
While this is a legitimate reason to develop safeguards, the restrictions imposed by the Mystery Schools went far beyond simple security. Entire social and occupational groups were denied membership. The vast majority of the human population had no hope of entering the Schools; their access to any surviving spiritual knowledge was therefore severely limited. The Biblical “revolving sword” preventing access to the “tree of knowledge” was being put into place by those who ran the Mystery Schools.
The Mystery Schools caused spiritual knowledge to evaporate in another way. The Schools forbade its members from physically recording the Schools’ most advanced teachings. Initiates were required to relay the information orally. There is no faster way to lose knowledge than to forbid its being written down. No matter how sincere and well-trained people may be, word-of-mouth will invariably result in changes to the ideas being relayed. With a word substituted here and a sentence omitted there, the semantic precision needed to communicate an exact scientific principle will be lost. This is one way that a functional science can quickly degrade into an untenable superstition.
As time went on, the Brotherhood became so restrictive that it excluded most of Egypt’s own priests from membership. This was especially true during the reign of King Thutmose III, who ruled about 1200 years after Cheops. Thutmose III is best known for his military adventures which expanded the Egyptian empire to its greatest size. According to Dr. Lewis, Thutmose III took the final step of transforming the Brotherhood into a completely closed order. He established rules and regulations reportedly still used by some Brotherhood organizations today.
Changes in the Brotherhood continued. Less than one hundred years after the reign of Thutmose III, his descendant, King Akhenaton (Amenhotep IV), spent the last year of his 28-year life transforming Brotherhood teachings into mystical symbols. Akhenaton’s symbols were intentionally designed to be incomprehensible to everyone except those Brotherhood members who were taught the symbols’ secret meanings. The Brotherhood ostensibly created this new system of visual images to be a universal “language” of spiritual enlightenment transcending human languages, and to prevent misuse of knowledge. In real fact, the intention was to create a secret code designed to make spiritual knowledge unattainable to everyone except those admitted into the increasingly elite Brotherhood, and apparently to eventually obliterate spiritual knowledge altogether. The translation of spiritual data into bizarre and incomprehensible symbols has brought about the spectacle of honest people trying to decode garbled symbols in a quest for spiritual truths which can, and should be, communicated in everyday language understandable by anyone.
Despite the obvious sincerity of Akhenaton, we discover that the transformation of spiritual knowledge into a system of obscure symbols has had a devastating impact on human society. As this manner of relaying spiritual knowledge was disseminated throughout the world by members of the Brotherhood, all knowledge of a spiritual nature became misidentified with bizarre symbols and mystery.
This misidentification is so strong today that almost all studies of the spirit and spiritual phenomena are lumped into such disgraced classifications as “occultism,” “spiritualism,” and witchcraft. The attempt thousands of years ago to keep spiritual knowledge out of the hands of the “profane” has almost entirely destroyed the credibility and utility of that knowledge. Brotherhood symbolism was another piece of the Biblical “revolving sword” blocking human access to spiritual knowledge. It has left only the confusion, ignorance and superstition which have come to characterize so much of the field today.
Akhenaton presided over another important development in the Brotherhood. Although the young ruler had fared poorly as a political leader, he achieved everlasting fame for his efforts to champion the cause of monotheism, i.e., the worship of a “one only” God. Monotheism was a Brotherhood teaching and many historians cite Akhenaton as the first important historical figure to broadly promulgate the concept.
To aid in the establishment of the Brotherhood’s new monotheism, Akhenaton moved the capital of Egypt to the city of El Amarna. He also relocated the main temple of the Brotherhood there. When the Egyptian capital was moved back to its original situs, the Brotherhood remained in El Amarna. This signaled an important break between Egypt’s established priesthood, which resisted Akhenaton’s monotheism, and the highly exclusive Brotherhood which no longer admitted most priests to membership.
The ancient Egyptian empire eventually decayed and vanished. The Brotherhood of the Snake fared much better. It survived and expanded by sending out from Egypt missionaries and conquerors who established Brotherhood branches and offshoots throughout the civilized world. These Brotherhood emissaries widely disseminated the Brotherhood’s new “one God” religion and eventually made it the dominant theology throughout the world.
In addition to launching “one God” theology, the Snake Brotherhood created many of the symbols and regalia still used by some important monotheistic religions today. For example, the Brotherhood temple in El Amarna was constructed in the shape of a cross—a symbol later adopted by the Brotherhood’s most famous offshoot: Christianity. Some Brotherhood members in Egypt wore the same special outfits with a “cord at the loin” and a covering for the head as later used by Christian monks. The chief priest of the Egyptian temple wore the same type of broad-sleeved gown used today by clergymen and choir singers. The chief priest also shaved his head in a small round spot at the top—an act later adopted by Christian friars.
Many theologians hail monotheism as an important religious breakthrough. Worshipping a spiritual “one-only God” is indeed an improvement over the idolization of stone statues and clumsy animals. Unfortunately, Brotherhood monotheism still did not represent a return to complete accuracy; it simply added new distortions to whatever spiritual knowledge still remained.
Based upon what we are coming to know about the nature of the spiritual being, we find that two false twists appear to lay in the Brotherhood’s definition of a Supreme Being:
Firstly, Brotherhood monotheisms, which include Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, teach that a Supreme Being was the creator of the physical universe and of the physical life forms within the universe. In an upcoming chapter we will discuss the likelihood that spiritual beings were born of a Supreme Being of some sort, but physical creatures and objects probably were not. As some other religions have noted, if our universe is the product of spiritual activity, then it appears that all individual spiritual beings within the universe are responsible for its creation and/or perpetuation. The scope of a Supreme Being would actually extend far beyond the creation of a single universe.
Secondly, a Supreme Being is usually portrayed as a spiritual being capable of possibly unlimited thought, creativity, and ability. A Supreme Being is said to be an entity which can make and unmake universes. The big question is this: Why must we be limited to only one such being?
Is there any reason not to suppose the existence of ten such beings? Or a hundred? Or an almost infinite number? It appears that the Brotherhood definition of a “one God” actually describes the native potential of every spiritual being, including those spiritual beings who animate human bodies on Earth. The true nature and capabilities of every spiritual being would therefore be hidden by doctrines which state that only a Supreme Being may enjoy pure spiritual existence and unlimited spiritual potential. Brotherhood monotheism would actually hinder human spiritual recovery and prevent people from grasping the true, and probably much broader, scope of a Supreme Being.*
* A fuller discussion of the possible nature of a Supreme Being and its relationship to individual spiritual existence is presented in Chapter 40.
Brotherhood monotheism was another piece of the Biblical “revolving sword” to prevent access to spiritual knowledge. It also allowed the Custodians to greatly elevate then-own status. As part of its new monotheism, the Brotherhood began to teach the fiction that members of the Custodial race were the physical manifestations of a Supreme Being. In other words, Custodians started pretending that they and their aircraft were the “one-onlyGod.” History records that they used extraordinary violence to make Homo sapiens believe the falsehood. Few lies have had as devastating an impact on human society, yet it became a prime mission of the corrupted Brotherhood, from the time of Akhenaton the modern day, to make humans believe that the Custodians and their aircraft were “God.”
The purpose of this fiction was to enforce human obedience and to maintain Custodial control over the human population. In no case is this clearer, or the results more visibly tragic, than in the Biblical story of the ancient Hebrews and their “oneGod” named Jehovah.
Vacation posts continue. Here’s something about Egyptian Gods etc.
The Egyptians were fully clued in at one point.
There is a real, and frightening reason so many extremely important people are going to ‘worship’ at the pyramid of Giza in Cairo this December 31, 1999. Will the pyramid be pointing to Sirius at a certain moment? Will the Sirius vortex of the God or Gods or the Goddess cause some event to occur, even if only psychic, while sweaty Zahi Hawass flips switches for the crowds? Sirius is called the vortex of God or Gods and/or the Goddess.
This is where, for all intents and purposes, divine beings outside of “physical density” and it’s relative regions, originally come from.
The originating Giza Pyramid builders designed-in a record of this and the predictions of eventual comings of messiahs through history. Sirius is where, for all intents and purposes, divine beings outside of “physical density” and it’s relative regions, originally came from. Near Sirius is a doorway to what we would call heaven.
The doorway was scientifically proven when a pyramid array on a secret satellite detection experiment, revealed a geometric alignment where pyramid energies naturally amplify a stream of energy coming ONLY from near Sirius into our universe. The pyramid effected an interdimensional transceiver function where the subspace tunneling from the Sirius vortex domain occurred, in terms of measurable temporal field modulation.
The reason razor blades don’t rust in pyramids is not pop culture fad belief, but the result of temporal field deceleration naturally occurring in the pyramid. This is actually measurable with a tuned crystal resonator detection and reference system. Above the pyramid the time field was found to be minutely accelerated, inside the pyramid it is decelerated. When the pyramid shaft of Cheops at Giza points to Sirius, and is also aligned geomagnetically on the Earth (Cheops), momentous things are predicted to occur or least be signified.
At at certain times of day and year, there are peak conditions in the pyramid to (among other things):
Communicate with the Gods from inside the Pyramid, i.e. the King’s and Queen’s Chamber – using emotion, vision and symbols.
Receive energies of rejuvenation and spiritual balance from the Sirius vortex – using emotion, vision, and symbols.
Out-of-body experience travel to other planes of existence and initiation and learning, using emotion, vision and symbols.
The originating Giza Pyramid designed-in a record of this and the predictions of eventual comings of messiahs through history. The old dormant code activation keys were broadcast from the cortex and received by everyone on Earth five years ago. The changes are already beginning.
Echelon knows evolution is in for a bumpy ride, and ET knows evolution is in for a bumpy ride, and the rest of us are told nothing. Yet it is we who are at stake. This is why ET and God’s ET agents, and other heavenly influences, are all so active right now, all trying to even up the need-to-know problem through covert mass contact. It is a covert assistance program, not a covert invasion. It is designed to allow us to evolve much faster than our institutions would prefer us sheep wake-up.
There are bad ET’s and there are good ET’s and a lot in between, too. The saving grace in all this is the higherdimensional Sirian soul energies of beyond our physical universe invested powerful dormant DNA encoding and high soul substance into Neanderthal humanity 90,000 years ago. The shaft in the pyramid points to Sirius.
It has been confirmed ET parties were associated closely with the existence of certain Earthly historical early messiahs and holy persons. Our religions were partly created by ET. We were truly, in every scientific physical sense of the words as well, aided by heavenly apparatus and intelligence. But this is no ordinary apparatus. We are talking about the scientific verification of the existence of God.
But this could be God as ET themselves parading as God or God’s agents, by being able to prove their historical Messianic associations, and the fact our genetics came from their divine test tube.
However this still leaves plenty of room left for deception, since there are so many damned ET factions still vying for position today. Not the least of which is our own highest Echelon response to the problem – the appropriation of the right of apotheosis away from the custodians – no matter how benevolent they are.
This is a dangerous path. It is an outwardly directed path in worship of ‘power-over’, technology of control, exclusive rights to resources, and worship of the science of separating the observer from experience. This is a climate of alien threat response management by secession from the ET agents as angels of God.
Here is the crux of the problem: The right Messianic ET’s were already rejected by our idiot world secret government. Why? Our government would not play because the true heavenly God Messianic ET agents would not broker soul rights by acceding to secret institutional control speaking for all humanity.
The worst of it is the human-perceived direct attack by the good ET’s on the human institutions of organized religion as being embodiments of the worst kind of corruption.
We wouldn’t have any of that. And they were told to take a cosmic hike – and they did – at our request, except for a few isolated continuing contacts with key individual contactees. The ET’s gave up on our institutions, and our institutions gave up on them, there was to be no marriage without undesired revolution.
Part of ARC Echelon rejection of the ET agents of our historical Messiahs – who were after all good and true and spiritually divine human beings, leaves the populace without without a primer for things to come. So ET is picking up the slack by increasing covert contacts, and there are a quite of few ET visitation joyrides going on too. Our zoo is a hot ticket. Without a primer we are left to to our own wits and conditioning.
And guess what?
Plenty of alliances have come along who were not the Messianic connected ET’s and also claim involvement in our world, one way or another, usually more remote, but still associated somehow. The plot thickened, especially as some of these ET’s turned out to be rather fallen angels of a kind. Faustain bargains had been much more easily made with less caring ET’s by our institutions than with the more caring ETs. This means the institutions were left with a messy problem, and until they figured it out, and could wiggle out of certain Faustian bargains, humanity was to be left without a clue.
So the feedback response system is modified to compensate.
Humanity is exercising it’s own trim-tab compensation by receiving
messages from itself in the future as precognition and dreams
messages from itself from the future, as time travelers, both machine and humanoid, coming back
messages telepathically from ET’s in the present, and most importantly
messages directly from the original creator God and his once Earthly Messiahs, now operating as relay authentic bridges for humanity to God in these times
The status quo in the institutions, on the other hand, are, respectively:
trying to downplay the dreams and precognitions are millennial madness
making sure to debunk the entire field of channelers as nutcase cults
making sure to debunk the entire field of Ufology as disreputable snake oil salesmen
trying to reinforce peoples allegiance to the organized institutional forms of religion and science
This is the result of the actions of the Echelon elements in secession mode.
The few elements in lower Echelons that have realized the monumental mistakes they have made still don’t want to turn over authority to any genuine human contactee! They want to instead attempt to go straight to the source. This is the reason for all the secret society worship of the Gods of ancient Egypt and the reason again, for the coming festivities being attended by representatives of all the secret societies.
But the fact still remains, regardless of the noble attempts to adjust the game through the types like Joe Firmage, without a primer that requires more institutional dressing down to see the whole truth, most of humanity could rush to judgment – into a premature friend or foe determination – and get caught up in mistaken identity turmoil. This is why there are so many above top secret fake apotheosis programs in a box. They can only get away with all of this as long as we are still under basic embargo and quarantine as a planet.
It all depends if we can:
keep the ET lid on, and
keep the worldly natural catastrophe curve in check, or adapt fast enough to changes in the sun, for example and
keep ourselves from killing ourselves off with human conflict triggered NCBW in the next 12 years,
All without without absolutely needing ET help to survive and not go extinct, we could pass through this momentum time at the end of ‘normal’ history and not have to scientifically confront the existence of alien life for almost another century.
Now wouldn’t that be nice?
Don’t worry, the abductions will all soon be over, for the most part. Besides you were just giving and getting some help. Once in a while there are a few demonic abductors running around, but that is kept in check. Every abduction event is monitored by Echelon authorities. Every ET tagged party is an Echelon tagged party. Yet, remember, human free will is still the most powerful element in the mix. You only get abducted because as a soul you agreed to it before you were born.
There is a God who exists as a non-physical creator beyond this universe, of which entities in different ET’s civilizations either love or hate, or listen to or turn a deaf ear to, depending on how much their ‘fallen’ factor is operative. Certain Vedic saints, Abraham, Moses, Jesus Christ, and Mohammed, and recently even Joseph Smith, prime examples amongst many, were all contacted by rather benevolent angel ET’s, as judged by the quality of the teachings they have promulgated.
Our institutions have recently rejected the right heavenly hosts. They left the rest of us to fend for ourselves, while they secure potential divine secessionary escape routes, or just Mexican stand-off hold-offs. This all means, good and bad ET, angelic and demonic ET, of different ilks can now covertly contact humanity on a telepathic basis, at the least, IF individual humanity ‘asks’ for it, and get a response, depending on the degree of pattern match. Negative people naturally attract similarly predisposed ET’s, and so on.
Our institutions have failed the tests and given into the devil’s temptations. The Sirian-Egyptian connection correlates to a coordinate in the heavens that highest Echelon knows the door to ‘heaven’ is. Certain Egypto-Masonic ASC Echelon types want to negotiate their own exclusive relationship with divinity, and bypass the truly ‘holy-host’ ET’s who reject their all too human power and control games. If we don’t watch it, these idiots will try to drag the rest of humanity along with them into Faustian bargain oblivion.
The only assured response strategy options are:
Allow the whole thing blow over through the continued disenfranchisement of Ufology from science and religion, as ARC elements have planned and executed for fifty years, (and hope no massive new UFO religion springs up that would make things like Scientology and even Mormanism look like small stuff). Let the UFO age die-off, by forcing the ET’s away through a threatened scorched globe policy.
Allow the whole thing gradually take hold socially through the personal domain of direct ET to person contact (and yes direct God to person contact) going on, physically, telepathically, symbolically, spiritually. And hopefully all the while try to marry science and religion back together in a way that allows these hallowed institutions to survive. But the bigoted radical cynical scientific rationalism cultists, and the bigoted radical optimistic religious mysticism cultists, will both have to eventually give it up. And as we all know, that will not happen without a fight.
This is why ET is denied the welcome mat on Earth and the No-Vacancy signs are on in the mainstream sense. We need time to just make it go away, or to prepare ourselves for eventual radical cultural adjustment.
Either way, ET is NOT really the issue we need to figure out anymore, even if more than half the ARC Echelon folks are still sweating it, and the abductees are tired of it.
The ONLY issue of genuine import is how our hidden human potential for divine spirituality can dovetail with the coming big wave of cosmic events and ‘energies’ over the next years so we can make the best out of it, and yes, save our own souls, and our world, with the help of God and/or Goddess.
That is the ONLY question that is relevant to be answered. Everything else turns out to be a grand distraction.
But remember Heaven’s Gate. The leader of Falun Gong, Master Li, believes evil ET’s recently seeded human civilization with technology and computers as a covert invasion plan. These evil ET’s worship technology and science like a religion, to the exclusion of higher dimensions. Drunvalo Mechelzidek holds that technology is the result of a Luciferian rebellion. The environmental crisis has stirred a contemporary “modern age” Luddite backlash against insensitive irresponsible science, commerce and industry.
The Unabomber Manifesto. Earthfirst. Back to nature worship and “superstition”.
The backlash against science is just beginning unless science stops worshipping the separation of the observer from the observed as a means to operate with impunity, and derisively dismisses claims that involve the observer. Science is actually on the way to committing suicide. But in radically responding to the problem as a turf war for souls, so will religion.
Don’t wait for your institutions to get it together for you. Common humanity may have to stand elitist management for decade or so until the inevitable happens. The inevitable is human apotheosis for the masses as a direct link between human and God and Goddess, and without ET necessarily consciously involved, and without human institutions moderating. And that scares our hallowed institutions of science and religion, our institutions of commerce and politics, it scares them all half to death. No wonder.
Mommy Goddess and Daddy God are coming into direct contact with us in a new radical fashion – not as physical ET’s like the government or evil ET’s would have us believe, but as personalized loving, forgiving and powerful spiritual energies and entities from beyond this physical universe. They are returning, big time, in non-physical terms, to re-connect and co-create with their original soul substance in this universe, located in, guess what – human hearts.
This Human-Spiritual heart reconnection is feared by the ‘fallen’ Luciferians mindsets – their game is up. Because once the true reconnection happens, it makes individual human beings hundreds of times more powerful than our high yield hydrogen bombs, in terms of potential spiritual influence. Remember the power of our historical Messiahs? They did not show what they were really capable of, despite the wonders they did demonstrate.
And remember how all Messiahs claimed that any human was capable of the same as they?
It was all only ever about growing love in the human heart. It was about growing the capacity for caring and intimacy, the incorruptible means for humanity not falling this time for well laid traps. The alien-human alliance engineered fail-safe awareness traps on the human evolutionary experiment. And they work.
The ET’s just hope we humans as a whole species learn our lessons before we get so much power. Since most of us wouldn’t trust anyone we know with too much power, and treat other species on our planet like chattel without feelings, that ought to help explain to you why ET’s have us under a form of embargo and quarantine. We humans foam at the mouth after all without any help at all from ET races.
You didn’t need to read all this blathering gibberish after all. We warned you.
As William Shatner once said to the stunned crestfallen trekkies at a Star Trek convention, “Get a life”!
Now when we have looked the Tibetan Book Of The Deatd there is also an Egyptian Book Of The Dead:
The Book of the Dead is an ancient Egyptian funerary text, used from the beginning of the New Kingdom (around 1550 BCE) to around 50 BCE. The original Egyptian name for the text, transliterated rw nw prt m hrw is translated as “Book of Coming Forth by Day”. Another translation would be “Book of emerging forth into the Light”. The text consists of a number of magic spells intended to assist a dead person’s journey through the Duat, or underworld, and into the afterlife.
The Book of the Dead was part of a tradition of funerary texts which includes the earlier Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts, which were painted onto objects, not papyrus. Some of the spells included were drawn from these older works and date to the 3rd millennium BCE. Other spells were composed later in Egyptian history, dating to the Third Intermediate Period (11th to 7th centuries BCE). A number of the spells which made up the Book continued to be inscribed on tomb walls and sarcophagi, as had always been the spells from which they originated. The Book of the Dead was placed in the coffin or burial chamber of the deceased.
There was no single or canonicalBook of the Dead. The surviving papyri contain a varying selection of religious and magical texts and vary considerably in their illustration. Some people seem to have commissioned their own copies of the Book of the Dead, perhaps choosing the spells they thought most vital in their own progression to the afterlife. The Book of the Dead was most commonly written in hieroglyphic or hieratic script on a papyrus scroll, and often illustrated with vignettes depicting the deceased and their journey into the afterlife.
The Book of the Dead developed from a tradition of funerary manuscripts dating back to the Egyptian Old Kingdom. The first funerary texts were the Pyramid Texts, first used in the Pyramid of King Unas of the 5th dynasty, around 2400 BCE. These texts were written on the walls of the burial chambers within pyramids, and were exclusively for the use of the Pharaoh (and, from the 6th dynasty, the Queen). The Pyramid Texts were written in an unusual hieroglyphic style; many of the hieroglyphs representing humans or animals were left incomplete or drawn mutilated, most likely to prevent them causing any harm to the dead pharaoh. The purpose of the Pyramid Texts was to help the dead King take his place amongst the gods, in particular to reunite him with his divine father Ra; at this period the afterlife was seen as being in the sky, rather than the underworld described in the Book of the Dead. Towards the end of the Old Kingdom, the Pyramid Texts ceased to be an exclusively royal privilege, and were adopted by regional governors and other high-ranking officials.
In the Middle Kingdom, a new funerary text emerged, the Coffin Texts. The Coffin Texts used a newer version of the language, new spells, and included illustrations for the first time. The Coffin Texts were most commonly written on the inner surfaces of coffins, though they are occasionally found on tomb walls or on papyri. The Coffin Texts were available to wealthy private individuals, vastly increasing the number of people who could expect to participate in the afterlife; a process which has been described as the “democratization of the afterlife”.
The Book of the Dead first developed in Thebes towards the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period, around 1700 BCE. The earliest known occurrence of the spells included in the Book of the Dead is from the coffin of Queen Mentuhotep, of the 13th dynasty, where the new spells were included amongst older texts known from the Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts. Some of the spells introduced at this time claim an older provenance; for instance the rubric to spell 30B states that it was discovered by the Prince Hordjedef in the reign of King Menkaure, many hundreds of years before it is attested in the archaeological record.
By the 19th dynasty, the Book of the Dead had become widespread not only for members of the royal family, but courtiers and other officials as well. At this stage, the spells were typically inscribed on linen shrouds wrapped around the dead, though occasionally they are found written on coffins or on papyrus.
The New Kingdom saw the Book of the Dead develop and spread further. The famous Spell 125, the ‘Weighing of the Heart‘, is first known from the reign of Hatshepsut and Tuthmose III, c.1475 BCE. From this period onward the Book of the Dead was typically written on a papyrus scroll, and the text illustrated with vignettes. During the 19th dynasty in particular, the vignettes tended to be lavish, sometimes at the expense of the surrounding text.
In the Third Intermediate Period, the Book of the Dead started to appear in hieratic script, as well as in the traditional hieroglyphics. The hieratic scrolls were a cheaper version, lacking illustration apart from a single vignette at the beginning, and were produced on smaller papyri. At the same time, many burials used additional funerary texts, for instance the Amduat.
During the 25th and 26th dynasties, the Book of the Dead was updated, revised and standardised. Spells were consistently ordered and numbered for the first time. This standardised version is known today as the ‘Saite recension’, after the Saite (26th) dynasty. In the Late period and Ptolemaic period, the Book of the Dead remained based on the Saite recension, though increasingly abbreviated towards the end of the Ptolemaic period. New funerary texts appeared, including the Book of Breathing and Book of Traversing Eternity. The last use of the Book of the Dead was in the 1st century BCE, though some artistic motifs drawn from it were still in use in Roman times.
The mystical Spell 17, from the Papyrus of Ani. The vignette at the top illustrates, from left to right, the god Heh as a representation of the Sea; a gateway to the realm of Osiris; the Eye of Horus; the celestial cow Mehet-Weret; and a human head rising from a coffin, guarded by the four Sons of Horus.
The Book of the Dead is made up of a number of individual texts and their accompanying illustrations. Most sub-texts begin with the word ro, which can mean mouth, speech, a chapter of a book, spell, utterance, or incantation. This ambiguity reflects the similarity in Egyptian thought between ritual speech and magical power. In the context of the Book of the Dead, it is typically translated as either “chapter” or “spell”. In this article, the word “spell” is used.
At present, some 192 spells are known, though no single manuscript contains them all. They served a range of purposes. Some are intended to give the deceased mystical knowledge in the afterlife, or perhaps to identify them with the gods: for instance, Spell 17, an obscure and lengthy description of the god Atum. Others are incantations to ensure the different elements of the dead person’s being were preserved and reunited, and to give the deceased control over the world around him. Still others protect the deceased from various hostile forces, or guide him through the underworld past various obstacles. Famously, two spells also deal with the judgement of the deceased in the Weighing of the Heart ritual.
Such spells as 26-30, and sometimes spells 6 and 126 relate to the heart, and were inscribed on scarabs.
The texts and images of the Book of the Dead were magical as well as religious. Magic was as legitimate an activity as praying to the gods, even when the magic was aimed at controlling the gods themselves. Indeed, there was little distinction for the Ancient Egyptians between magical and religious practice. The concept of magic (heka) was also intimately linked with the spoken and written word. The act of speaking a ritual formula was an act of creation; there is a sense in which action and speech were one and the same thing. The magical power of words extended to the written word. Hieroglyphic script was held to have been invented by the god Thoth, and the hieroglyphs themselves were powerful. Written words conveyed the full force of a spell. This was even true when the text was abbreviated or omitted, as often occurred in later Book of the Dead scrolls, particularly if the accompanying images were present. The Egyptians also believed that knowing the name of something gave power over it; thus, the Book of the Dead equips its owner with the mystical names of many of the entities he would encounter in the afterlife, giving him power of them.
The spells of the Book of the Dead made use of several magical techniques which can also be seen in other areas of Egyptian life. A number of spells are for magical amulets, which would protect the deceased from harm. In addition to being represented on a Book of the Dead papyrus, these spells appeared on amulets wound into the wrappings of a mummy. Everyday magic made use of amulets in huge numbers. Other items in direct contact with the body in the tomb, such as headrests, were also considered to have amuletic value. A number of spells also refer to Egyptian beliefs about the magical healing power of saliva.
Almost every Book of the Dead was unique, containing a different mixture of spells drawn from the corpus of texts available. For most of the history of the Book of the Dead there was no defined order or structure. In fact, until Paul Barguet‘s 1967 “pioneering study” of common themes between texts, Egyptologists concluded there was no internal structure at all. It is only from the Saite period (26th dynasty) onwards that there is a defined order.
The Books of the Dead from the Saite period tend to organize the Chapters into four sections:
Chapters 1–16 The deceased enters the tomb, descends to the underworld, and the body regains its powers of movement and speech.
Chapters 17–63 Explanation of the mythic origin of the gods and places, the deceased are made to live again so that they may arise, reborn, with the morning sun.
Chapters 64–129 The deceased travels across the sky in the sun ark as one of the blessed dead. In the evening, the deceased travels to the underworld to appear before Osiris.
Chapters 130–189 Having been vindicated, the deceased assumes power in the universe as one of the gods. This section also includes assorted chapters on protective amulets, provision of food, and important places.
The nature of the afterlife which the dead person enjoyed is difficult to define, because of the differing traditions within Ancient Egyptian religion. In the Book of the Dead, the dead were taken into the presence of the god Osiris, who was confined to the subterranean Duat. There are also spells to enable the ba or akh of the dead to join Ra as he travelled the sky in his sun-barque, and help him fight off Apep. As well as joining the Gods, the Book of the Dead also depicts the dead living on in the ‘Field of Reeds’, a paradisaical likeness of the real world. The Field of Reeds is depicted as a lush, plentiful version of the Egypt of the living. There are fields, crops, oxen, people and waterways. The deceased person is shown encountering the Great Ennead, a group of gods, as well as his or her own parents. While the depiction of the Field of Reeds is pleasant and plentiful, it is also clear that manual labour is required. For this reason burials included a number of statuettes named shabti, or later ushebti. These statuettes were inscribed with a spell, also included in the Book of the Dead, requiring them to undertake any manual labour that might be the owner’s duty in the afterlife. It is also clear that the dead not only went to a place where the gods lived, but that they acquired divine characteristics themselves. In many occasions, the deceased is mentioned as “The Osiris – [Name]” in the Book of the Dead.
Two ‘gate spells’. On the top register, Ani and his wife face the ‘seven gates of the House of Osiris’. Below, they encounter ten of the 21 ‘mysterious portals of the House of Osiris in the Field of Reeds’. All are guarded by unpleasant protectors.
The path to the afterlife as laid out in the Book of the Dead was a difficult one. The deceased was required to pass a series of gates, caverns and mounds guarded by supernatural creatures. These terrifying entities were armed with enormous knives and are illustrated in grotesque forms, typically as human figures with the heads of animals or combinations of different ferocious beasts. Their names—for instance, “He who lives on snakes” or “He who dances in blood”—are equally grotesque. These creatures had to be pacified by reciting the appropriate spells included in the Book of the Dead; once pacified they posed no further threat, and could even extend their protection to the dead person. Another breed of supernatural creatures was ‘slaughterers’ who killed the unrighteous on behalf of Osiris; the Book of the Dead equipped its owner to escape their attentions. As well as these supernatural entities, there were also threats from natural or supernatural animals, including crocodiles, snakes, and beetles.
If all the obstacles of the Duat could be negotiated, the deceased would be judged in the “Weighing of the Heart” ritual, depicted in Spell 125. The deceased was led by the god Anubis into the presence of Osiris. There, the dead person swore that he had not committed any sin from a list of 42 sins, reciting a text known as the “Negative Confession”. Then the dead person’s heart was weighed on a pair of scales, against the goddess Maat, who embodied truth and justice. Maat was often represented by an ostrich feather, the hieroglyphic sign for her name. At this point, there was a risk that the deceased’s heart would bear witness, owning up to sins committed in life; Spell 30B guarded against this eventuality. If the scales balanced, this meant the deceased had led a good life. Anubis would take them to Osiris and they would find their place in the afterlife, becoming maa-kheru, meaning “vindicated” or “true of voice”. If the heart was out of balance with Maat, then another fearsome beast called Ammit, the Devourer, stood ready to eat it and put the dead person’s afterlife to an early and unpleasant end.
This scene is remarkable not only for its vividness but as one of the few parts of the Book of the Dead with any explicit moral content. The judgement of the dead and the Negative Confession were a representation of the conventional moral code which governed Egyptian society. For every “I have not…” in the Negative Confession, it is possible to read an unexpressed “Thou shalt not”. While the Ten Commandments of Judaeo-Christian ethics are rules of conduct laid down by a perceived divine revelation, the Negative Confession is more a divine enforcement of everyday morality. Views differ among Egyptologists about how far the Negative Confession represents a moral absolute, with ethical purity being necessary for progress to the Afterlife. John Taylor points out the wording of Spells 30B and 125 suggests a pragmatic approach to morality; by preventing the heart from contradicting him with any inconvenient truths, it seems that the deceased could enter the afterlife even if their life had not been entirely pure. Ogden Goelet says “without an exemplary and moral existence, there was no hope for a successful afterlife”, while Geraldine Pinch suggests that the Negative Confession is essentially similar to the spells protecting from demons, and that the success of the Weighing of the Heart depended on the mystical knowledge of the true names of the judges rather than on the deceased’s moral behaviour.
Producing a Book of the Dead
Part of the Book of the Dead of Pinedjem II. The text is hieratic, except for hieroglyphics in the vignette. The use of red pigment, and the joins between papyrus sheets, are also visible
A Book of the Dead papyrus was produced to order by scribes. They were commissioned by people in preparation for their own funeral, or by the relatives of someone recently deceased. They were expensive items; one source gives the price of a Book of the Dead scroll as one deben of silver, perhaps half the annual pay of a labourer. Papyrus itself was evidently costly, as there are many instances of its re-use in everyday documents, creating palimpsests. In one case, a Book of the Dead was written on second-hand papyrus.
Most owners of the Book of the Dead were evidently part of the social elite; they were initially reserved for the royal family, but later papyri are found in the tombs of scribes, priests and officials. Most owners were men, and generally the vignettes included the owner’s wife as well. Towards the beginning of the history of the Book of the Dead, there are roughly 10 copies belonging to men for every one for a woman. However, during the Third Intermediate Period, 2/3 were for women; and women owned roughly a third of the hieratic paypri from the Late and Ptolemaic Periods.
The dimensions of a Book of the Dead could vary widely; the longest is 40m long while some are as short as 1m. They are composed of sheets of papyrus joined together, the individual papyri varying in width from 15 cm to 45 cm. The scribes working on Book of the Dead papyri took more care over their work than those working on more mundane texts; care was taken to frame the text within margins, and to avoid writing on the joints between sheets. The words peret em heru, or ‘coming forth by day’ sometimes appear on the reverse of the outer margin, perhaps acting as a label.
Books were often prefabricated in funerary workshops, with spaces being left for the name of the deceased to be written in later. For instance, in the Papyrus of Ani, the name “Ani” appears at the top or bottom of a column, or immediately following a rubric introducing him as the speaker of a block of text; the name appears in a different handwriting to the rest of the manuscript, and in some places is mis-spelt or omitted entirely.
The text of a New KingdomBook of the Dead was typically written in cursive hieroglyphs, most often from left to right, but also sometimes from right to left. The hieroglyphs were in columns, which were separated by black lines – a similar arrangement to that used when hieroglyphs were carved on tomb walls or monuments. Illustrations were put in frames above, below, or between the columns of text. The largest illustrations took up a full page of papyrus.
From the 21st Dynasty onward, more copies of the Book of the Dead are found in hieratic script. The calligraphy is similar to that of other hieratic manuscripts of the New Kingdom; the text is written in horizontal lines across wide columns (often the column size corresponds to the size of the papyrus sheets of which a scroll is made up). Occasionally a hieratic Book of the Dead contains captions in hieroglyphic.
The text of a Book of the Dead was written in both black and red ink, regardless of whether it was in hieroglyphic or hieratic script. Most of the text was in black, with red used for the titles of spells, opening and closing sections of spells, the instructions to perform spells correctly in rituals, and also for the names of dangerous creatures such as the demon Apep. The black ink used was based on carbon, and the red ink on ochre, in both cases mixed with water.
The style and nature of the vignettes used to illustrate a Book of the Dead varies widely. Some contain lavish colour illustrations, even making use of gold leaf. Others contain only line drawings, or one simple illustration at the opening.
Book of the Dead papyri were often the work of several different scribes and artists whose work was literally pasted together. It is usually possible to identify the style of more than one scribe used on a given manuscript, even when the manuscript is a shorter one. The text and illustrations were produced by different scribes; there are a number of Books where the text was completed but the illustrations were left empty.
Discovery, translation, interpretation and preservation
The existence of the Book of the Dead was known as early as the Middle Ages, well before its contents could be understood. Since it was found in tombs, it was evidently a document of a religious nature, and this led to the widespread misapprehension that the Book of the Dead was the equivalent of a Bible or Qu’ran.
The first modern facsimile of a Book of the Dead was produced in 1805 and included in the Description de l’Égypte produced by the staff of Napoleon’s expedition to Egypt. In 1822, Jean Francois Champollion began to translate hieroglyphic text; he examined some of the Book of the Dead papyri and identified them as a funerary ritual.
In 1842 Karl Richard Lepsius published a translation of a manuscript dated to the Ptolemaic era and coined the name “Book of The Dead”. He also introduced the spell numbering system which is still in use, identifying 165 different spells. Lepsius promoted the idea of a comparative edition of the Book of the Dead, drawing on all relevant manuscripts. This project was undertaken by Edouard Naville, starting in 1875 and completed in 1886, producing a three-volume work including a selection of vignettes for every one of the 186 spells he worked with, the variations of the text for every spell, and commentary. In 1876, Samuel Birch of the British Museum published a photographic copy of the papyrus of Nebseny.
The work of E. A. Wallis Budge, Birch’s successor at the British Museum, is still in wide circulation – including both his hieroglyphic editions and his English translations, though the latter are now considered inaccurate and out-of-date. More recent translations in English have been published by T. G. Allen (1974) and Raymond O. Faulkner (1972). As more work has been done on the Book of the Dead, more spells have been identified, and the total now stands at 192.
Research work on the Book of the Dead has always posed technical difficulties thanks to the need to copy very long hieroglyphic texts. Initially, these were copied out by hand, with the assistance either of tracing paper or a camera lucida. In the mid-19th century, hieroglyphic fonts became available and made lithographic reproduction of manuscripts more feasible. In the present day, hieroglyphics can be rendered in desktop publishing software and this, combined with digital print technology, means that the costs of publishing a Book of the Dead may be considerably reduced. However, a very large amount of the source material in museums around the world remains unpublished.