Tag Archives: Forbidden technology

ECHELON – America’s Secret Global Surveillance Network

I’m pretty fed up with all this spying. Governments, corporations individuals, every day gadgets are just spying and spying us 24/7. And this is their mother, Skynet aka ECHELON:

Executive Summary

In the greatest surveillance effort ever established, the US National Security Agency (NSA) has created a global spy system, codename ECHELON, which captures and analyzes virtually every phone call, fax, email and telex message sent anywhere in the world.

ECHELON is controlled by the NSA and is operated in conjunction with,

  • the Government Communications Head Quarters (GCHQ) of England
  • the Communications Security Establishment (CSE) of Canada
  • the Australian Defense Security Directorate (DSD)
  • the General Communications Security Bureau (GCSB) of New Zealand

These organizations are bound together under a secret 1948 agreement, UKUSA, whose terms and text remain under wraps even today.

The ECHELON system is fairly simple in design: position intercept stations all over the world to capture all satellite, microwave, cellular and fiber-optic communications traffic, and then process this information through the massive computer capabilities of the NSA, including advanced voice recognition and optical character recognition (OCR) programs, and look for code words or phrases (known as the ECHELONDictionary”) that will prompt the computers to flag the message for recording and transcribing for future analysis.

Intelligence analysts at each of the respective “listening stations” maintain separate keyword lists for them to analyze any conversation or document flagged by the system, which is then forwarded to the respective intelligence agency headquarters that requested the intercept.

But apart from directing their ears towards terrorists and rogue states, ECHELON is also being used for purposes well outside its original mission.

The regular discovery of domestic surveillance targeted at American civilians for reasons of “unpopular” political affiliation or for no probable cause at all in violation of the First, Fourth and Fifth Amendments of the Constitution – are consistently impeded by very elaborate and complex legal arguments and privilege claims by the intelligence agencies and the US government.

The guardians and caretakers of our liberties, our duly elected political representatives, give scarce attention to these activities, let alone the abuses that occur under their watch.

Among the activities that the ECHELON targets are:

Political spying:

Since the close of World War II, the US intelligence agencies have developed a consistent record of trampling the rights and liberties of the American people.

Even after the investigations into the domestic and political surveillance activities of the agencies that followed in the wake of the Watergate fiasco, the NSA continues to target the political activity of “unpopular” political groups and our duly elected representatives. One whistleblower charged in a 1988 Cleveland Plain Dealer interview that, while she was stationed at the Menwith Hill facility in the 1980s, she heard real-time intercepts of South Carolina Senator Strom Thurmond.

A former Maryland Congressman, Michael Barnes, claimed in a 1995 Baltimore Sun article that under the Reagan Administration his phone calls were regularly intercepted, which he discovered only after reporters had been passed transcripts of his conversations by the White House. One of the most shocking revelations came to light after several GCHQ officials became concerned about the targeting of peaceful political groups and told the London Observer in 1992 that the ECHELON dictionaries targeted Amnesty International, Greenpeace, and even Christian ministries

Commercial espionage:

Since the demise of Communism in Eastern Europe, the intelligence agencies have searched for a new justification for their surveillance capability in order to protect their prominence and their bloated budgets.

Their solution was to redefine the notion of national security to include economic, commercial and corporate concerns. An office was created within the Department of Commerce, the Office of Intelligence Liaison, to forward intercepted materials to major US corporations.

In many cases, the beneficiaries of this commercial espionage effort are the very companies that helped the NSA develop the systems that power the ECHELON network.

This incestuous relationship is so strong that sometimes this intelligence information is used to push other American manufacturers out of deals in favor of these mammoth US defense and intelligence contractors, who frequently are the source of major cash contributions to both political parties.

While signals intelligence technology was helpful in containing and eventually defeating the Soviet Empire during the Cold War, what was once designed to target a select list of communist countries and terrorist states is now indiscriminately directed against virtually every citizen in the world.

The European Parliament is now asking whether the ECHELON communications interceptions violate the sovereignty and privacy of citizens in other countries. In some cases, such as the NSA’s Menwith Hill station in England, surveillance is conducted against citizens on their own soil and with the full knowledge and cooperation of their government.

This report suggests that Congress pick up its long-neglected role as watchdog of the Constitutional rights and liberties of the American people, instead of its current role as lap dog to the US intelligence agencies.

Congressional hearings ought to be held, similar to the Church and Rockefeller Committee hearings held in the mid-1970s, to find out to what extent the ECHELON system targets the personal, political, religious, and commercial communications of American citizens. The late Senator Frank Church warned that the technology and capability embodied in the ECHELON system represented a direct threat to the liberties of the American people.

Left unchecked, ECHELON could be used by either the political elite or the intelligence agencies themselves as a tool to subvert the civil protections of Constitution and to destroy representative government in the United States.


Introduction

The culmination of the Cold War conflict brought home hard realities for many military and intelligence agencies who were dependent upon the confrontation for massive budgets and little civilian oversight.

World War II Allied political and military alliances had quickly become intelligence alliances in the shadow of the Iron Curtain that descended upon Eastern Europe after the war.

But for some intelligence agencies the end of the Cold War just meant a shift in mission and focus, not a loss of manpower or financial resources. One such US governmental organization is the National Security Agency (NSA).

Despite the disintegration of Communism in the former Soviet Union and throughout Eastern Europe, the secretive NSA continues to grow at an exponential rate in terms of budget, manpower and spying abilities.

Other countries have noticed the rapid growth of NSA resources and facilities around the world, and have decried the extensive spying upon their citizens by the US.

A preliminary report released by the European Parliament in January 1998 detailed research conducted by independent researchers that uncovered a massive US spy technology network that routinely monitors telephone, fax and email information on citizens all over the world, but particularly in the European Union (EU) and Japan.

Titled “An Appraisal of Technologies of Political Control,” <1> this report, issued by the Scientific and Technological Options Assessment (STOA) committee of the European Parliament, caused a tremendous stir in the establishment press in Europe.

At least one major US media outlet, The New York Times,<2> covered the issuance of the report as well.

The STOA report also exposed a festering sore spot between the US and our EU allies. The widespread surveillance of citizens in EU countries by the NSA has been known and discussed by European journalists since 1981. The name of the system in question is ECHELON, and it is one of the most secretive spy systems in existence.

ECHELON is actually a vast network of electronic spy stations located around the world and maintained by five countries: the US, England, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. These countries, bound together in a still-secret agreement called UKUSA, spy on each other’s citizens by intercepting and gathering electronic signals of almost every telephone call, fax transmission and email message transmitted around the world daily.

These signals are fed through the massive supercomputers of the NSA to look for certain keywords called the ECHELON “dictionaries.”

Most of the details of this mammoth spy system and the UKUSA agreement that supports it remain a mystery. What is known of ECHELON is the result of the efforts of journalists and researchers around the world who have labored for decades to uncover the operations of our government’s most secret systems.

The 1996 publication of New Zealand journalist Nicky Hager’s book, Secret Power: New Zealand’s Role in the International Spy Network,<3> provided the most detailed look at the system and inflamed interest in ECHELON as well as the debate regarding its propriety.

This paper examines the expanse of the ECHELON system along with the intelligence agreements and exchanges that support it. The operation of ECHELON serves the NSA’s goal of spying on the citizens of other countries while also allowing them to circumvent the prohibition on spying on US citizens. ECHELON is not only a gross violation of our Constitution, but it violates the good will of our European allies and threatens the privacy of innocent civilians around the world.

The existence and expansion of ECHELON is a foreboding omen regarding the future of our Constitutional liberties.

If a government agency can willingly violate the most basic components of the Bill of Rights without so much as Congressional oversight and approval, we have reverted from a republican form of government to tyranny.


The Parties

The success of the Allied military effort in World War II was due in no small part to successes in gathering enemy intelligence information and cracking those military and diplomatic messages.

In addition, the Allied forces were able to create codes and encryption devices that effectively concealed sensitive information from prying Axis Power eyes. These coordinated signal intelligence (SIGINT) programs kept Allied information secure and left the enemies vulnerable.

But at the close of the conflict, a new threatening power – the Soviet Union – was beginning to provoke the Cold War by enslaving Eastern Europe. These signal intelligence agencies now had a new enemy toward which to turn their electronic eyes and ears to ensure that the balance of power could be maintained. The volleys of electronic hardware and espionage that would follow for forty years would be the breeding ground of the ECHELON spy system.

The diplomatic foundation that was the genesis of ECHELON is the UKUSA agreement. The agreement has its roots in the BRUSA COMINT (communications intelligence) alliance formed in the early days of World War II and ratified on May 17, 1943 by the United Kingdom and the United States.<4>

The Commonwealth SIGINT Organization formed in 1946-47 brought together the UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand post-war intelligence agencies.<5>

Forged in 1947 between the US and UK, the still-secret UKUSA agreement defined the relations between the SIGINT departments of those various governments. Direct agreements between the US and these agencies also define the intricate relationship that these organizations engage in.

Foremost among those agencies is the US National Security Agency (NSA), which represents the American interest. The NSA is designated as the “First Party to the Treaty.”

The Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) signed the UKUSA agreement on behalf of the UK and its Commonwealth SIGINT partners.

This brought Australia’s Defense Signals Directorate (DSD), the Canadian Communications Security Establishment (CSE) and New Zealand’s Government Communications Security Bureau (GCSB) into the arrangement. While these agencies are bound by additional direct agreements with the US and each other, these four countries are considered the “Second Parties to the (UKUSA) Treaty.”

Third Party members include Germany, Japan, Norway, South Korea and Turkey. There are sources that indicate China may be included in this group on a limited basis as well.<6>


National Security Agency (US)

The prime mover in the UKUSA arrangement is undeniably the National Security Agency (NSA).

The majority of funds for joint projects and facilities (discussed below) as well as the direction for intelligence gathering operations are issued primarily through the NSA.

The participating agencies frequently exchange personnel, divide up intelligence collection tasks and establish common guidelines for classifying and protecting shared information. However, the NSA utilizes its role as the largest spy agency in the world to have its international intelligence partners do its bidding.

President Harry Truman established the NSA in 1952 with a presidential directive that remains classified to this day. The US government did not acknowledge the existence of the NSA until 1957. Its original mission was to conduct the signal intelligence (SIGINT) and communications security (COMSEC) for the US.

President Ronald Reagan added the tasks of information systems security and operations security training in 1984 and 1988 respectively. A 1986 law charged the NSA with supporting combat operations for the Department of Defense.<7>

Headquartered at Fort George Meade, located between Washington D.C. and Baltimore, Maryland, the NSA boasts the most enviable array of intelligence equipment and personnel in the world. The NSA is the largest global employer of mathematicians, featuring the best teams of code-makers and code-breakers ever assembled.

The latter’s job is to crack the encryption codes of foreign and domestic electronic communications, forwarding the revealed messages to their enormous team of skilled linguists to review and analyze the messages in over 100 languages. The NSA is also responsible for creating the encryption codes that protect the US government’s communications.

In its role as gang leader for UKUSA, the NSA is primarily involved with creating new surveillance and codebreaking technology, directing the other cooperating agencies to their targets, and providing them with training and tools to intercept, process and analyze enormous amounts of signals intelligence.

By possessing what is arguably the most technologically advanced communications, computer and codebreaking equipment of any government agency in the world, the NSA serves as a competent and capable taskmaster for UKUSA.


The ECHELON Network

The vast network created by the UKUSA community stretches across the globe and into the reaches of space.

Land-based intercept stations, intelligence ships sailing the seven seas and top-secret satellites whirling twenty thousand miles overhead all combine to empower the NSA and its UKUSA allies with access to the entire global communications network. Very few signals escape its electronic grasp.

Having divided the world up among the UKUSA parties, each agency directs its electronic “vacuum-cleaner” equipment towards the heavens and the ground to search for the most minute communications signals that traverse the system’s immense path.

  • the NSA facilities in the US cover the communications signals of both American continents
  • the GCHQ in Britain is responsible for Europe, Africa and Russia west of the Ural Mountains
  • the DSD in Australia assists in SIGINT collection in Southeastern Asia and the Southwest Pacific and Eastern Indian Ocean areas
  • the GSCB in New Zealand is responsible for Southern Pacific Ocean collections, particularly the South Pacific island nations group
  • the CSE in Canada handles interception of additional northern Russian, northern European and American communications.<8>


The Facilities

The backbone of the ECHELON network is the massive listening and reception stations directed at the Intelsat and Inmarsat satellites that are responsible for the vast majority of phone and fax communications traffic within and between countries and continents.

The twenty Intelsat satellites follow a geo-stationary orbit locked onto a particular point on the Equator.<9>

These satellites carry primarily civilian traffic, but they do additionally carry diplomatic and governmental communications that are of particular interest to the UKUSA parties.

Originally, only two stations were responsible for Intelsat intercepts: Morwenstow in England and Yakima in the state of Washington. However, when the Intelsat 5 series was replaced with the Intelsat 701 and 703 satellites, which had much more precise transmission beams that prohibited reception of Southern Hemisphere signals from the Yakima base in the Northern Hemisphere, additional facilities were constructed in Australia and New Zealand.<10>

Today, the Morwenstow station directs its ears towards the Intelsats traversing the atmosphere above the Atlantic and Indian Oceans and transmitting to Europe, Africa and western parts of Asia. The Yakima station, located on the grounds of the Yakima Firing Station, targets Pacific Ocean communications in the Northern Hemisphere as well as the Far East.

Another NSA facility at Sugar Grove, West Virginia, covers traffic for the whole of North and South America.

A DSD station at Geraldton, Australia, and the Waihopai, New Zealand GCSB facility cover Asia, the South Pacific countries and the Pacific Ocean. An additional station on Ascension Island in the Atlantic Ocean between Brazil and Angola is suspected of covering the Atlantic Intelsat’s Southern Hemisphere communications.<11>

Non-Intelsat satellites are monitored from these same stations, as well as from bases in Menwith Hill, England; Shoal Bay, Australia; Leitrim, Canada; Bad Aibling, Germany, and Misawa, Japan. These satellites typically carry Russian and regional communications.<12>

It is known that the Shoal Bay facility targets a series of Indonesian satellites and that the Leitrim station intercepts communications from Latin American satellites, including the Mexican telephone company’s Morelos satellite.<13>

Several dozen other radio listening posts operated by the UKUSA allies dot the globe as well, located at military bases on foreign soil and remote spy posts. These stations played a critical role in the time prior to the development of satellite communications because much of the world’s communications traffic was transmitted on radio frequency bands.

Particularly in the high-frequency (HF) range, radio communications continue to serve an important purpose despite the widespread use of satellite technology because their signals can be transmitted to military ships and aircraft across the globe. Shorter range very high-frequencies (VHF) and ultra high-frequencies (UHF) are also used for tactical military communications within national borders.

Major radio facilities in the UKUSA network include,

  • Tangimoana, New Zealand
  • Bamaga, Australia
  • the joint NSA/GCHQ facility at the Indian Ocean atoll of Diego Garcia <14>

 

UK facilities

 A separate high frequency direction finding (HFDF) network intercepts communications signals for the unique purpose of locating the position of ships and aircraft. While these stations are not actually involved in the analysis of messages, they play a critical role in monitoring the movements of mobile military targets.

The Canadian CSE figures prominently in the HFDF UKUSA network, codenamed CLASSIC BULLSEYE and hosting a major portion of the Atlantic and Pacific stations that monitored Soviet ship and submarine movements during the Cold War.

Stations from Kingston and Leitrim (Ontario) to Gander (Newfoundland) on the Atlantic side, to Alert (Northwest Territories) located at the northernmost tip of Canada on the Arctic Ocean that listens to the Russian submarine bases at Petropavlovsk and Vladivostok, and finally to Masset (British Columbia) in the Pacific – monitor shipping and flight lanes under the direction of the NSA.<15>

The CSE also maintains a small contingent at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas, which probably monitors Latin American communications targets.

Another major support for the ECHELON system is the US spy satellite network and its corresponding reception bases scattered about the UKUSA empire. These space-based electronic communications “vacuum cleaners” pick up radio, microwave and cell phone traffic on the ground.

They were launched by the NSA in cooperation with its sister spy agencies, the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

  • The Ferret series of satellites in the 1960s
  • The Canyon, Rhyolite and Aquacade satellites in the 1970s
  • The Chalet, Vortex, Magnum, Orion, and Jumpseat series of satellites in the 1980s,

…have given way to the new and improved Mercury, Mentor and Trumpet satellites during the 1990s.
 

Table I. US Spy Satellites in Current Use

Satellite
No.
Orbit
Manufacturer
Purpose
Advanced KH-11
3
200 miles
Lockheed Martin
5-inch resolution spy photographs
LaCrosse Radar Imaging
2
200-400 miles
Lockheed Martin
3 to 10-foot resolution spy photographs
Orion/Vortex
3
22,300 miles
TRW
Telecom surveillance
Trumpet
2
200-22,300 miles
Boeing
Surveillance of cellular phones
Parsae
3
600 miles
TRW
Ocean surveillance
Satellite Data Systems
2
200-22,300 miles
Hughes
Data Relay
Defense Support Program
4+
22,300 miles
TRW/Aerojet
Missile early warning
Defense Meteorological Support Program
2
500 miles
Lockheed Martin
Meteorology, nuclear blast detection

 

Source: MSNBC<16>

 These surveillance satellites act as giant scoops picking up electronic communications, cell phone conversations and various radio transmissions.

The downlink stations that control the operations and targeting of these satellites are under the exclusive control of the United States, despite their location on foreign military bases.

The two primary downlink facilities are at Menwith Hill, England, and Pine Gap, Australia.


Inside Menwith Hill

The Menwith Hill facility is located in North Yorkshire near Harrogate, England.

The important role that Menwith Hill plays in the ECHELON system was recognized by the recent European Parliament STOA report:

Within Europe, all email, telephone and fax communications are routinely intercepted by the United States National Security Agency, transferring all target information from the European mainland via the strategic hub of London then by satellite to Fort Meade in Maryland via the crucial hub at Menwith Hill in the North York Moors of the UK.<17>

The existence and importance of the facility was first brought to light by British journalist and researcher Duncan Campbell in 1980.<18>

Today, it is the largest spy station in the world, with over twenty-five satellite receiving stations and 1,400 American NSA personnel working with 350 UK Ministry of Defense staff on site.

After revelations that the facility was coordinating surveillance for the vast majority of the European continent, the base has become a target for regular protests organized by local peace activists. It has also become the target of intense criticism by European government officials who are concerned about the vast network of civilian surveillance and economic espionage conducted from the station by the US.<19>

The beginnings of Menwith Hill go back to December 1951, when the US Air Force and British War Office signed a lease for land that had been purchased by the British government.

The NSA took over the lease of the base in 1966, and they have continued to build up the facility ever since. Up until the mid-1970s, Menwith Hill was used for intercepting International Leased Carrier (ILC) and Non-Diplomatic Communications (NDC).

Having received one of the first sophisticated IBM computers in the early 1960s, Menwith Hill was also used to sort through the voluminous unenciphered telex communications, which consisted of international messages, telegrams and telephone calls from the government, business and civilian sectors looking for anything of political, military or economic value.<20>

The addition of the first satellite intercept station at Menwith Hill in 1974 raised the base’s prominence in intelligence gathering. Eight large satellite communications dishes were installed during that phase of construction.

Several satellite-gathering systems now dot the facility:<21>

  • STEEPLEBUSH – Completed in 1984, this $160 million system expanded the satellite surveillance capability and mission of the spy station beyond the bounds of the installation that began in 1974.
  • RUNWAY – Running east and west across the facility, this system receives signals from the second-generation geosynchronous Vortex satellites, and gathers miscellaneous communications traffic from Europe, Asia and the former Soviet Union. The information is then forwarded to the Menwith Hill computer systems for processing. RUNWAY may have recently been replaced or complemented by another system, RUTLEY.
  • PUSHER – An HFDF system that covers the HF frequency range between 3 MHz and 30 MHz (radio transmissions from CB radios, walkie-talkies, and other radio devices). Military, embassy, maritime and air flight communications are the main target of PUSHER.
  • MOONPENNY – Uncovered by British journalist Duncan Campbell in the 1980s, this system is targeted at the communication relay satellites belonging to other countries, as well as the Atlantic and Indian Ocean Intelsat satellites.
  • KNOBSTICKS I and II – The purpose of these antennae arrays are unknown, but they probably target military and diplomatic traffic throughout Europe.
  • GT-6 – A new system installed at the end of 1996, GT-6 is believed to be the receiver for the third generation of geosynchronous satellites termed Advanced Orion or Advanced Vortex. A new polar orbit satellite called Advanced Jumpseat may be monitored from here as well.
  • STEEPLEBUSH II – An expansion of the 1984 STEEPLEBUSH system, this computer system processes information collected from the RUNWAY receivers gathering traffic from the Vortex satellites.
  • SILKWORTH – Constructed by Lockheed Corporation, the main computer system for Menwith Hill processes most of the information received by the various reception systems.

One shocking revelation about Menwith Hill came to light in 1997 during the trial of two women peace campaigners appealing their convictions for trespassing at the facility.

In documents and testimony submitted by British Telecomm in the case, R.G. Morris, head of Emergency Planning for British Telecomm, revealed that at least three major domestic fiber-optic telephone trunk lines – each capable of carrying 100,000 calls simultaneously – were wired through Menwith Hill.<22>

This allows the NSA to tap into the very heart of the British Telecomm network.

Judge Jonathan Crabtree rebuked British Telecomm for his revelations and prohibited Mr. Morris from giving any further testimony in the case for “national security” reasons.

According to Duncan Campbell, the secret spying alliance between Menwith Hill and British Telecomm began in 1975 with a coaxial connection to the British Telecomm microwave facility at Hunter’s Stone, four miles away from Menwith Hill – a connection maintained even today.<23>

Additional systems (TROUTMAN, ULTRAPURE, TOTALISER, SILVERWEED, RUCKUS, et. al.) complete the monumental SIGINT collection efforts at Menwith Hill.

Directing its electronic vacuum cleaners towards unsuspecting communications satellites in the skies, receiving signals gathered by satellites that scoop up the most minute signals on the ground, listening in on the radio communications throughout the air, or plugging into the ground-based telecommunications network, Menwith Hill, alongside its sister stations at Pine Gap, Australia, and Bad Aibling, Germany, represents the comprehensive effort of the NSA and its UKUSA allies to make sure that no communications signal escapes its electronic net.


The ECHELON Dictionaries

The extraordinary ability of ECHELON to intercept most of the communications traffic in the world is breathtaking in its scope.

And yet the power of ECHELON resides in its ability to decrypt, filter, examine and codify these messages into selective categories for further analysis by intelligence agents from the various UKUSA agencies.

As the electronic signals are brought into the station, they are fed through the massive computer systems, such as Menwith Hill’s SILKWORTH, where voice recognition, optical character recognition (OCR) and data information engines get to work on the messages.

These programs and computers transcend state-of-the-art; in many cases, they are well into the future. MAGISTRAND is part of the Menwith Hill SILKWORTH super-computer system that drives the powerful keyword search programs.<24>

One tool used to sort through the text of messages, PATHFINDER (manufactured by the UK company, Memex),<** Be sure to read footnote for update 25 **> sifts through large databases of text-based documents and messages looking for keywords and phrases based on complex algorithmic criteria. Voice recognition programs convert conversations into text messages for further analysis.

One highly advanced system, VOICECAST, can target an individual’s voice pattern, so that every call that person makes is transcribed for future analysis.

Processing millions of messages every hour, the ECHELON systems churn away 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, looking for targeted keyword series, phone and fax numbers, and specified voiceprints. It is important to note that very few messages and phone calls are actually transcribed and recorded by the system.

The vast majority are filtered out after they are read or listened to by the system. Only those messages that produce keyword “hits” are tagged for future analysis. Again, it is not just the ability to collect the electronic signals that gives ECHELON its power; it is the tools and technology that are able to whittle down the messages to only those that are important to the intelligence agencies.

Each station maintains a list of keywords (the “Dictionary”) designated by each of the participating intelligence agencies. A Dictionary Manager from each of the respective agencies is responsible for adding, deleting or changing the keyword search criteria for their dictionaries at each of the stations.<26>

Each of these station dictionaries are given codewords, such as COWBOY for the Yakima facility and FLINTLOCK for the Waihopai facility.<27> These codewords play a crucial identification role for the analysts who eventually look at the intercepted messages.

Each message flagged by the ECHELON dictionaries as meeting the specified criteria is sorted by a four-digit code representing the source or subject of the message (such as 5535 for Japanese diplomatic traffic, or 8182 for communications about distribution of encryption technology,) <28> as well as the date, time and station codeword.

Also included in the message headers are the codenames for the intended agency: ALPHA-ALPHA (GCHQ), ECHO-ECHO (DSD), INDIA-INDIA (GCSB), UNIFORM-UNIFORM (CSE), and OSCAR-OSCAR (NSA).

These messages are then transmitted to each agency’s headquarters via a global computer system, PLATFORM,<29> that acts as the information nervous system for the UKUSA stations and agencies.

Every day, analysts located at the various intelligence agencies review the previous day’s product. As it is analyzed, decrypted and translated, it can be compiled into the different types of analysis: reports, which are direct and complete translations of intercepted messages; “gists,” which give basic information on a series of messages within a given category; and summaries, which are compilations from both reports and gists.<30>

These are then given classifications: MORAY (secret), SPOKE (more secret than MORAY), UMBRA (top secret), GAMMA (Russian intercepts) and DRUID (intelligence forwarded to non-UKUSA parties).

This analysis product is the raison d’être of the entire ECHELON system. It is also the lifeblood of the UKUSA alliance.


The Problem

The ECHELON system is the product of the Cold War conflict, an extended battle replete with heightened tensions that teetered on the brink of annihilation and the diminished hostilities of détente and glasnost.

Vicious cycles of mistrust and paranoia between the United States and the Soviet Empire fed the intelligence agencies to the point that, with the fall of communism throughout Eastern Europe, the intelligence establishment began to grasp for a mission that justified its bloated existence.

But the rise of post-modern warfare – terrorism – gave the establishment all the justification it needed to develop even greater ability to spy on our enemies, our allies and our own citizens. ECHELON is the result of those efforts. The satellites that fly thousands of miles overhead and yet can spy out the most minute details on the ground; the secret submarines that troll the ocean floors that are able to tap into undersea communications cables;<31> and all power the efficient UKUSA signals intelligence machine.

There is a concerted effort by the heads of intelligence agencies, federal law enforcement officials and congressional representatives to defend the capabilities of ECHELON. Their persuasive arguments point to the tragedies seen in the bombings in Oklahoma City and the World Trade Center in New York City.

The vulnerability of Americans abroad, as recently seen in the bombing of the American embassies in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and Nairobi, Kenya, emphasizes the necessity of monitoring those forces around the world that would use senseless violence and terror as political weapons against the US and its allies.

Intelligence victories add credibility to the arguments that defend such a pervasive surveillance system.

The discovery of missile sites in Cuba in 1962, the capture of the Achille Lauro terrorists in 1995, the discovery of Libyan involvement in the bombing of a Berlin discotheque that killed one American (resulting in the 1996 bombing of Tripoli) and countless other incidents that have been averted (which are now covered by the silence of indoctrination vows and top-secret classifications) all point to the need for comprehensive signals intelligence gathering for the national security of the United States.

But despite the real threats and dangers to the peace and protection of American citizens at home and abroad, our Constitution is quite explicit in limiting the scope and powers of government.

A fundamental foundation of free societies is that when controversies arise over the assumption of power by the state, power never defaults to the government, nor are powers granted without an extraordinary, explicit and compelling public interest.

As the late Supreme Court Justice William Brennan pointed out:

The concept of military necessity is seductively broad, and has a dangerous plasticity. Because they invariably have the visage of overriding importance, there is always a temptation to invoke security “necessities” to justify an encroachment upon civil liberties.

For that reason, the military-security argument must be approached with a healthy skepticism: Its very gravity counsels that courts be cautious when military necessity is invoked by the Government to justify a trespass on [Constitutional] rights.<32>

Despite the necessity of confronting terrorism and the many benefits that are provided by the massive surveillance efforts embodied by ECHELON, there is a dark and dangerous side of these activities that is concealed by the cloak of secrecy surrounding the intelligence operations of the United States.

The discovery of domestic surveillance targeting American civilians for reasons of “unpopular” political affiliation – or for no probable cause at all – in violation of the First, Fourth and Fifth Amendments of the Constitution is regularly impeded by very elaborate and complex legal arguments and privilege claims by the intelligence agencies and the US government.

The guardians and caretakers of our liberties – our duly elected political representatives – give scarce attention to the activities, let alone the abuses, that occur under their watch. As pointed out below, our elected officials frequently become targets of ECHELON themselves, chilling any effort to check this unbridled power.

In addition, the shift in priorities resulting from the demise of the Soviet Empire and the necessity to justify intelligence capabilities resulted in a redefinition of “national security interests” to include espionage committed on behalf of powerful American companies.

This quiet collusion between political and private interests typically involves the very same companies that are involved in developing the technology that empowers ECHELON and the intelligence agencies.


Domestic and Political Spying

When considering the use of ECHELON on American soil, the pathetic historical record of NSA and CIA domestic activities in regards to the Constitutional liberties and privacy rights of American citizens provides an excellent guidepost for what may occur now with the ECHELON system.

Since the creation of the NSA by President Truman, its spying capability has frequently been used to monitor the activities of an unsuspecting public.


Project SHAMROCK

In 1945 Project SHAMROCK was initiated to obtain copies of all telegraphic information exiting or entering the United States.

With the full cooperation of RCA, ITT and Western Union (representing almost all of the telegraphic traffic in the US at the time), the NSA’s predecessor and later the NSA itself were provided with daily microfilm copies of all incoming, outgoing and transiting telegraphs.

This system changed dramatically when the cable companies began providing magnetic computer tapes to the agency that enabled the agency to run all the messages through its HARVEST computer to look for particular keywords, locations, senders or addressees.

Project SHAMROCK became so successful that the in 1966 NSA and CIA set up a front company in lower Manhattan (where the offices of the telegraph companies were located) under the codename LPMEDLEY.

At the height of Project SHAMROCK, 150,000 messages a month were printed and analyzed by NSA agents.<33>

NSA Director Lew Allen brought Project SHAMROCK to a crashing halt in May 1975 as congressional critics began to rip open the program’s shroud of secrecy.

The testimony of both the representatives from the cable companies and of Director Allen at the hearings prompted Senate Intelligence Committee chairman Sen. Frank Church to conclude that Project SHAMROCK was,

“probably the largest government interception program affecting Americans ever undertaken.”<34>


Project MINARET

A sister project to Project SHAMROCK, Project MINARET involved the creation of “watch lists” by each of the intelligence agencies and the FBI of those accused of “subversive” domestic activities.

The watch lists included such notables as Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, Jane Fonda, Joan Baez and Dr. Benjamin Spock.

After the Supreme Court handed down its 1972 Keith decision,<35> which held that – while the President could act to protect the country from unlawful and subversive activity designed to overthrow the government – that same power did not extend to include warrantless electronic surveillance of domestic organizations, pressure came to bear on Project MINARET.<36>

Attorney General Elliot Petersen shut down Project MINARET as soon as its activities were revealed to the Justice Department, despite the fact that the FBI (an agency under the Justice Department’s authority) was actively involved with the NSA and other intelligence agencies in creating the watch lists.

Operating between 1967 and 1973, over 5,925 foreigners and 1,690 organizations and US citizens were included on the Project MINARET watch lists.

Despite extensive efforts to conceal the NSA’s involvement in Project MINARET, NSA Director Lew Allen testified before the Senate Intelligence Committee in 1975 that the NSA had issued over 3,900 reports on the watch-listed Americans.<37>

Additionally, the NSA Office of Security Services maintained reports on at least 75,000 Americans between 1952 and 1974.

This list included the names of anyone that was mentioned in a NSA message intercept.


Operation CHAOS

While the NSA was busy snooping on US citizens through Projects SHAMROCK and MINARET, the CIA got into the domestic spying act by initiating Operation CHAOS.

President Lyndon Johnson authorized the creation of the CIA’s Domestic Operations Division (DOD), whose purpose was to,

“exercise centralized responsibility for direction, support, and coordination of clandestine operations activities within the United States….”

When Johnson ordered CIA Director John McCone to use the DOD to analyze the growing college student protests of the Administration’s policy towards Vietnam, two new units were set up to target anti-war protestors and organizations:

  • Project RESISTANCE, which worked with college administrators, campus security and local police to identify anti-war activists and political dissidents
  • Project MERRIMAC, which monitored any demonstrations being conducted in the Washington D.C. area

The CIA then began monitoring student activists and infiltrating anti-war organizations by working with local police departments to pull off burglaries, illegal entries (black bag jobs), interrogations and electronic surveillance.<38>

After President Nixon came to office in 1969, all of these domestic surveillance activities were consolidated into Operation CHAOS.

After the revelation of two former CIA agents’ involvement in the Watergate break-in, the publication of an article about CHAOS in the New York Times<39> and the growing concern about distancing itself from illegal domestic spying activities, the CIA shut down Operation CHAOS.

But during the life of the project, the Church Committee and the Commission on CIA Activities Within the United States (the Rockefeller Commission) revealed that the CIA had compiled files on over 13,000 individuals, including 7,000 US citizens and 1,000 domestic organizations.<40>


The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC)

In response to the discovery of such a comprehensive effort by previous administrations and the intelligence agencies, Congress passed legislation (the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978) <41> that created a top-secret court to hear applications for electronic surveillance from the FBI and NSA to provide some check on the domestic activities of the agencies.

In 1995, Congress granted the court additional power to authorize surreptitious entries. In all of these actions, Congressional intent was to provide a check on the domestic surveillance abuses mentioned above.

The seven-member court, comprised of federal District Court judges appointed by the Supreme Court Chief Justice, sits in secret in a sealed room on the top floor of the Department of Justice building. Public information about the court’s hearings is scarce; each year the Attorney General is required by law to transmit to Congress a report detailing the number of applications each year and the number granted.

With over 10,000 applications submitted to the FISC during the past twenty years, the court has only rejected one application (and that rejection was at the request of the Reagan Administration, which had submitted the application).

While the FISC was established to be the watchdog for the Constitutional rights of the American people against domestic surveillance, it quickly became the lap dog of the intelligence agencies.

Surveillance requests that would never receive a hearing in a state or federal court are routinely approved by the FISC. This has allowed the FBI to use the process to conduct surveillance to obtain evidence in circumvention of the US Constitution, and the evidence is then used in subsequent criminal trials.

But the process established by Congress and the courts ensures that information regarding the cause or extent of the surveillance order is withheld from defense attorneys because of the classified nature of the court.<42>

Despite Congress’s initial intent for the FISC, it is doubtful that domestic surveillance by means of ECHELON comes under any scrutiny by the court.


Political Uses of ECHELON and UKUSA

Several incidents of domestic spying involving ECHELON have emerged from the secrecy of the UKUSA relationship.

What these brief glimpses inside the intelligence world reveal is that, despite the best of intentions by elected representatives, presidents and prime ministers, the temptation to use ECHELON as a tool of political advancement and repression proves too strong.

Former Canadian spy Mike Frost recounts how former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher made a request in February 1983 to have two ministers from her own government monitored when she suspected them of disloyalty.

In an effort to avoid the legal difficulties involved with domestic spying on high governmental officials, the GCHQ liaison in Ottawa made a request to CSE for them to conduct the three-week-long surveillance mission at British taxpayer expense. Frost’s CSE boss, Frank Bowman, traveled to London to do the job himself.

After the mission was over, Bowman was instructed to hand over the tapes to a GCHQ official at their headquarters.<43>  Using the UKUSA alliance as legal cover is seductively easy.

As Spyworld co-author Michel Gratton puts it,

The Thatcher episode certainly shows that GCHQ, like NSA, found ways to put itself above the law and did not hesitate to get directly involved in helping a specific politician for her personal political benefit…

[T]he decision to proceed with the London caper was probably not put forward for approval to many people up the bureaucratic ladder. It was something CSE figured they would get away with easily, so checking with the higher-ups would only complicate things unnecessarily.<44>

Frost also told of how he was asked in 1975 to spy on an unlikely target – Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau’s wife, Margaret Trudeau.

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police’s (RCMP) Security Service division was concerned that the Prime Minister’s wife was buying and using marijuana, so they contacted the CSE to do the dirty work. Months of surveillance in cooperation with the Security Service turned up nothing of note.

Frost was concerned that there were political motivations behind the RCMP’s request:

“She was in no way suspected of espionage. Why was the RCMP so adamant about this? Were they trying to get at Pierre Trudeau for some reason or just protect him? Or were they working under orders from their political masters?”<45>

The NSA frequently gets into the political spying act as well.

Nixon presidential aide John Ehrlichman revealed in his published memoirs, Witness to Power: The Nixon Years, that Henry Kissinger used the NSA to intercept the messages of then-Secretary of State William P. Rogers, which Kissinger used to convince President Nixon of Rogers’ incompetence.

Kissinger also found himself on the receiving end of the NSA’s global net. Word of Kissinger’s secret diplomatic dealings with foreign governments would reach the ears of other Nixon administration officials, incensing Kissinger.

As former NSA Deputy Director William Colby pointed out,

“Kissinger would get sore as hell…because he wanted to keep it politically secret until it was ready to launch.”<46>

However, elected representatives have also become targets of spying by the intelligence agencies.

In 1988, a former Lockheed software manager who was responsible for a dozen VAX computers that powered the ECHELON computers at Menwith Hill, Margaret Newsham, came forth with the stunning revelation that she had actually heard the NSA’s real time interception of phone conversations involving South Carolina Senator Strom Thurmond.

Newsham was fired from Lockheed after she filed a whistleblower lawsuit alleging that the company was engaged in flagrant waste and abuse. After a top secret meeting in April 1988 with then-chairman of the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, Rep. Louis Stokes, Capitol Hill staffers familiar with the meeting leaked the story to the Cleveland Plain Dealer.<47>

While Sen. Thurmond was reluctant to pressure for a thorough investigation into the matter, his office revealed at the time that the office had previously received reports that the Senator was a target of the NSA.<48>

After the news reports an investigation into the matter discovered that there were no controls or questioning over who could enter target names into the Menwith Hill system.<49>

The NSA, under orders from the Reagan administration, also targeted Maryland Congressman Michael Barnes. Phone calls he placed to Nicaraguan officials were intercepted and recorded, including a conversation he had with the Foreign Minister of Nicaragua protesting the implementation of martial law in that country.

Barnes found out about the NSA’s spying after White House officials leaked transcripts of his conversations to reporters.

CIA Director William Casey, later implicated in the Iran-Contra affair, showed Barnes a Nicaraguan embassy cable that reported a meeting between embassy staff and one of Barnes’ aides.

The aide had been there on a professional call regarding an international affairs issue, and Casey asked for Barnes to fire the aide. Barnes replied that it was perfectly legal and legitimate for his staff to meet with foreign diplomats.

Says Barnes,

“I was aware that NSA monitored international calls, that it was a standard part of intelligence gathering. But to use it for domestic political purposes is absolutely outrageous and probably illegal.”<50>

Another former chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee has also expressed his concerns about the NSA’s domestic targeting.

“It has always worried me. What if that is used on American citizens?” queried former Arizona Senator Dennis DeConcini. “It is chilling. Are they listening to my private conversations on my telephone?”<51>

Seemingly non-controversial organizations have ended up in the fixed gaze of ECHELON, as several former GCHQ officials confidentially told the London Observer in June 1992.

Among the targeted organizations they named were Amnesty International, Greenpeace and Christian Aid, an American missions organization that works with indigenous pastors engaged in ministry work in countries closed to Western, Christian workers.<52>

In another story published by the London Observer, a former employee of the British Joint Intelligence Committee, Robin Robison, admitted that Margaret Thatcher had personally ordered the communications interception of the parent company of the Observer, Lonrho, after the Observer had published a 1989 expose charging bribes had been paid to Thatcher’s son, Mark, in a multi-billion dollar British arms deal with Saudi Arabia.

Despite facing severe penalties for violating his indoctrination vows, Robison admitted that he had personally delivered intercepted Lonrho messages to Mrs. Thatcher’s office.<53>

It should hardly be surprising that ECHELON ends up being used by elected and bureaucratic officials to their political advantage or by the intelligence agencies themselves for the purpose of sustaining their privileged surveillance powers and bloated budgets. The availability of such invasive technology practically begs for abuse, although it does not justify its use to those ends.

But what is most frightening is the targeting of such “subversives” as those who expose corrupt government activity, protect human rights from government encroachments, challenge corporate polluters, or promote the gospel of Christ.

That the vast intelligence powers of the United States should be arrayed against legitimate and peaceful organizations is demonstrative not of the desire to monitor, but of the desire to control.


Commercial spying

With the rapid erosion of the Soviet Empire in the early 1990s, Western intelligence agencies were anxious to redefine their mission to justify the scope of their global surveillance system.

Some of the agencies’ closest corporate friends quickly gave them an option – commercial espionage.

By redefining the term “national security” to include spying on foreign competitors of prominent US corporations, the signals intelligence game has gotten ugly. And it very well may have prompted the recent scrutiny by the European Union that ECHELON has endured.

While UKUSA agencies have pursued economic and commercial information on behalf of their countries with renewed vigor after the passing of communism in Eastern Europe, the NSA practice of spying on behalf of US companies has a long history.

Gerald Burke, who served as Executive Director of President Nixon’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, notes commercial espionage was endorsed by the US government as early as 1970:

“By and large, we recommended that henceforth economic intelligence be considered a function of the national security, enjoying a priority equivalent to diplomatic, military, and technological intelligence.”<54>

To accommodate the need for information regarding international commercial deals, the intelligence agencies set up a small, unpublicized department within the Department of Commerce, the Office of Intelligence Liaison.

This office receives intelligence reports from the US intelligence agencies about pending international deals that it discreetly forwards to companies that request it or may have an interest in the information. Immediately after coming to office in January 1993, President Clinton added to the corporate espionage machine by creating the National Economic Council, which feeds intelligence to “select” companies to enhance US competitiveness.

The capabilities of ECHELON to spy on foreign companies is nothing new, but the Clinton administration has raised its use to an art:

In 1990 the German magazine Der Speigel revealed that the NSA had intercepted messages about an impending $200 million deal between Indonesia and the Japanese satellite manufacturer NEC Corp. After President Bush intervened in the negotiations on behalf of American manufacturers, the contract was split between NEC and AT&T.


In 1994, the CIA and NSA intercepted phone calls between Brazilian officials and the French firm Thomson-CSF about a radar system that the Brazilians wanted to purchase. A US firm, Raytheon, was a competitor as well, and reports prepared from intercepts were forwarded to Raytheon.<55>

In September 1993, President Clinton asked the CIA to spy on Japanese auto manufacturers that were designing zero-emission cars and to forward that information to the Big Three US car manufacturers: Ford, General Motors and Chrysler.<56>

In 1995, the New York Times reported that the NSA and the CIA’s Tokyo station were involved in providing detailed information to US Trade Representative Mickey Kantor’s team of negotiators in Geneva facing Japanese car companies in a trade dispute.<57>

Recently, a Japanese newspaper, Mainichi, accused the NSA of continuing to monitor the communications of Japanese companies on behalf of American companies.<58>

Insight Magazine reported in a series of articles in 1997 that President Clinton ordered the NSA and FBI to mount a massive surveillance operation at the 1993 Asian/Pacific Economic Conference (APEC) hosted in Seattle.

One intelligence source for the story related that over 300 hotel rooms had been bugged for the event, which was designed to obtain information regarding oil and hydro-electric deals pending in Vietnam that were passed on to high level Democratic Party contributors competing for the contracts.<59>

But foreign companies were not the only losers: when Vietnam expressed interest in purchasing two used 737 freighter aircraft from an American businessman, the deal was scuttled after Commerce Secretary Ron Brown arranged favorable financing for two new 737s from Boeing.<60>

But the US is not the only partner of the UKUSA relationship that engages in such activity. British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher ordered the GCHQ to monitor the activities of international media mogul Robert Maxwell on behalf of the Bank of England.<61>

Former CSE linguist and analyst Jane Shorten claimed that she had seen intercepts from Mexican trade representatives during the 1992-1993 NAFTA trade negotiations, as well as 1991 South Korean Foreign Ministry intercepts dealing with the construction of three Canadian CANDU nuclear reactors for the Koreans in a $6 billion deal.<62>

Shorten’s revelation prompted Canadian Deputy Prime Minister Sheila Copps to launch a probe into the allegations after the Mexicans lodged a protest.

But every spy agency eventually gets beat at their own game. Mike Frost relates in Spyworld how an accidental cell phone intercept in 1981 of the American Ambassador to Canada discussing a pending grain deal that the US was about to sign with China provided Canada with the American negotiating strategy for the deal.

The information was used to outbid the US, resulting in a three year, $2.5 billion contract for the Canadian Wheat Board. CSE out-spooked the NSA again a year later when Canada snagged a $50 million wheat sale to Mexico.<63>

Another disturbing trend regarding the present commercial use of ECHELON is the incestuous relationship that exists between the intelligence agencies and the US corporations that develop the technology that fuels their spy systems.

Many of the companies that receive the most important commercial intercepts – Lockheed, Boeing, Loral, TRW and Raytheon – are actively involved in the manufacturing and operation of many of the spy systems that comprise ECHELON.

The collusion between intelligence agencies and their contractors is frightening in the chilling effect it has on creating any foreign or even domestic competition.

But just as important is that it is a gross misuse of taxpayer-financed resources and an abuse of the intelligence agencies’ capabilities.


The Warning

While the UKUSA relationship is a product of Cold War political and military tensions, ECHELON is purely a product of the 20th Century – the century of statism.

The modern drive toward the assumption of state power has turned legitimate national security agencies and apparati into pawns in a manipulative game where the stakes are no less than the survival of the Constitution. The systems developed prior to ECHELON were designed to confront the expansionist goals of the Soviet Empire – something the West was forced out of necessity to do.

But as Glyn Ford, European Parliament representative for Manchester, England, and the driving force behind the European investigation of ECHELON, has pointed out:

“The difficulty is that the technology has now become so elaborate that what was originally a small client list has become the whole world.”<64>

What began as a noble alliance to contain and defeat the forces of communism has turned into a carte blanche to disregard the rights and liberties of the American people and the population of the free world.

As has been demonstrated time and again, the NSA has been persistent in subverting not just the intent of the law in regards to the prohibition of domestic spying, but the letter as well. The laws that were created to constrain the intelligence agencies from infringing on our liberties are frequently flaunted, re-interpreted and revised according to the bidding and wishes of political spymasters in Washington D.C. Old habits die hard, it seems.

As stated above, there is a need for such sophisticated surveillance technology. Unfortunately, the world is filled with criminals, drug lords, terrorists and dictators that threaten the peace and security of many nations. The thought that ECHELON can be used to eliminate or control these international thugs is heartening.

But defenders of ECHELON argue that the rare intelligence victories over these forces of darkness and death give wholesale justification to indiscriminate surveillance of the entire world and every member of it. But more complicated issues than that remain.

The shameless and illegal targeting of political opponents, business competitors, dissidents and even Christian ministries stands as a testament that if America is to remain free, we must bind these intelligence systems and those that operate them with the heavy chains of transparency and accountability to our elected officials.

But the fact that the ECHELON apparatus can be quickly turned around on those same officials in order to maintain some advantage for the intelligence agencies indicates that these agencies are not presently under the control of our elected representatives.

That Congress is not aware of or able to curtail these abuses of power is a frightening harbinger of what may come here in the United States.

The European Parliament has begun the debate over what ECHELON is, how it is being used and how free countries should use such a system. Congress should join that same debate with the understanding that consequences of ignoring or failing to address these issues could foster the demise of our republican form of government.

Such is the threat, as Senator Frank Church warned the American people over twenty years ago.

At the same time, that capability at any time could be turned around on the American people and no American would have any privacy left, such [is] the capability to monitor everything: telephone conversations, telegrams, it doesn’t matter.

There would be no place to hide. If this government ever became a tyranny, if a dictator ever took charge in this country, the technological capacity that the intelligence community has given the government could enable it to impose total tyranny, and there would be no way to fight back, because the most careful effort to combine together in resistance to the government, no matter how privately it was done, is within the reach of the government to know.

Such is the capability of this technology…

I don’t want to see this country ever go across the bridge. I know the capacity that is there to make tyranny total in America, and we must see to it that this agency and all agencies that possess this technology operate within the law and under proper supervision, so that we never cross over that abyss.

That is the abyss from which there is no return.<65>

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The Hutchison Effect

Always fascinating John Hutchison is an Canadian scientist who do some remarkable things in his lab.

Long before John Hutchison began his pioneering experiments into electromagnetism and alternative energy, travelers in the Bermuda Triangle had reported odd occurrences involving electromagnetism:

their ships or planes would be seized by a strange vapor, then all equipment would go haywire; unexplained fogs would sit over the ocean, yet in all cases the weather was not right for creating fogs, and there was certainly no reason for electromagnetic aberrations such as they reported.

These were, in due course, put down in the category of “sea lore,” sensationalism, or attributed to occultists trying to push their supernatural views of nature. It didn’t seem to matter that most of those reporting them were veteran pilots, shipmasters, and even Coast Guard officers.

Working on alternative energy sources in his lab.

These unusual phenomena quickly formed the backbone of the “mythos” of the Bermuda Triangle, the enigma of unexplained “forces,” hints of the laws of nature running wild, of possible time warps, interdimensional transition, wormholes, and invisibility. To speak about them is to speak about the “supernatural,” the impossible, and the occult… until now.

Though they remain unexplained, there is no longer the lack of a cross reference for them – and this has to do with electromagnetism.

And that’s where Vancouver scientist John Hutchison comes into play.

His experiments into electromagnetism has unintentionally produced every phenomena reported in the Triangle. The term “Hutchison Effect” has become a moniker applied to all the peculiar and startling effects his plethora of machinery can produce.

John might be likened to many of the fictional characters of movies who stumbled onto fantastic inventions – Flubber, The Shaggy Dog, and the many other Disney movies of Kurt Russell being transformed by his madcap experiments at Medfield College.

The great exception is that John is not fictional, nor are his experiments. They have penetrated the very building blocks of matter and looked squarely into the labyrinth of time and space. . . .and they are all created by electromagnetism and its effects on various wavelengths!

It all began back in 1979.

While studying the longitudinal wavelengths of Tesla (Nikola Tesla, a radio pioneer), Hutchison, limited by space in his small apartment, crammed into one room various devices that emit electromagnetic fields and wavelengths, like Tesla coils, RF generators, van De Graaf generators, etc.

He turned them on and went about his work. In some unexpected way, the wavelengths these machines created interplayed to create astonishing effects. John first noticed this when an object touched his shoulder… one he wasn’t expecting because it was levitating!

Repeated tests have produced a number of astounding effects.

These include the continued levitation of objects: wood, styrofoam, plastic, copper, zinc –  they hovered and moved about, swirl around and ascend, or shoot off at fantastic speeds.

With further experimentation:

  • fires started around the building out of non flammable materials, like cement and rock
  • a mirror smashed (80 feet away!), metal warped and bent and even broke, (separating by sliding in a sideways fashion), in some instances crumbling like “cookies”
  • some metal became white hot but did not burn surrounding flammable material
  • lights appeared in the air, along with numerous other corona manifestations
  • water spontaneously swirled in containers,

…to name only a few.

 

  An aluminum bar, ABOVE, and LEFT, shredded and split by the Hutchison Effect. The metal turned wobbly like jelly before coming apart. This is called “cold melting” because no heat is involved. RIGHT: metal cylinder crumbled apart. Photos Courtesy of John Hutchison  

 

More than one observer of Hutchison’s experiments and demonstrations (he has given over 750), have not only been amazed at the results but uniformly express astonishment at the weak electrical power which seems to be sufficient to empower very stupefying results.

Since basic outlets in the house supply sufficient power to operate his many machines, the power which unleashes all these incredible effects is believed to lie elsewhere, such as where these various fields interplay, since on their own the wavelengths or fields these machines create have never been noted to do this.

It is at this point – call is a warp or vortex, whatever you like –  where things begin to happen.

But how they interact is still largely a mystery. Even where they interact can be perplexing. Sometimes one must wait for days for something to happen, and 99 per cent of the time nothing happens at all. To draw an analogy, it is like trying to boil water without being able to determine the strength of the heat –  in such a scenario it is not surprising it may take different amounts of time to produce the boiling effect.

Photos of his equipment and lab

Over the last 22 years, Hutchison’s work has been subject to broad though varying interest and approval.

His laboratory was ransacked by Canadian officials who seized his equipment under the pretense of confiscating his antique gun collection which was, however, subsequently returned with no explanations or charges.

  • Three nations have aired his work
  • He was courted by scientists in Japan, accused of treason in Canada when he went to Germany for funds to continue
  • Los Alamos Lab has done research on his Effect
  • The Canadian government seized his lab equipment once again while crated and in transit to Germany in 1990 (and never returned it despite a court order), when he was seeking financial aid to continue his studies.
  • The military of Canada and the US has expressed a covert interest
  • He has been arrested by the Canadian government and placed in cuffs on his doorstep while his lab was ransacked and investigated (under the excuse of checking on his antique gun collection again)
  • This last incident was on March 17, 2000, and may have been initiated by a neighbor who experienced an unexpected levitation in their house and then complained to the police.

Because of all this, which has been ongoing for over 22 years, his lab has undergone numerous changes, from completely disappearing into government hands, to vital pieces having been sold off to pay for subsequent financial problems.

Nevertheless, John Hutchison has continued with his work.

He has “tinkered” and adjusted his equipment and continues to get varying and remarkable results, many of which have been documented and photographed by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace and the Max Planck Institute in Germany.

 

“Tinkering” in his lab. Hutchison has developed extensive forms of free energy, including fuel cells and the Hutchison Converter, which apparently can run forever. It was first displayed in Japan in 1996 and is still running. A scientist sees fact, but a philosopher sees potential. John is both.

The Hutchison Effect’s connection with the Triangle comes in many forms. Many of the effects he has created mimic those reported out there: strangely swirling clouds and lights, green glows and phosphorescence, and electromagnetic anomalies.

 

But one discovery in John’s experiments clearly underlines the connection of the Bermuda Triangle with electromagnetism. During one experiment, John produced something undeniably “Triangle-esque.”

I have personally experienced the grayish-type mist when I was doing my high voltage research; and this mist would appear and disappear. To look at it, it looks like metallic. I couldn’t see through it.

 

So it exists… it exists.

 

In other tests, objects have appeared that “had a cling of gray fog” moving about the room, all of which were clearly filmed on 8 mm film.

One is reminded of Bruce Gernon’s feeling that the “electronic fog” traveled with his plane, or Don Henry’s encounter where the fog formed around the metal barge and caused it to vanish while at the same time effecting all of his electronic equipment.

 

 

While our first instinct is to believe that these forces can only be engineered in a laboratory, a disturbing thought comes from an observation made by electromagnetic researcher, Albert Budden.

“The original way that Hutchison set out his range of apparatus was, by industrial standards, primitive and crowded, with poor connections and hand-wound coils.

 

But it was with this layout with its erratic standards that he obtained most of the best examples of objects levitating, despite the fact that the maximum power drawn was 1.5 kilowatts, and this from the ordinary power sockets of the house mains.”

These crude ways seemed better adept at tapping into the vast power all around us.

The watts produced in a lab, however, would be infinitesimal compared to the potential in the atmosphere. The estimated power in the atmosphere is best demonstrated during a thunderstorm in which lightning streaks across the sky with infinitely more watts of electricity –  enough to scramble radios and other equipment dozens of miles away, enough to destroy trees and houses and melt sand into glass.

But can electromagnetism cause a plane or ship to disappear? John has kept abreast of the unexplained in the world and is well aware of the effects reported in the Bermuda Triangle.

In commenting on the applied ramifications, he has observed:

It is highly probable that nature can form these fields on her own and create the right situation for the ship or aircraft to either totally disintegrate or disappear into another dimension or domain.

What should we make of such radio reports like Jenson’s, in which he says he is lost in clouds at 150 feet elevation?

Remember, he vanished thereafter, but 11 hours later, long after fuel starvation, he reemerges in time briefly, to make one last call 600 miles from where he was lost, only to vanish again without trace.

  • What about the other maydays picked up hours after fuel starvation?
  • What about the radio and compass quirks so often reported?
  • Is nature telling us something?
  • Or is it guiding us to the potential in natural energy?
  • Is the Hutchison Effect merely a small example of the greater machines in nature?

However esoteric some of this may sound, we may well inject here Time’s association with gravity and magnetism.

Atomic clocks record time passing slightly faster in orbit than at sea level, the difference being that gravity is weaker higher up. An electrical current will produce a magnetic field at right angles to it, but since there are three planes of space, where is the gravitational plane? No one, including Einstein, could ever find it. What forces are really out there? Electromagnetism may also be a gateway to something far more startling.

Mark Solis writes:

“It is surmised by some researchers that what Hutchison has done is tap into the Zero Point Energy. This energy gets its name from the fact that it is evidenced by oscillations at zero degrees Kelvin, where supposedly all activity in an atom ceases. The energy is associated with the spontaneous emission and annihilation of electrons and positrons coming from what is called the ‘quantum vacuum.’

 

The density contained in the quantum vacuum is estimated by some at 1013 joules per cubic centimeter, which is reportedly sufficient to boil off the Earth’s oceans in a matter of moments.”

… A disappearance, a disintegration seems mild by comparison.

A long time ago, biologist Ivan Sanderson noted that the greatest number of disappearances in the world occurred in specific locales, “vortices,” he called them, which,

“lie on the right or east sides of the continents, and all precisely in curious areas where hot surface currents stream out of the tropical latitudes toward the colder waters of the temperate. . .”

An example of Sanderson’s 12 vortices set at regular intervals around the earth, brought to his attention by the higher incidence of unexplained disappearances therein. The North ands south Pole account for the 11th and 12th vortices.

 

He explains this is of “enormous significance” because,

“these are the areas of extreme temperature variabilities which alone would predicate a very high incidence of violent marine and aerial disturbances. What more likely areas,” he continues, “for storms and wrecks and founderings, and even magnetic anomalies?”

He went on to ask,

“Whether these vast [natural] ‘machines’ generate still another kind of anomaly that might cause something to ‘go wrong’ . . .in our space-time continuum. In other words, could they create. . . ‘vortices’ into and out of which material objects can drop into or out of other space-time continua?”

Hutchison’s studies may not prove this, of course, but continuing results prove the unlimited potential of electromagnetism on matter.

Fusion dissimilar of materials.

One of the most remarkable effects is the fusion of dissimilar materials. In describing this, Mark Solis makes note that “dissimilar substances can simply ‘come together’ yet the individual substances do not disassociate.

A block of wood can ‘simply sink’ into a metal bar, yet neither the block of wood nor metal bar come apart.” Moreover, he adds “there is no evidence of displacement, such as would occur if, for example, one were to sink a stone in a bowl of water.”

But perhaps one of the most remarkable aspects of his Effect is,

spontaneous invisibility of materials in the ‘active zone’ of a Pharos-type Hutchison apparatus…

A phenomenon which Richard Hull uncovered in historical investigations took place in the Farnsworth Fusion Machine in the 1930s, where solid metal portions of the apparatus became transport during a number of tests. (Philo T. Farnsworth was the inventor of the electronic TV).

Hutchison has added that invisibly surrounds metallic objects.

Properly adjusting his equipment, he adds, the “cronons” and “gravitons” generated by his technology could cause entire buildings to disappear. The propulsive part of the Effect could get us into space faster and cheaper than any conventional fuel.

 

Since the effects and the materials vary exceedingly, it seems logical to assume there is some form of disruption of the basic atomic structure, considering that fusion of non identical materials, fires, levitating objects, invisibility, etc., have nothing else in common but these building blocks of matter.

 

Electromagnetism is a doorway into a world of which we are all made. As such, its potential seems unlimited.


Since the Earth is itself an object generating electromagnetic fields, are there areas where some of these fields will intermittently interplay and cause aberrations?

 

To be more explicit, is the Bermuda Triangle properly situated on the Earth, in the areas of correct temperatures and weather volatility, in areas of electromagnetic stresses, to create effects as Hutchison has done in his lab?

We can no longer say “impossible” to anything once the doors to the very building blocks of the universe are unlocked. The dreams and even wistful fancies of past philosophers and scientists are daily becoming reality in our modern world.

It is time we as a species woke up to them. For too long we called them “supernatural” when they were not “above nature,” they were merely above our understanding of it. It is also time that science looks beyond a mere fact.

We must start looking at potential whether it has immediate profitability or not.

The greatest contribution in the Hutchison Effect is that it shows us the great potential in nature all around us.

Source

Biochip implants

Couple of articles about biochip implants:

16-1

Image Source

Big Brother Gets Under Your Skin

By Julie Foster

© 2000 WorldNetDaily.com

Source: WorldNet Daily

http://www.wnd.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=17834

Big Brother Gets Under Your Skin: Ultimate ID Badge, Transceiver Implanted In Human

New implant technology currently used to locate lost pets has been adapted for use in humans, allowing implant wearers to emit a homing beacon, have vital bodily functions monitored and confirm identity when making e-commerce transactions.

Applied Digital Solutions, an e-business to business solutions provider, acquired the patent rights to the miniature digital transceiver it has named “Digital Angel®.” The company plans to market the device for a number of uses, including as a “tamper-proof means of identification for enhanced e-business security.”

Digital Angel® sends and receives data and can be continuously tracked by global positioning satellite technology. When implanted within a body, the device is powered electromechanically through the movement of muscles and can be activated either by the “wearer” or by a monitoring facility.

“We believe its potential for improving individual and e-business security and enhancing the quality of life for millions of people is virtually limitless,” said ADS Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Richard Sullivan. “Although we’re in the early developmental phase, we expect to come forward with applications in many different areas, from medical monitoring to law enforcement. However, in keeping with our core strengths in the e-business to business arena, we plan to focus our initial development efforts on the growing field of e-commerce security and user ID verification.”

Dr. Peter Zhou, chief scientist for development of the implant and president of DigitalAngel.net, Inc, a subsidiary of ADS, told WorldNetDaily the device will send a signal from the person wearing Digital Angel® to either his computer or the e-merchant with whom he is doing business in order to verify his identity.

In the future, said Zhou, computers may be programmed not to operate without such user identification. As previously reported in WND, user verification devices requiring a live fingerprint scan are already being sold by computer manufacturers. Digital Angel® takes such biometric technology a giant step further by physically joining human and machine.

But e-commerce is only one field to which Digital Angel® applies. The device’s patent describes it as a rescue beacon for kidnapped children and missing persons. According to Zhou, the implant will save money by reducing resources used in rescue operations for athletes, including mountain climbers and skiers.

Law enforcement may employ the implant to keep track of criminals under house arrest, as well as reduce emergency response time by immediately locating individuals in distress.

The device also has the ability to monitor the user’s heart rate, blood pressure and other vital functions.

“Your doctor will know the problem before you do,” said Zhou, noting peace of mind is possible for at-risk patients who can rest in the knowledge that help will be on the way should anything go wrong.

Indeed, peace of mind is Digital Angel®’s main selling point.

“Ideally,” the patent states, “the device will bring peace of mind and an increased quality of life for those who use it, and for their families, loved ones, and associates who depend on them critically.”

Referring to the threat of kidnapping, the patent goes on to say, “Adults who are at risk due to their economic or political status, as well as their children who may be at risk of being kidnapped, will reap new freedoms in their everyday lives by employing the device.”

Digital Angel®’s developer told WND demand for the implant has been tremendous since ADS announced its acquisition of the patent in December.

“We have received requests daily from around the world for the product,” Zhou said, mentioning South America, Mexico and Spain as examples.

One inquirer was the U.S. Department of Defense, through a contractor, according to Zhou. American soldiers may be required to wear the implant so their whereabouts and health conditions can be accessed at all times, said the scientist.

Illustration of application of Digital Angel(R) from DigitalAngel.net website.

As of yet, there is no central DigitalAngel.net facility that would do the job of monitoring users — the task will most likely fall to the entities marketing the device, said Zhou. For example, if a medical group decides to market Digital Angel® to its patients, that group would set up its own monitoring station to check on its device-users.

Likewise, militaries employing the implant will want to maintain their own monitoring stations for security purposes.

But for critics, military use of the implant is not at the top of their list of objections to the new technology. ADS has received complaints from Christians and others who believe the implant could be the fulfillment of Biblical prophecy.

The Book of Revelation states all people will be required to “receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads: And that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark.” (Rev. 13: 16-17)

In an increasingly cashless society where identity verification is essential for financial transactions, some Christians view Digital Angel®’s ID and e-commerce applications as a form of the biblical “mark of the beast.”

But Zhou dismisses such objections to the implant.

“I am a Christian, but I don’t think [that argument] makes sense,” he told WND. “The purpose of the device is to save your life and improve the quality of life. There’s no connection to the Bible. There are different interpretations of the Bible. My interpretation is, anything to improve the quality of life is from God. The Bible says, ‘I am the God of living people.’ We not only live, we live well.”

Sullivan, responding to religious objections to his product, told WorldNetDaily no one will be forced to wear Digital Angel®.

“We live in a voluntary society,” he said. According to the CEO, individuals may choose not to take advantage of the technology.

Zhou alluded to some Christians’ objection to medicine per se, adding such opposition wanes when the life-saving, life-improving benefits of technology are realized.

“A few years ago there may have been resistance, but not anymore,” he continued. “People are getting used to having implants. New century, new trend.”

Zhou compared Digital Angel® to pacemakers, which regulate a user’s heart rate. Pacemakers used to be seen as bizarre, said Zhou, but now they are part of everyday life. Digital Angel® will be received the same way, he added.

Vaccines are another good comparison, said the scientist, who noted,

“Both save your life. When vaccines came out, people were against them. But now we don’t even think about it.”

Digital Angel®, Zhou believes, could become as prevalent as a vaccine.

“Fifty years from now this will be very, very popular. Fifty years ago the thought of a cell phone, where you could walk around talking on the phone, was unimaginable. Now they are everywhere,” Zhou explained.

Just like the cell phone, Digital Angel® “will be a connection from yourself to the electronic world. It will be your guardian, protector. It will bring good things to you.”

“We will be a hybrid of electronic intelligence and our own soul,” Zhou concluded.

In the process of merging with Destron Fearing Corp., a manufacturer and marketer of electronic and visual identification devices for animals, DigitalAngel.net is scheduled to complete a prototype of the dime-sized implant by year’s end. Company executives hope to make the device affordable for individuals, though no cost projections have been made.

ADS, DigitalAngel.net’s parent company, received a special “Technology Pioneers” award from the World Economic Forum for its contributions to “worldwide economic development and social progress through technology advancements.”

The World Economic Forum, incorporated in 1971 with headquarters in Geneva, is an independent, not-for-profit organization “committed to improving the state of the world.” WEF is currently preparing for its “China Business Summit” in Beijing next month for the purpose of forging new economic alliances with the communist nation.

Source

 

A Chip for Your Thoughts

by John Hanchette

Gannett News Service © copyright 2000

Second of three parts

Source: Asbury Park Press

http://www.app.com/news/app/story/0,2110,273813,00.html

May 15, 2000

Privacy advocates fear that as rapid advances are made in technology, the personal lives of Americans may be shadowed by a cloud no bigger than a computer chip.

MicroStrategy founder Michael Saylor proposes uploading information direct to people’s brains via computer chip. One proposal, drawn from a recent science fiction film, is close to reality.

Michael Saylor the 35-year-old founder of MicroStrategy, who perhaps is most famous for watching his personal net stock worth drop $6 billion in a single morning without whimpering is involved with the concept.

Saylor wants to beam information directly into your mind; he calls it “telepathic intelligence.”

Saylor would do it by having a tiny transmitter surgically implanted in your skull or by sewing a computer chip into your wrist and having it transmit to an embedded radiolike device near your ear bones.

His computers already process a mammoth amount of data; pertinent portions would be tailored to your life and interests, then transmitted to brain or ear instantaneously 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

Your stock is tanking sell. You’re on the wrong street turn here. Your spouse wrecked the other car call the insurance company. Your house is being burglarized call the cops. The doctor called in your prescription visit the pharmacy.

“I don’t know who in their right mind would let somebody implant this in their head,” says Fordham University Law School professor Joel Reidenberg, an expert on information privacy. “To the extent that we begin to create a system of automatons responding to chip implants in people’s brains, we will be destroying the foundations of a democratic society.

“Without question, there would be a great opportunity for mischief here.”

MicroStrategy spokesmen confirm that Saylor “sees potential in the future of such a chip” and that the firm’s Strategy.com subsidiary a network of “customer intelligence channels” that sends 300,000 people some 2 million personalized messages a week is working long term on the idea.

But MicroStrategy spokesman Michael Quint said this would be what computer business calls “opt-in”: “”It’s all permission marketing. If you’re talking about the privacy thing, we’d need to get the permission of the customer or the consumer.”

Reidenberg is not impressed: “The notion that it’s “permission marketing only’ is a hoax. There’s no way a citizen in our society can make an intelligent, informed decision about the risks of these implants, which

would be sold through very sophisticated marketing by organizations with large economic interests whose goals are not to promote the public interest. That’s a very scary vision for a democratic society.

“Forget the health and safety issues. Assume they figure out how not to kill people when they put it in. The information-control aspects are beyond what George Orwell could have dreamed about.”

Not everyone is upset by this techno-vision.

When online prankster Bill Cross a few months ago put up a hoax Web site that offered $250 for letting surgeons insert an electronic chip under the right palm for cashless purchases, he was stunned at the response. People signed up for the nonexistent implant “in droves,” he says.

And the techno-vision is reality.

Three months ago Applied Digital Solutions a publicly traded firm based in Palm Beach announced it had developed a high-tech transceiver chip, thinner than a dime, that could be implanted in flesh and used as a tracking device by transmitting the person’s whereabouts to a global positioning satellite.

Trademarked as the “Digital Angel,” the chip could be inserted in children at the behest of parents who fear kidnappers or in elderly parents at the behest of children who fear those afflicted with Alzheimer’s will wander off. The chip can hold medical and financial information.

Applied Digital says the implant would be voluntary, making the privacy issue moot.

But David Sobel, general counsel for the Electronic Privacy Information Center in Washington, D.C., worries the device could evolve into a workplace requirement one that “would dwarf polygraphs and drug testing.”

And more than 500,000 pets now carry between their shoulder blades an implanted, scannable computer chip carrying owner and vaccination data.

“The technology is there to implant chips allowing programming of devices, like in your pacemaker,” says Washington privacy consultant Robert Gellman, who calls Saylor’s idea “Big Brother on steroids.”

Says Gellman: “I keep thinking one day soon they’ll be able to beam commercials into your pacemaker that warn, “Buy our product, or we’re going to skip a couple of heartbeats.’ Think of all the people who believe the CIA is beaming rays into their heads already.”

Saylor bothers privacy advocates in another way.

He wants the government to make the huge Medicare database available online so it easily could be compiled and searched by his firm to discover dangerous medications and unsafe physicians, about whom you would be warned.

“Give me your medical records, and I will give you more life,” Saylor says.

“Privacy advocates should take him seriously,” said Evan Hendricks, publisher of the watchdog Privacy Times. “He’s putting out his own version of “Mein Kampf.’ Saylor is very genuine, I think. The more data they have, the more strategic decisions they can make.”

Source

The technology of the Gods

It may be, that everything we consider as high tech has been developed thousands of years ago, but it has been vanished and now we are discovering it again:

The Gods and Their Flying Machines

The major attribute of the gods is that they could fly. Here are a few clues:

– When flying Quetzalcoatl appeared to the ancient Mexicans as a feathered serpent: “…first it flies, quite high up, well up it goes, and it just descends…”. And when it flies or descends a great wind blows. Wherever it goes, it flies” (Baldwin, 1998).

Don’t you wonder what kind of aircraft might appear to the natives as a “plumed serpent” accompanied by a “great wind”?

– “…there appeared a chariot of fire, and horses of fire, and parted them both asunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven.” (2 Kings 2:11).

– “And Jehovah was going before them by day in a pillar of cloud, to lead them in the way, and by night in a pillar of fire, to give light to them, to go by day and by night…” (Exo 13:21).

– Yahweh lands on Mt Sinai. “…And on the third day, it being morning, it happened. There were thunders and lightning, and a heavy cloud upon the mountain, and the sound of a ram’s horn, very strong! And all the people of the camp trembled… And mountain of Sinai was smoking, all of it, because Jehovah came down on it in fire. And it’s smoke went up like the smoke of a furnace; and the mountain quaked exceedingly…” (Exodus 19:16-18).

– “…And the spirit lifted me up, and I heard behind me the sound of a great tumult, saying, Blessed be the glory of Jehovah from his place; and the sound of the wings of the living creatures touching each other to the other; and the sound of the wheels along with them; and the sound of a great tumult…” (Ezekiel 3:12).

– Jehovah comes down on the high places with a great heat: “For behold, Jehovah is coming out of his place, and will come down and walk on the high places of the earth. And the mountains shall melt under him, and the valleys shall cleave themselves as wax before the fire, as waters poured out on a steep place…” (Micah 1:3-4).

– A reference to flying gods in the Mahabharata:

“The gods, in cloud-borne chariots… bright celestial cars in concourse sailed upon the cloudless sky.” (Sitchin, 1985).

– Sitchin (1985) also mentions the flying Maruts:

“…loud roaring as the winds make the mountains rock and reel…(as they) lift themselves aloft…these verily wondrous, red of hue, speed on their course with a roar over the ridges of the sky…and spread themselves with beams of light…bright, celestial, with lightning in their hands and helmets of gold upon their heads.”

– Egyptian King Pepi ascends:

“As an imperishable star; Flies who flies! He flies away from you, O men! He is no longer upon earth; he is in the sky! He rushes at the sky like a heron. He has kissed the sky like a falcon. He has leapt skyward like a grasshopper.” (Frankfort, 1948).

– An angelic messenger announces to Manoah about the birth of Samson to his wife, and who, after telling Manoah that his name is secret,

“…ascends in a flame of fire from the altar.” (Judges 13:2-15).

– Naymlap, the leading god of the Indians of Ecuador, was

“taken heavenward by the god of the speaking stone” (Sitchin, 1990).

– Von Daniken (1982) states that the “fiery heavenly chariots”, described by Enoch and Elijah are also found in Buddhist (Padmasambhava) and Hindu (Ardjuna) mythology. Apparently every child in India is well aware of ancient flying gods and their aircraft, which they called Vimanas.

– In the Sumerian tale of Nergal and Ereshkigal (Pritchard, 1975), there are hints that there were periods when the gods were not able to travel from one location to another, perhaps because their orbital positions or the planetary alignments were not favorable:

Anu opened his mouth to say to Kaka:

I will send thee, Kaka, to the Land of no Return,

To Ereshkigal…thou shalt say: “‘Thou art not able to come up,

In thy year thou canst not ascend to our presence, And we cannot go down,

In our month we cannot descend to thy presence…”

Probably the most familiar description of the AA’s aircraft (possibly spacecraft) is in the biblical book of Ezekiel. It is a very convincing description by a very astute observer. From this description former NASA engineer J. F. Blumrich designed and patented his impression of the vehicle (Blumrich, 1974) (Fig 7-1). A small cockpit, where Ezekiel observed the “Lord”, rested atop the body of the vehicle.

Fig 7-1.

The body, which Ezekiel called the “fiery firmament”, terminated in a single main engine. Attached to the body were four helicopter engines and blades, which enabled the vehicle to land vertically without using the main engine, which would have either covered poor Ezekiel with rubble or blown him away!

Not so well known, and more interesting in my opinion, is the tale of the “Divine Throne-Chariot” from the Dead Sea Scrolls (Vermes, 1962). The introduction to the piece reads:

“The Divine Throne-Chariot draws its inspiration from Ezekiel (1:10) and is related to the Book of Revelation. It depicts the appearance and movement of the Merkabah, the divine Chariot supported and drawn by the cherubim, which is at the same time a throne and a vehicle. The ‘small voice’ of blessing is drawn from 1 Kings 19:112: it was in a ‘small still voice’ that God manifested himself to Elijah. In our Qumran text this voice is uttered by the cherubim and it is interesting to note that although the Bible does not define the source of the voice, the ancient Aramaic translation of 12 Kings (Targum of Jonathan) ascribes it to angelic beings called ‘they who bless silently.’”

“The Throne-Chariot was a central subject of meditation in ancient as well as in medieval Jewish esotericism and mysticism, but the guardians of Rabbinic orthodoxy tended to discourage such speculation. The liturgical use of Ezekiel’s chapter on the Chariot is expressly forbidden in the Misnah; it even lays down that no wise man is to share his understanding of the Merkabah with a person less enlightened than himself…”

Not being a “wise man” I guess I’m free to share my speculation regarding the Merkabah. Of course the ancient Hebrews did not have the words to describe the technology which they were observing; regardless Ezekiel did quite an impressive job with the words available to him.

The description of the vehicle in operation, excerpted from Vermes by Barnstone (1984) reads:

“…and the cherubim utter blessings. And as they rise up, there is a divine small voice and loud praise; there is a divine small voice as they fold their wings.

“The cherubim bless the image of the Throne-Chariot above the firmament, and they praise the majesty of the fiery firmament beneath the seat of his glory. And between the turning wheels angels of holiness come and go, as it were a fiery vision of most holy spirits; and about them flow seeming rivulets of fire, like gleaming bronze, a radiance of many gorgeous colors, of marvelous pigments magnificently mingled. The spirits of the Living God move perpetually with the glory of the wonderful Chariot.

“The small voice of the blessing accompanies the tumult as they depart, and on the path of their return they worship the Holy One. Ascending, they rise marvelously; settling, they stay still. The sound of joyful praise is silenced and there is a small voice of blessing in all the camp of God.”

Here it is again with my “interpretations” in parenthesis:

“…and the cherubim (and the objects with wings – the helicopters) utter blessings (make a soft sound resembling prayer). And as they rise up (as the helicopter blades rise into place), there is a divine small voice (the blades make a swishing sound in the air) and loud praise (along with the loud noise of the engine); there is a divine small voice as they fold their wings (when the main engine is stopped only the swishing sound of the blades is heard as they drop down and stop).

“The cherubim (The helicopters) bless the image of the Throne-Chariot above the firmament (make a soft sound like prayer), and they praise the majesty (and they speak louder, and in amazement, about the brightness) of the fiery firmament beneath the seat of his glory (of the glowing, idling engine under the main body of the aircraft). And between the turning wheels (between the helicopter’s blades), angels of holiness come and go (wispy changing patterns), as it were a fiery vision of most holy spirits (of flames and vapors from the main engine); and about them flow seeming rivulets of fire, like gleaming bronze, a radiance of many gorgeous colors, of marvelous pigments magnificently mingled (the exhaust from the helicopter engines mingled with the multi-colored exhaust from the main engine). The spirits (the helicopters) of the Living God move perpetually with the glory (always move with the flaming exhaust) of the wonderful Chariot (of the wonderful vehicle).

“The small voice of the blessing (the soft sound of the blades) accompanies the tumult (accompanies the roar of the main engine) as they depart, and on the path of their return they worship (they make a loud noise) the Holy One (the god-pilot). Ascending, they rise marvelously (the blades ascend quickly); settling, they stay still (the blades drop down and stop,). The sound of joyful praise is silenced (the loud noise of the main engine ceases) and there is a small voice of blessing (the helicopter blades slow and drop down) in all the camp of God.”

I do not think there is a better description of Ezekiel’s “spaceship”!

Another interesting tale is that of Elijah meeting the Lord. In I Kings 19:11-12, Yahweh makes himself known to Elijah (Eli-yahu):

“And, behold, the Lord passed by, and a great and strong wind rent the mountains, and brake in pieces the rocks before the earthquake; but the Lord was not in the wind: and after the wind an earthquake; but the Lord was not in the earthquake; and after the earthquake a fire; but the Lord was not in the fire; and after the fire a still small voice.”

My translation: As the spacecraft approaches the exhaust was first perceived as a powerful wind; as it descended on the mountain the engine caused the earth under it to vibrate; the engine’s fiery exhaust then came into Elijah’s view; finally, the main engines are stopped and only the sound of the helicopter blades is heard as they slow and stop.

Zecharia Sitchin (1998) gives an interesting description of Elijah’s ascent to heaven. This apparently was also the time when Ezekiel wrote of his experiences with the Lord’s aircraft – about 592 bc:

“…a chariot of fire, and horses of fire, came. And they separated between them both (Elijah and Elisha), and Elijah went up in a tempest to Heaven. And Elisha was watching, and he was crying ‘My father, my father! the chariot of Israel and its Horsemen!’ And he did not see him again…”

(2 Kings 2:11).

If your language did not include the words aircraft, or rocket, or spaceship, or any other thing that could carry men through the air, what could you possibly call it but a “chariot”? And it seems clear that some of them were what we now call VTOL (vertical take-off and landing) aircraft.

So I am left with no doubt that the AAs possessed the technology to come to Earth in spacecraft, and to move about the Earth in various kinds of aircraft which did not require runways.

 

Ancient Nuclear Warfare

“We turned the switch, saw the flashes, watched for ten minutes, then turned everything off and went home. That night I knew the world was headed for sorrow”

– Physicist Leo Szilard, atomic bomb builder

“(It was) a single projectile, charged with all the power of the Universe. An incandescent column of smoke and flame, as bright as the thousand suns, rose in all its splendor… it was an unknown weapon… which reduced to ashes the entire race of the Vrishnis and the Andhakas… the corpses were so burned as to be unrecognizable. The hair and nails fellout; pottery broke without apparent cause, and the birds turned white… after a few hours all foodstuffs were infected…”

– The Mahabharata.

During the first Egyptian “pyramid war”, between Horus and Seth, Horus strikes:

“…(and he) let loose against them a storm which they could neither see with their eyes, nor hear with their ears. It brought death to all of them in a single moment…” (Sitchin, 1985)

 

This sounds to me like the gamma-ray and neutron pulse from a sub-kiloton nuclear weapon, which has no fireball and the nuclear radiation extends far beyond the blast wave.

Zeus battles the Titans:

“The hot vapor lapped around the Titans, of Gaea born, flame unspeakable rose bright to the upper air. The Flashing glare of the Thunder-Stone, its lightning, blinded their eyes-so strong it was. Astounding heat seized Chaos… It seemed as if Earth and wide Heaven above had come together, a mighty crash, as though Earth was hurled to ruin. Also were the winds brought rumbling, earthquake and dust storm, thunder and lightning.” (Sitchin, 1985).

I would guess that this was a large nuclear weapon which was detonated on or close to the ground, thus producing a large mushroom cloud.

Zeus conquering Thyphon:

“A flame shot forth from the stricken lord in the dim, rugged, secluded valley of the Mount, when he was smitten. A great part of huge earth was scorched by the terrible vapor, melting as tin melts when heated by man’s art…in the glow of a blazing fire did the earth melt down.” (Sitchin, 1985).

Biblical references to nuclear warfare:

– The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah:

“…(Abraham) looked toward Sodom and Gomorrah…and he beheld and saw a smoke rising from the earth, as the smoke of a furnace.”

(Gen 18:27).

– “…and the Lord sent thunder and hail, and the fire ran along upon the ground; and the Lord rained hail upon the land of Egypt.”

– Exodus 9:23

“And it came to pass, as they fled from before Israel, and were in the going down to Bethhoron, that the Lord cast down great stones from heaven upon them unto Azekah, and they died: they were more which died with hailstones than they whom the children of Israel slew with the sword.”

– Joshua 10:11

“And the fire of God came down from heaven, and consumed him and his fifty.”

– 2 Kings 1:12

-“Thou shalt make them as a fiery oven in the time of thine anger: the Lord shall swallow them up in his wrath, and the fire shall devour them.”

– Psalms 21:9

“A fire goeth before him, and burneth up his enemies round about.”

– Psalms 97:3

“Thou shalt be visited of the Lord of hosts with thunder, and with earthquake, and great noise, with storm and tempest, and the flame of devouring fire.”

– Isaiah 29:6

There are many other clues regarding nuclear warfare. Childress (2000) discusses ancient atomic warfare, first Hattusas (Bogazkoy) in Turkey where “parts of the city are vitrified, and the walls of rock are partly melted.” He then discusses Sodom and Gomorrah and compares them with Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

He thinks Sodom, Gomorrah, Zoar, Admah and Zeboiim (Gen. 14:2) were destroyed, creating the Dead Sea. He quotes L.M.Lewis, “Footprints on the Sands of Time”, who argues for atomic explosions. And he quotes from the Mahabharata an excellent description of an atomic battle in which Arjuna is given a “celestial weapon” which he cannot use against humans “for it might destroy the world”, but he could use it against “any foe who is not human.”

From the Mahabharata, as quoted by Charles Berlitz (1972), is probably the best description of ancient atomic warfare one can find:

“…(it was) a single projectile, charged with all the power of the Universe. An incandescent column of smoke and flame, as bright as the thousand suns, rose in all its splendor… it was an unknown weapon, and iron thunderbolt, a gigantic messenger of death, which reduced to ashes the entire race of the Vrishnis and the Andhakas… the corpses were so burned as to be unrecognizable. The hair and nails fell out; pottery broke without apparent cause, and the birds turned white… after a few hours all foodstuffs were infected… to escape from this fire the soldiers threw themselves in streams to wash themselves and their equipment.”

Steinhauser (1975) relates a story from the Ramayana:

“…when the god Rama was threatened by a ‘army of monkeys’ (men or robots?) he put a ‘magic arrow’ into action. This produces a flash of lighting ‘stronger than the heat from a hundred thousand suns’, turning everything to dust. The hair of survivors falls out, their nails disintegrate. We know of such magic weapons from Sodom and Gomorrah, and from Hiroshima and Nagasaki.”

Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa, Pakistan: David Davenport (1996), who spent 12 years studying ancient Hindu scripts and evidence at the ancient site of Mohenjo-Daro, declared in 1996 that the city was instantly destroyed 2,000 years bc. The city ruins reveal the explosion’s epicenter which measures 50 yards wide. At that location everything was crystallized, fused or melted. Sixty yards from the center the bricks were melted on one side indicating a blast… the horrible mysterious event of 4000 years ago was recorded in the Mahabharata.

According to that text,

“white hot smoke that was a thousand times brighter than the sun rose in infinite brilliance and reduced the city to ashes. Water boiled… horses and war chariots were burned by the thousands… the corpses of the fallen were mutilated by the terrible heat so that they no longer looked like human beings…”

From one of the oldest chronicles of India… the Book of Dzyan:

“Separation did not bring peace to these people and finally their anger reached a point where the ruler of the original city took with him a small number of his warriors and they rose into the air in a huge shining metal vessel. While they were many leagues from the city of their enemies, they launched a great shining lance that rode on a beam of light. It burst apart in the city of their enemies with a great ball of flame that shot up to the heavens, almost to the stars. All those who were in the city were horribly burned and even those who were not in the city – but nearby – were burned also.

Those who looked upon the lance and the ball of fire were blinded forever afterward. Those who entered the city on foot became ill and died. Even the dust of the city was poisoned, as were the rivers that flowed through it. Men dared not go near it, and it gradually crumbled into dust and was forgotten by men. When the leader saw what he had done to his own people he retired to his palace and refused to see anyone. Then he gathered about him those warriors who remained, and their wives and children, and they entered their vessels and rose one by one into the sky and sailed away. Nor did they return.”

Childress (1999) also presents sketches of the Citadel of Mohenjo-Daro and a discussion of its destruction by nuclear explosion. Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were the main cites of the “Harappa Culture” of the Indus Valley, an amazingly uniform and advanced urban civilization existing between 2500 and 1500 bc, the beginnings of which remain obscure.

About Parshaspur near Srinagar, Kashmir, David Childress (2000) states,

“It is a scene of total destruction; huge blocks of stone are scattered about a wide area giving the impression of explosive annihilation.”

Zecharia Sitchin (1985) devotes an entire chapter to a discussion of nuclear warfare in ancient times in Mesopotamia and the Sinai peninsula. In this book he also suggests the destruction of the Sinai “space facilities” by nuclear weapons. He offers as evidence

“…the immense cavity in the center of the Sinai and the resulting fracture lines (see figure), the vast surrounding flat area covered with blackened stones, traces of radiation south of the Dead Sea, the new extent and shape of the Dead Sea – is still there, four thousand years later”.

He maintains that the radioactive fallout from this operation wiped out the area around Sumer for a period of 70 years, until 1953 bc.

So did the gods use nuclear weapons in their struggles with each other and with mankind? You be the judge!

 

The Biotechnology of the Gods

“There are 193 species of monkeys and apes, 192 of them are covered with hair. The exception is a naked ape self-named Homo Sapiens”

– Desmond Morris

“It is difficult to say what is impossible – for the dream of yesterday is the hope of today and the reality of tomorrow”

– Robert Goddard

Tales from various sources suggest that the gods possessed an advanced knowledge of biology many millennia ago:

– The Egyptian god Thoth helped Isis, the wife of Osiris, to extract from the dismembered Osiris the semen with which Isis was impregnated to bear Horus.

– “The Telleriano-Remensis and Florentine codices declare that Quetzalcoatl, as great artificer, ‘formed’ and ‘molded’ the first human beings in his image, and that only he – and no other god – ‘had a human body’.” (Baldwin, 1998).

– “Before I (the Lord) formed you (Jeremiah) in the belly I knew you; and before you came out of the womb I set you apart…” (Green, Jay, 1986, Jeremiah 1:5).

– “…‘though it is said that in truth Zeus, King of the Gods, whom you call Amen-Ra, was her father’. Seti nodded when he heard this and murmured, ‘Even as Amen-Ra was the father of Hatshepsut. Yes, the gods can indeed be the fathers of the spirits that dwell in the bodies of kings and queens’.” (Green, Roger, 1967).

– In the tale of the birth of Samson, Manoah’s wife, who was barren, was visited by “the Angel of Jehovah” who said,

“Behold now you are barren and have not borne. But you shall conceive and bear a son…(who shall be)…a Nazirite to God from the womb” (Green, Jay, 1986, Judges 13:2-14)

(Nazirite: Endowed with special psychic or physical qualities to be used in God’s service).

– “The god Citlaltonac sent an ambassador to see the virgin Chimalma…The god told her that she was to conceive a son, which she did soon after…” (Fernandez, 1982).

– Concerning the birth of the Toltec god Huitzilopochtli: “…a woman called Coatlicue, who was charged with keeping clean a temple on the Cerro de Coatepec, near Tula, was sweeping the building when she saw a beautiful ball of feathers drop from the sky, and put it away in her bosom. When she had finished her work, and tried to find the feather ball, it was no longer there, it had disappeared. At that same moment she became pregnant, although she had been a widow for many years.” (Demetrio, 1983).

– In his discussion of the Sumerian story of the creation of The Adam (” the earthling”) from Mesopotamian texts (clay tablets), Zecharia Sitchin (1985) writes,

“…to achieve the feat Enki suggested that a ‘being that already exists’, Ape woman, be used to create the Lulu Amelu (‘the mixed worker’) by ‘binding’ upon the less evolved beings ‘the mold of the gods’. The goddess Sud purified the ‘essence’ of a young male Anunnaki; she mixed it into the egg of an Ape woman. The fertilized egg was then implanted in the womb of a female Anunnaki, for the required period of pregnancy. When the ‘mixed creature’ was born, Sud lifted him up and shouted: ‘I have created! My hands have made it!’”

These stories raise several interesting questions:

In prehistoric times how in fact did the gods incorporate their ‘essence’ into ape females, a different species (but possibly the same genus), to create modern humans, as ancient texts have suggested?

How could gods and humans, of different but possibly similar species, marry and reproduce as suggested in Genesis?

Within historical times how did the AAs incorporate their ‘spirit’ into the prophets, humans again of a different but probably similar species?

How could the ancient ‘god-kings’ of Mesopotamia and Egypt marry their immediate family members, as custom required, and reproduce without apparent damage to the family gene pool?

Before speculating on how these things were done it will be useful to list some of the bioengineering methods in use at the present time:

IVF: In-vitro fertilization. Sperm and egg of the same species is fused in-vitro. The embryo is implanted in the uterus. A common method of treating infertility since the 1978 British ‘test tube baby’.

CSCT: Cross-species cell transfer (or nuclear transfer). An in-vitro fertilization in which a somatic (e.g. skin) ‘donor’ cell is fused in vitro with the ‘host’ egg of a different but similar species (but of the same genus). The embryo is implanted in the uterus of the host.

CCSCT: Cloned cross-species cell transfer. Same as CSCT except the egg is de-nucleated, resulting in a clone of the donor animal (although a small amount of DNA, in the mitochondria, always comes from the egg). This was the method employed by Advanced Cell Technology, Inc, to regenerate the recently extinct Asian Gaur using an ordinary cow as host (which died shortly after – darn!).

RDNA: Recombinant DNA. Since, in most cases, DNA cannot be transferred directly from one organism to another, in this technique a desirable DNA fragment, isolated from the animal ‘donor’ cell, is incorporated into the plasmid of a benign bacteria (the vector). The bacteria reproduces the fragment as a part of it’s own DNA, and the hybrid bacteria cells are injected back into the animal. This is currently the method of human ‘gene therapy’, but one would expect that the technique could also be used for cross-species cell transfer if the bacteria were benign to both species.

HESC: Human Embryonic Stem Cells. A human somatic cell is fused in vitro with a de-nucleated egg of a different species. “These differentiated cells began to grow as an embryo and then reverted to become embryonic stem cells, which can grow into virtually any type of tissue for transplant use”

So let’s speculate.

Zecharia Sitchin’s statement concerning the development of the Adam sounds like our current technique of cross-species cell transfer (CSCT), the ‘essence’ being DNA fragments (genes) which the gods wanted incorporated into the Ape woman’s egg. The resulting Adam, a hybrid like mules or hinnies, was sterile. Later on some procedure was employed to enable the “mixed creatures” to procreate.

Incorporating the “spirit” (certain traits or abilities) of the gods into the prophets, apparently a partial and selective reprogramming of the central nervous system, could have been accomplished via the technique of recombinant DNA.

Finally, the custom of the ancient ‘god-kings’ of Mesopotamia and Egypt of marrying their sisters and reproducing without apparent damage to the family gene pool would have been possible using the technique of cloned cross-species cell transfer (CCSCT) in the following scenario:

Harvest an egg from a human female and remove the DNA.

Collect a skin cell from a living god, or a deceased god whose cells have been preserved by freezing (or embalming?).

Fuse the skin cell and egg in vitro, and electrically stimulate the embryo to start dividing.

Implant the embryo back into the female, whose immune system will accept it.

If all goes well the human will birth a clone of the god. Now repeat the procedure using a skin cell from a goddess. The cloned god-son and goddess-daughter would be totally genetically different, and could marry and reproduce without genetic damage or violating rules pertaining to incest. Furthermore, since the god-son and his mother are genetically different, they may marry, as was required in ancient Egypt, without violating taboos.

But what if the god and human are of a very different species, or even of a different genus? That this is probable is evidenced by literature suggesting that some of the gods were frightful to look at, and took great care not to be seen by humans, except possibly by the highest priest:

– Concerning the appearance of (the angel) Eleleth. “…now as for that angel, I cannot speak of his power…No, truly, my mouth cannot bear to speak of his power and the appearance of his face.”

(Robinson, 1978, “The Hypostasis of the Archons’)

– In the tale of the birth of Samson, the wife of Manoah says, “A man of God has come to see me, and His appearance was like the appearance of an Angel of God, very terrifying.”

(Green, Jay, 1986, Judges 13:2-14) (This might have been an android).

– “Quetzalcoatl…only he, no other God, had a human body. He was ‘el hombre-dios’, the god made flesh, man embodied with divine spirit.”

– Fanged (Tlaloc) or grotesque (Xipe Totec – ‘The Flayed One’), the gods sometimes hid behind skins of flayed humans.

– “…now it is revealed to us concerning the race of the gods, and we confess it along with everyone else, that they have come into being out of a pure matter, and their bodies are heads only.” (Robinson, 1978, the Asclepius tractate, 21-29)

– “…they (the first male and female earthlings-Adam and Eve?) saw that they were naked, and they became enamored of one another. When they saw their makers, they loathed them since they were beastly forms.” (Robinson, 1978, “On the Origin of the World”).

In these cases probably the techniques of recombinant DNA or the generation of human embryonic stem cells was used. Scary as it sounds the “the hominid-animal mixtures” described by the Babylonian priest Berossus (Burstein, 1978) could have resulted from the modern human embryonic stem cells technique. In

fact when this experiment was announced two years ago by Advanced Cell Technology, biotechnology watcher Jeremy Rifkin strongly objected:

“They should never, ever have done this. We don’t know what kind of creature could develop from that.”

I think we now do know of at least one kind of creature that can “develop from that ” – the Adam!

In summary it appears that our current knowledge of animal biology and physiology permits a close understanding of how the gods might have accomplished their bioengineering feats. Furthermore, since we are assuming that the gods had this ability millennia ago, it’s exciting to speculate concerning their current biotechnology. I suspect we would find it indescribable.

 

The Immortals

“The more science learns what life is, the more reluctant scientists are to define it “

Leila M. Coyne

“Eternity is very long, especially near the end”

Woody Allen

A universal attribute of the “gods” was their immortality, or at least their very long lives compared to humans. Several references to this characteristic follows:

– “For a thousand years, in your eyes, are as yesterday when it passes, and as a watch in the night.” (Green, Jay, 1986, Psalm 90:4).

This represents a time dilation factor of 1/365,000.

– “…that one day with the Lord is as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day.” (Green, Jay, 1986, 2 Peter 3:8).

Also a time dilation factor of 1/365,000.

– “…adding up to 1200 divine years of 432,000 Earth years” – The Vishnu Purana, as quoted by Zecharia Sitchin (Sitchin,1993).

A time dilation factor of 1/360 or 1/432,000, whichever way it is interpreted.

– “Put not thy faith in length of years, for the gods regard a lifetime as but an hour.” (Frankfort, 1948).

A time dilation factor of 1/52,840 for a 60 year lifetime.

– Mead (1921) writes,

“Jesus tells his initiated of the dissolution of the universe after its expansion is completed ‘in the years of the light’. Mary Magdalene asks him: ‘My Lord, how many years of the years of the world is a year of the light?’ Jesus answered: ‘A day of the light is a thousand years in the world, so that thirty-six myriads of years and a half myriad of years of the world are a single year of the light.’”

Translating we have 1 day of light = 1000 Earth years; 1 year of the light = 365 days of the light = 365,000 Earth days = 36.5 myriads of Earth years, i.e. as used here “myriad” represents the multiplier 10,000.

– From The Vision of Isaiah:

“After taking Isaiah to Heaven, the angel was requested to return the prophet to Earth. Isaiah said: ‘Why so soon? I have only been here two hours.’ The angel said: ‘Not two hours, but thirty-two years…’” (Slemen, 2000).

A time dilation factor of 1/140,160.

These references seem to imply that the AAs did not live forever, but so much longer than humans that they appeared to be immortal. The texts report that the Sumerian goddess Inanna did age, but she was considered immortal.

One obvious advantage of being even relatively immortal is that one could move about the galaxy without having to achieve very high, and very expensive, speeds. As astronomer Sandy Faber noted, “If we could live longer we wouldn’t have to accelerate to high speeds”. Living longer instead of going faster is of course a familiar science fiction theme.

I can think of four possibilities to account for the alleged immortality of the gods:

(1) Organ replacement, if the gods are biological, or parts replacement if they are not – some of the ‘angels’ and other emissaries of the gods seemed suspiciously robotic:

“Behold, I send an angel before thee, to keep thee in the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared. Beware of him, and obey his voice, provoke him not; for he will not pardon your transgressions, for my name is in him.” (Exodus 23:20-21).

(2) Rejuvenation by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

(3) Time dilation via travel at relativistic speeds relative to Earth.

(4) Gravitational time dilation by orbiting a large black hole.

I am not aware of any references to organ or parts replacement by the gods; however rejuvenation was likely since there was a “Tree of Life” which the gods had access to but humans did not. Zecharia Sitchin (1980) suggests that to be taken up in ancient Egypt meant that one would be immortal, so the rocket ship represented the “tree of life”, and was also symbolized by the obelisks.

According to the ancient king lists the 1st god-king of Ur reigned for 28,800 Earth years, but the texts also mention that the goddess Inanna grew old and fat after being on Earth for an extended period. So was the Tree of Life a repository of spare parts, a cellular rejuvenator, or was it a location such as the vicinity of a black hole?

Time dilation via high speeds seems unlikely, since the degree of time dilation implied by all of the foregoing statements would require velocities very close to the speed of light, which we currently consider to be impossible (although physicists have recently claimed to have transmitted photons, which have no mass, faster than the speed of light, moving a spacecraft faster than the speed of light would seem to require most of the energy in the entire universe).

Rejuvenation by somatic cell nuclear transfer was probably employed since the gods possessed a very advanced biotechnology. In this “still largely theoretical procedure…(the procedure) can ‘rejuvenate’ an aged cell, restoring the proliferative capacity inherent in cells at the beginning of life.” (West, 2000).

Rejuvenation (replacement) by cloning is also very probable. This procedure, which can be used to produce “young cells of any type”, avoids the “Hayflick limit” in which the “telemeres” on the ends of the chromosomes are reduced every time the cell divides until they are used up and division stops (Cibelli, 2000).

I think it’s also logical that the gods might reside, at least some of the time, in an equilibrium orbit about a black-hole which is massive enough to provide an acceptable tidal force across the width of their spacecraft. How massive? If we assume a spacecraft of any length, but having a width of a kilometer (this is a big spaceship folks!), orbiting a black-hole of 32,425 solar masses, the tidal force across the width of the craft would be a comfortable 1g (the pull of gravity at the Earth’s surface). For the case of “1200 divine years of 432,000 human years”, i.e. a time dilation of 0.00278, the ratio of the circumference of the event horizon to the circumference of the orbit of the spacecraft is 0.999992.

Since the horizon circumference for this mass is only about 601,585 kms, our gods would need to drive very carefully! But in this orbit, one Earth year in the life of the gods is 360 years on Earth. The case of “…a thousand years, in your eyes, are as yesterday when it passes” is more difficult since the orbit of the spacecraft would essentially have to coincide with the event horizon.

But there is another clue. In the Sumerian tale of Nergal and Ereshkigal (Pritchard, 1975), there are hints that there were periods when the gods were not able to travel from one location to another, perhaps because their orbital positions or the planetary alignments were not favorable:

Anu opened his mouth to say to Kaka:

I will send thee, Kaka, to the Land of no Return,

To Ereshkigal…thou shalt say: “‘Thou art not able to come up,

In thy year thou canst not ascend to our presence, And we cannot go down,

In our month we cannot descend to thy presence…”

Gravitational time dilation is the logical explanation here. The time dilation factor is of course 1/12, so that the 96,410 km radius of Anu’s orbit is now a comfortable 665 km greater than the horizon radius. Notice that even this modest time dilation, if not close to a black-hole, would require a speed of 99.6% the speed of light – not possible according to current knowledge.

Although astronomers are convinced that the Milky Way’s core contains a massive black hole of about 2.6 million solar masses (Science News, 153:59) it is over 30,000 LY from Earth. So how likely is it that there is a suitably large black hole reasonably close to us, say in the Orion nebula? (The solar system used to be in the Orion nebula but is now about 1500 LY away). One clue may come from Stephen Hawking’s (1988) observation that,

“The number of black holes may well be greater even than the number of visible stars (about 1011 in our galaxy)…then the black hole nearest to us would probably be at a distance of about a thousand million kilometers, or about as far away as Pluto…”.

Furthermore the Space Telescope Science Institute reports recent observations which suggest that they may be numerous:

“Two international teams of astronomers using NASA’S Hubble Space Telescope and ground based telescopes in Australia and Chile have discovered the first examples of isolated stellar-mass black holes adrift among the stars in our galaxy.” (stsci, 2000) .

Finally astrophysicists have recently postulated that there may be as many as 25,000 black holes within 15 LYs of the center of our galaxy (Escude, 2000).

Lacking other clues I’ll speculate that a combination of cellular rejuvenation for those that are biological, parts replacement for those who are not, and gravitational time dilation are probably how the gods achieved their incredibly long lives, relative to Earthlings.

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QEG OPEN SOURCED

Here it is free energy by Nikola Tesla!:

QEG OPEN SOURCED

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As Promised, here are the open sourced documents for a quantum energy generator. This has been made possible by the people and for the people. It is freely given to the world.

CLICK HERE FOR QEG OPEN SOURCE DOCUMENTS

An average modern household requires 5-10KW of power  to operate.

A conventional generator needs   15KW to produce 10KW of power.

To produce these 15KW of power we rely on gas, diesel, propane, coal or other products that can be metered creating profits for the oil industry.

130 years ago Nikola Tesla invented and patented an energy generator. This is a resonance machine that only needs 1KW of input power to produce 10KW of output power.  His patents are now in the public domain.

The Fix the World Organization has reproduced Teslas design with a few modern twists to generate the same results.   Our Quantum Energy Generator (QEG) provides 10KW of power output for less than 1KW input, which it supplies to itself.

We have freely given this technology to the people of the world.  We’ve open sourced a full set of instructions, user manual, schematics and parts list for any engineer to follow and reproduce the same results.

How the QEG works:
First we use a starting power source, such as an outlet or a crank to power the 1 horsepower motor. This motor spins the rotor in the generator core. The unique oscillator circuitry configuration in the generator core causes resonance to occur. Once the core achieves this resonance it can produce up to 10KW of power, which can then be run through an inverter to power the motor that spins the rotor. You can then unplug the motor from the original power source and the generator will power itself.

Cottage Industry Community Units specifically for the production of QEG’s are NOW developing in communities in 30+ countries.  The People are making their own free energy devices.

The QEG belongs to humanity now. Many will make further improvements and we will all co-develop this practical bridge technology together.

The QEG: For the People and By the People

Fix the World is currently traveling to Taiwan, London and Morocco for the month of April to help communities build QEG’s. Everything we have accomplished has been made possible by the donations of people like you. If you would like to help keep us going, every little bit helps! Please consider giving back and making a donation of any amount to the Fix the World Organization. By Clicking here:

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